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Sviatoslav I of Kiev

Sviatoslav I Igorevich spelled Svyatoslav was a Grand Prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe and the First Bulgarian Empire. He conquered numerous East Slavic tribes, defeated the Alans and attacked the Volga Bulgars, at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars, his decade-long reign over the Kievan Rus' was marked by rapid expansion into the Volga River valley, the Pontic steppe, the Balkans. By the end of his short life, Sviatoslav carved out for himself the largest state in Europe moving his capital in 969 from Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube. In contrast with his mother's conversion to Christianity, Sviatoslav remained a staunch pagan all of his life. Due to his abrupt death in ambush, his conquests, for the most part, were not consolidated into a functioning empire, while his failure to establish a stable succession led to a fratricidal feud among his three sons, resulting in two of them being killed.

The Primary Chronicle records Sviatoslav as the first ruler of the Kievan Rus' with a name of Slavic origin. Some scholars see the name of Sviatoslav, composed of the Slavic roots for "holy" and "glory", as an artificial derivation combining the names of his predecessors Oleg and Rurik. Nothing is known about Sviatoslav's childhood and youth, which he spent reigning in Novgorod. Sviatoslav's father, was killed by the Drevlians around 945, his mother, ruled as regent in Kiev until Sviatoslav reached maturity. Sviatoslav was tutored by a Varangian named Asmud; the tradition of employing Varangian tutors for the sons of ruling princes survived well into the 11th century. Sviatoslav appears to have had little patience for administration, his life was spent with his druzhina in permanent warfare against neighboring states. According to the Primary Chronicle, he carried on his expeditions neither wagons nor kettles, he boiled no meat, rather cutting off small strips of horseflesh, game, or beef to eat after roasting it on the coals.

Nor did he have a tent, rather spreading out a horse-blanket under him and setting his saddle under his head, all his retinue did likewise. Sviatoslav's appearance has been described clearly by Leo the Deacon, who himself attended the meeting of Sviatoslav with John I Tzimiskes. Following Deacon's memories, Sviatoslav was a bright-eyed, man of average height but of stalwart build, much more sturdy than Tzimiskes, he had bald head and a wispy beard and wore a bushy mustache and a sidelock as a sign of his nobility. He preferred to dress in white, it was noted that his garments were much cleaner than those of his men, although he had a lot in common with his warriors, he wore a single large gold earring bearing two pearls. Sviatoslav's mother, converted to Orthodox Christianity at the court of Byzantine Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in 957, at the approximate age of 67. However, Sviatoslav remained a pagan all of his life. In the treaty of 971 between Sviatoslav and the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes, the Rus' swore by the gods Perun and Veles.

According to the Primary Chronicle, he believed that his warriors would lose respect for him and mock him if he became a Christian. The allegiance of his warriors was of paramount importance in his conquest of an empire that stretched from the Volga to the Danube. Little is known of Sviatoslav's family life, it is possible. The Russo-Byzantine treaty of 945 mentions a certain Predslava, Volodislav's wife, as the noblest of the Rus' women after Olga; the fact that Predslava was Oleg's mother is presented by Vasily Tatishchev. He speculated that Predslava was of a Hungarian nobility. George Vernadsky was among many historians to speculate that Volodislav was Igor's eldest son and heir who died at some point during Olga's regency. Another chronicle told. At the time of Igor's death, Sviatoslav was still a child, he was raised by his mother or under her instructions, her influence, did not extend to his religious observance. Sviatoslav had several children. By his wives, he had Oleg. By Malusha, a woman of indeterminate origins, Sviatoslav had Vladimir, who would break with his father's paganism and convert Rus' to Christianity.

John Skylitzes reported. Shortly after his accession to the throne, Sviatoslav began campaigning to expand Rus' control over the Volga valley and the Pontic steppe region, his greatest success was the conquest of Khazaria, which for centuries had been one of the strongest states of Eastern Europe. The sources are not clear about the roots of the conflict between Khazaria and Rus', so several possibilities have been suggested; the Rus' had an interest in removing the Khazar hold on the Volga trade route because the Khazars collected duties from the goods transported by the Volga. Historians have suggested that the Byzantine Empire may have incited the Rus' against the Khazars, who fell out with the Byzantines after the persecutions of the Jews in the reign of Romanus I Lecapenus. Sviatoslav began by rallying the East Slavic vassal tribes of the Kh

Jozef Israëls

Jozef Israëls was a Dutch painter. He was a leading member of the group of landscape painters referred to as the Hague School and, during his lifetime, "the most respected Dutch artist of the second half of the nineteenth century", he was born in Groningen, of Jewish parents. His father, Hartog Abraham Israëls, intended for him to be a businessman, it was only after a determined struggle that he was allowed to embark on an artistic career, he studied from 1835 to 1842 at the Minerva Academy in his home town Groningen. He continued his studies subsequently in Amsterdam, studying at the Royal Academy for Fine Arts which became the State Academy for Fine Arts in Amsterdam, he attended the drawing class at the academy. From September 1845 until May 1847 he was in Paris, working in the history painter Picot's studio and taking classes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under James Pradier, Horace Vernet and Paul Delaroche, he returned to Amsterdam in September 1845 where he resumed his studies at the Academy until May 1847.

