Gregory Dale "Greg" Bear is an American writer and illustrator best known for science fiction. His work has covered themes of galactic conflict, artificial universes and cultural practices, accelerated evolution, his most recent work is the Forerunner Trilogy, written in the Halo universe. Greg Bear has written 44 books in total. Greg Bear was one of the five co-founders of the San Diego Comic-Con. Bear was born in California, he attended San Diego State University. At the university, he was a teaching assistant to Elizabeth Chater in her course on science fiction writing, in years her friend. Bear is classified as a hard science fiction author due to the level of scientific detail in his work. Early in his career he published work as an artist, including illustrations for an early version of the Star Trek Concordance and covers for Galaxy and F&SF, he sold his first story, "Destroyers", to Famous Science Fiction in 1967. In his fiction Bear addresses major questions in contemporary science and culture and proposes solutions.
For example, The Forge of God offers an explanation for the Fermi paradox, supposing that the galaxy is filled with predatory intelligences and that young civilizations that survive are those that don't attract their attention—by staying quiet. In Queen of Angels, Bear examines crime and punishment in society, he frames these questions around an examination of consciousness and awareness, including the emergent self-awareness of advanced computers in communication with humans. In Darwin's Radio and Darwin's Children, he addresses the problem of over-population with a mutation in the human genome making a new series of humans; the question of cultural acceptance of something new and unavoidable is brought up. One of Bear's favorite themes is reality as a function of observation. In Blood Music, reality becomes unstable as the number of observers—trillions of intelligent single-cell organisms—spirals higher and higher. Anvil of Stars and Moving Mars postulate a physics based on information exchange between particles, capable of being altered at the "bit level".
In Moving Mars, this knowledge is used to remove Mars from the solar system and transfer it to an orbit around a distant star. Blood Music was first published as a short story and expanded to a novel, it has been credited as the first account of nanotechnology in science fiction. More the short story is the first in science fiction to describe microscopic medical machines and to treat DNA as a computational system capable of being reprogrammed. In works, beginning with Queen of Angels and continuing with its sequel, Bear gives a detailed description of a near-future nanotechnological society; this historical sequence continues with Heads—which may contain the first description of a so-called "quantum logic computer"—and with Moving Mars. This sequence charts the historical development of self-awareness in AIs, its continuing character Jill was inspired in part by Robert A. Heinlein's self-aware computer Mycroft HOLMES in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. Bear, Gregory Benford, David Brin wrote a trilogy of prequel novels to Isaac Asimov's influential Foundation trilogy.
Bear is credited for the middle book. While most of Bear's work is science fiction, he has written in other fiction genres. Examples include Songs of Power and Psychlone. Bear has described his Dead Lines, which straddles the line between science fiction and fantasy, as a "high-tech ghost story", he has received many accolades, including two Hugo Awards. Bear cites Ray Bradbury as the most influential writer in his life, he had a lifelong correspondence. As a teenager Bear attended events in Southern California, he serves on the Board of Advisors for the Museum of Science Fiction. In 1975, Bear married Christina M. Nielson. In 1983, he married Astrid Anderson, the daughter of the science fiction and fantasy authors Poul and Karen Anderson, they have two children and Alexandra. They reside near Washington, he is a deist. On September 23, 2014, Bear underwent surgery to repair an aortic artery dissection; the procedure included installation of a mechanical aortic valve. Before Blood Music was a novel, it was a story published in the June 1983 issue of Analog.
It won Hugo Award. Darwin's Radio won the Endeavour Award in 2000. Hull Zero Three was short-listed for the Arthur C. Clarke Award in 2012. Hayakawa Award "Heads" Best Foreign Short Story. Doris Lessing, winner of the 2007 Nobel Prize in literature, wrote, "I admire the classic sort of science fiction, like Blood Music, by Greg Bear. He's a great writer." DarwinDarwin's Radio Nebula Award winner, Locus SF, John W. Campbell Memorial Awards nominee, 2000 Darwin's Children Locus SF, Arthur C. Clarke, John W. Campbell Memorial Awards nominee, 2004The Forge of GodThe Forge of God Hugo, Locus SF Awards nominee, 1988.
Jack Stapleton and Laurie Montgomery series
The Jack Stapleton and Laurie Montgomery series is an ongoing series of New York Times Bestselling medical thrillers by Robin Cook that follows pathologist Jack Stapleton and his co-worker Laurie Montgomery as they attempt to solve the various mysteries that come across their path. The series follows Jack Stapleton, a medical examiner and pathologist who spends most of his free time focusing on various medical cases in order to avoid having to think about the deaths of his wife and children, he teams up with his co-worker and fellow pathologist Laurie Montgomery in order to solve various crimes, with the two falling in love and marrying. Laurie was earlier in a relationship with Lou Soldano, a police officer and Jack and Laurie's mutual friend. Blindsight Contagion Chromosome 6 Vector Marker Crisis Critical Foreign Body Intervention Cure Critical reception for the series as a whole has been mixed to positive, with novels receiving mixed reviews from critics. Sales for the series have been good, with several of the novels placing on The New York Times Best Seller lists.
In 1999 Cook announced that he was in talks with Jerry Bruckheimer to create a television series centered on the novels. No further information has been given about a potential series adaptation since that time
Robin Cook (American novelist)
Robert Brian "Robin" Cook is an American physician and novelist who writes about medicine and topics affecting public health. He is best known for combining medical writing with the thriller genre. Many of his books have been bestsellers on The New York Times Best Seller List. Several of his books have been featured in Reader's Digest, his books have sold nearly 400 million copies worldwide. Cook grew up in Queens, New York City, moved to Leonia, New Jersey, when he was eight, where he could first have the "luxury" of having his own room, he graduated from Wesleyan University and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, finished his postgraduate medical training at Harvard. Cook ran the Cousteau Society's blood-gas lab in the south of France, he became an aquanaut with the U. S. Navy's SEALAB program when he was drafted in 1969. Cook served in the Navy from 1969 to 1971, he wrote Year of the Intern, while serving on the Polaris submarine USS Kamehameha. The Year of the Intern was a failure.
He said, "I studied. I came up with a list of techniques, and I used every one of them in Coma." He conceived the idea for Coma, about a shortage of transplant organs, in 1975. In March 1977, that novel's paperback rights sold for $800,000, it was followed by the Egyptology thriller Sphinx in 1979 and another medical thriller, Brain, in 1981. Cook decided he preferred writing over a career in medicine. Cooks novels combine medical fact with fantasy, his medical thrillers are designed, in part, to keep the public aware of both the technological possibilities of modern medicine and the ensuing socio-ethical problems which come along with it. Cook says he chose to write thrillers because the forum gives him "an opportunity to get the public interested in things about medicine that they didn't seem to know about. I believe my books are teaching people."The author admits he never thought that he would have such compelling material to work with when he began writing fiction in 1970. "If I tried to be the writer I am today a number of years ago, I wouldn't have much to write about.
But today, with the pace of change in biomedical research, there are any number of different issues, new ones to come," he says. Cook's novels have anticipated national controversy. In an interview with Stephen McDonald about the novel Shock, Cook admitted the book's timing was fortuitous: I suppose that you could say that it's the most like Coma in fact that it deals with an issue that everybody seems to be concerned about. I wrote this book to address the stem cell issue, which the public doesn't know anything about. Besides entertaining readers, my main goal is to get people interested in some of these issues, because it's the public that should be able to decide which way we ought to go in something as ethically questioning as stem cell research. To date, Cook has explored issues such as organ donation, fertility treatment, genetic engineering, in vitro fertilization, research funding, managed care, medical malpractice, medical tourism, drug research, organ transplantation. I joke that if my books stop selling, I can always fall back on brain surgery," he says.
"But I am still interested in it. If I had to do it over again, I would still study medicine. I think of myself more as a doctor who writes, rather than a writer who happens to be a doctor." He explained the popularity of his works thus: "The main reason is, we all realize we are at risk. We're all going to be patients sometime," he says. "You can write about great white sharks or haunted houses, you can say I'm not going into the ocean or I'm not going in haunted houses, but you can't say you're not going to go into a hospital. Many of his novels revolve around hospitals in Boston, which may have to do with the fact that he underwent his post-graduate training at Harvard and has a residence in Boston, or in New York. Year of the Intern, ISBN 978-0-451-16555-8 Coma, ISBN 978-0-451-20739-5 Sphinx, ISBN 978-0-451-15949-6 Brain, ISBN 978-0-451-15797-3 Fever, ISBN 978-0-425-17420-3 Godplayer, ISBN 978-0-425-17638-2 Mindbend, ISBN 978-0-451-14108-8 Outbreak, ISBN 978-0-425-10687-7 Mortal Fear, ISBN 978-0-425-11388-2 Mutation, ISBN 978-0-425-11965-5 Harmful Intent, ISBN 978-0-425-12546-5 Vital Signs, ISBN 978-0-425-13176-3 Terminal, ISBN 978-0-425-15506-6 Fatal Cure, ISBN 978-0-425-14563-0 Acceptable Risk, ISBN 978-0-425-15186-0 Invasion, ISBN 978-0-425-21957-7 Toxin, ISBN 978-0-425-16661-1 Abduction, ISBN 978-0-425-17736-5 Shock, ISBN 978-0-425-18286-4 Seizure, ISBN 978-0-425-19794-3 Death Benefit, ISBN 978-0-425-25036-5 Nano, ISBN 978-0-425-26134-7 Cell, ISBN 978-0-399-16630-3 Host, ISBN 978-0-399-17214-4 Charlatans, ISBN 978-0735212480 Jack Stapleton and Laurie Montgomery seriesBlindsight, ISBN 978-0-425-13619-5 Contagion, ISBN 978-0-425-15594-3 Chromosome 6, ISBN 978-0-425-16124-1 Vector, ISBN 978-0-425-17299-5 Marker, ISBN 978-0-425-20734-5 Crisis, ISBN 978-0-425-21657-6 Critical, ISBN 978-0-425-22288-1 Foreign Body, ISBN 978-0-425-22895-1 Intervention, ISBN 978-0-425-23538-6 Cure, ISBN 978-0-425-24260-5 Pandemic, ISBN 978-0525535348 Coma has been adapted for both film and television: Coma, a feature film directed by author/doctor Michael Crichton and produced by Martin Erlichmann for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Coma a four-hour A&E television mini-series base
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Unit 731 was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo, it was known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army. Set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirō Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army; the facility itself was built between 1934 and 1939 and adopted the name "Unit 731" in 1941. At least 3,000 men and children—from which at least 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai were subjected as "logs" to experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites, such as Unit 100.
Unit 731 participants of Japan attest that most of the victims they experimented on were Chinese while a lesser percentage were Soviet, Mongolian and other Allied POWs. The unit received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945. Instead of being tried for war crimes after the war, the researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U. S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949; the Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U. S. biological warfare program, much as they had done with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii, can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as'War Crimes' evidence".
Victim accounts were largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda. In 1932, Surgeon General Shirō Ishii, chief medical officer of the Japanese Army and protégé of Army Minister Sadao Araki was placed in a command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. Ishii organized a secret research group, the "Tōgō Unit", for various chemical and biological experimentation in Manchuria. Ishii had proposed the creation of a Japanese biological and chemical research unit in 1930, after a two-year study trip abroad, on the grounds that Western powers were developing their own programs. One of Ishii's main supporters inside the army was Colonel Chikahiko Koizumi, who became Japan's Health Minister from 1941 to 1945. Koizumi had joined a secret poison gas research committee in 1915, during World War I, when he and other Imperial Japanese Army officers became impressed by the successful German use of chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres, where the Allies suffered 5,000 deaths and 15,000 wounded as a result of the chemical attack.
Unit Tōgō was implemented in the Zhongma Fortress, a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 km south of Harbin on the South Manchuria Railway. A jailbreak in autumn 1934 and explosion in 1935 led Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress, he received the authorization to move to Pingfang 24 km south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility. In 1936, Emperor Hirohito authorized by decree the expansion of this unit and its integration into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department, it was divided at the same time into the "Ishii Unit" and "Wakamatsu Unit" with a base in Hsinking. From August 1940, the units were known collectively as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army" or "Unit 731" for short. In addition to the establishment of Unit 731, the decree called for the establishment of an additional biological warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Military Horse Epidemic Prevention Workshop and a chemical warfare development unit called the Kwantung Army Technical Testing Department.
After the Japanese invasion of China in 1937, sister chemical and biological warfare units were founded in major Chinese cities, were referred to as Epidemic Prevention and Water Supply Units. Detachments included Unit 1855 in Beijing, Unit Ei 1644 in Nanjing, Unit 8604 in Guangzhou and Unit 9420 in Singapore; the compilation of all these units comprised Ishii’s network, at its height in 1939, was composed of more than 10,000 personnel. Medical doctors and professors from Japan were attracted to join Unit 731 by the rare opportunity to conduct human experimentation and strong financial support from the Army. A special project code-named Maruta used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as "logs", used in such contexts as "How many logs fell?". This term originated as a joke on the part of the staff because the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill.
However, in an account by a man who worked as a junior uniformed civilian employee of the Imperial Japanese Army in Unit 731, the project was internally called "Holzklotz"
Enterotoxin type B
In the field of molecular biology, enterotoxin type B known as Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, is an enterotoxin produced by the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. It is a common cause of food poisoning, with severe diarrhea and intestinal cramping starting within a few hours of ingestion. Being quite stable, the toxin may remain active after the contaminating bacteria are killed, it can withstand boiling at 100 °C for a few minutes. Gastroenteritis occurs because SEB is a superantigen, causing the immune system to release a large amount of cytokines that lead to significant inflammation. Additionally, this protein is one of the causative agents of toxic shock syndrome; the function of this protein is to facilitate the infection of the host organism. It is a virulence factor designed to induce pathogenesis. One of the major virulence exotoxins is the toxic shock syndrome toxin, secreted by the organism upon successful invasion, it causes a major inflammatory response in the host via superantigenic properties, is the causative agent of toxic shock syndrome.
It functions as a superantigen through activation of a significant fraction of T-cells by cross-linking MHC class II molecules with T-cell receptors. TSST is a multisystem illness with several symptoms such as high fever, dizziness and peeling skin. All of these toxins share a similar two-domain fold with a long alpha-helix in the middle of the molecule, a characteristic beta-barrel known as the "oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide fold" at the N-terminal domain and a beta-grasp motif at the C-terminal domain; each superantigen possesses different binding mode when it interacts with MHC class II molecules or the T-cell receptor. The N-terminal domain is referred to as OB-fold, or in other words the oligonuclucleotide binding fold; this region contains a low-affinity major histocompatibility complex class II site which causes an inflammatory response. The N-terminal domain contains regions involved in Major Histocompatibility Complex class II association, it is a five stranded beta barrel. The beta-grasp domain has some structural similarities to the beta-grasp motif present in immunoglobulin-binding domains, ubiquitin, 2Fe-2 S ferredoxin and translation initiation factor 3 as identified by the SCOP database
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials; these approaches both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant; those considered extensively drug resistant or drug resistant are sometimes called "superbugs". Resistance arises through one of three mechanisms: natural resistance in certain types of bacteria, genetic mutation, or by one species acquiring resistance from another. All classes of microbes can develop resistance. Fungi develop antifungal resistance. Viruses develop antiviral resistance. Protozoa develop antiprotozoal resistance, bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Resistance can appear spontaneously because of random mutations. However, extended use of antimicrobials appears to encourage selection for mutations which can render antimicrobials ineffective.
Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics are preferred over broad-spectrum antibiotics when possible, as and targeting specific organisms is less to cause resistance, as well as side effects. For people who take these medications at home, education about proper use is essential. Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, should encourage the same of the patient and family members. Rising drug resistance is caused by use of antimicrobials in humans and other animals, spread of resistant strains between the two. Growing resistance has been linked to dumping of inadequately treated effluents from the pharmaceutical industry in countries where bulk drugs are manufactured. Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die.
At low levels of antibiotic, resistant bacteria can have a growth advantage and grow faster than vulnerable bacteria. With resistance to antibiotics becoming more common there is greater need for alternative treatments. Calls for new antibiotic therapies have been issued. Antimicrobial resistance is increasing globally because of greater access to antibiotic drugs in developing countries. Estimates are that 700,000 to several million deaths result per year; each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die as a result. There are public calls for global collective action to address the threat that include proposals for international treaties on antimicrobial resistance. Worldwide antibiotic resistance is not identified, but poorer countries with weaker healthcare systems are more affected; the WHO defines antimicrobial resistance as a microorganism's resistance to an antimicrobial drug, once able to treat an infection by that microorganism.
A person cannot become resistant to antibiotics. Resistance is a property of not a person or other organism infected by a microbe. A World Health Organization report released April 2014 stated, "this serious threat is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. Antibiotic resistance—when bacteria change so antibiotics no longer work in people who need them to treat infections—is now a major threat to public health." The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control calculated that in 2015 there were 671,689 infections in the EU and European Economic Area caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, resulting in 33,110 deaths. Most were acquired in healthcare settings. Bacteria with resistance to antibiotics predate medical use of antibiotics by humans. However, widespread antibiotic use has made more bacteria resistant through the process of evolutionary pressure. Reasons for the widespread use of antibiotics in human medicine include: increasing global availability over time since the 1950s uncontrolled sale in many low or middle income countries, where they can be obtained over the counter without a prescription resulting in antibiotics being used when not indicated.
This may result in emergence of resistance in any remaining bacteria. Other causes include: Antibiotic use in livestock feed at low doses for growth promotion is an accepted practice in many industrialized countries and is known to lead to increased levels of resistance. Releasing large quantities of antibiotics into the environment during pharmaceutical manufacturing through inadequate wastewater treatment increases the risk that antibiotic-resistant strains will develop and spread, it is uncertain whether antibacterials in soaps and other products contribute to antibiotic resistance, but antibacterial soaps are discouraged for other reasons. Antiseptics create AMR to antibiotics and other antiseptics: Antiseptics appear to activate tolerance mechanisms in bacteria, which offer them protection against a range of antiseptics as well as antibiotics. Antiseptics are used in many wound care dressings; these findings may explain the increase in treatment-resistant hospital infections. Exposure to low doses of the antiseptic octenidine allowed several different strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to develop