Israels remained in Amsterdam until 1870, when he moved to The Hague and became a leading member of the Hague School of landscape painters. He married Aleida Schaap and the couple had two children, a daughter Mathilde Anna Israëls and a son, Isaac Lazarus Israëls, born Amsterdam 3 February 1865, who became a fine art painter. Israëls has been compared to Jean-François Millet; as artists more than as painters in the strict sense of the word, they both, in fact, saw in the life of the poor and humble a motive for expressing with peculiar intensity their wide human sympathy. Edmond Duranty said of them that they were painted with suffering, he began with dramatic subjects in the romantic style of the day. By chance, after an illness, he went to recuperate his strength at the fishing-town of Zandvoort near Haarlem, there he was struck by the daily tragedy of life. Thenceforth he was possessed by a new vein of artistic expression, sincerely realistic, full of emotion and pity. Among his more important subsequent works are The Zandvoort Fisherman, The Silent House and Village Poor.

In 1862, he achieved great success in London with his Shipwrecked, purchased by Mr Young, The Cradle, two pictures that the Athenaeum magazine described as the most touching pictures of the exhibition. A portrait of Jozef Israëls was painted by the Scottish painter George Paul Chalmers. 1886: Officer in the Order of Leopold. His works include The Widower, When we grow Old, Peasant Family at the Table and Alone in the World, An Interior, A Frugal Meal, Toilers of the Sea, Speechless Dialogue, Between the Fields and the Seashore, The Bric-a-brac Seller. David Singing before Saul, one of his works, seems to hint at a return on the part of the venerable artist to the Rembrandtesque note of his youth; as a watercolour painter and etcher he produced a vast number of works, like his oil paintings, are full of deep feeling. They are treated in broad masses of light and shade, which give prominence to the principal subject without any neglect of detail. Israëls influenced many other painters and one them was the Scottish painter Robert McGregor.

Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Israëls, Josef". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. P. 885. Jan Veth, Mannen of Betekenis: Jozef Israëls Chesneau, Peintres français et étrangers Philippe Zilcken, Peintres hollandais modernes Dumas, Illustrated Biographies of Modern Artists J. de Meester, in Max Roose's Dutch Painters of the Nineteenth Century Jozef Israëls, Spain: the Story of a Journey. Works by Jozef Israëls at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Jozef Israëls at Internet Archive Hecht Museum Virtual Scotland BBC Genealogy Israels Biographical notes and dates of Jozef Isräels, in the Dutch R. K. D. Archive Free images of the art of Jozef Isräels, in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

How German Is It

How German Is It is a novel by Walter Abish, published in 1980. It received PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 1981, it is most classified as a postmodern work of fiction. The novel revolves around the Hargenau brothers and Helmut, their lives in and around the fictional German town of Wurtenburg; the Hargenaus were once a revered family. Now the two remaining brothers, the writer Ulrich and the architect Helmut, must reconcile their private pasts with that of their history as a whole, they are getting spied upon, bombs go off in buildings designed by Helmut, through all this, the reality of what went on during World War II is uncovered. The book's narrative structure features internal monologues and different authorial viewpoints by many of the characters. Thus, different issues are addressed from different perspectives; the main protagonist is Ulrich, the primary and most frequent narrator. The novel won the PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 1981

EMC 1800 hp B-B

Electro-Motive Corporation produced five 1800 hp B-B experimental passenger train-hauling diesel locomotives in 1935. The twin engine power unit layout and multiple unit control systems developed with the B-B locomotives were soon adopted for other locomotives such as the Burlington Route's Zephyr locomotives built by the Budd Company in 1936 and EMC's own EMD E-units introduced in 1937; the B-B locomotives worked as proof-of-concept demonstrators for diesel power with the service loads of full size trains, breaking out of its niche powering the smaller custom Streamliners. In 1935 EMC was starting its transition from a design and marketing company to a locomotive building company. Construction of carbodies for EMC demonstrators #511 and #512, B&O #50 was contracted to General Electric's Erie, Pennsylvania works, AT&SF #1 was contracted to St. Louis Car Company. Like most boxcabs, they had control cabs at both ends, a feature that would only be repeated in future North American locomotives, although it would become common elsewhere.

Power was provided by twin 900 hp 12 cylinder Winton 201-A diesel engines in each power unit, exceeding by 50% the most power that could be attained with a single engine at that time. The added "headroom" in power extended the life of mechanical parts, a critical issue with early diesel engines in locomotives; the units were built with AAR type B two-axle trucks. As development design locomotives, modifications were made to them to overcome various teething problems; the two EMC demonstrators, numbered 511 and 512, were built in August 1935 to demonstrate the future of passenger diesel power to potential customers. The boxy bodywork was not what EMC intended to sell, but it was an easy way to demonstrate the power units and hauling capacity, which would not be changed in the future E-units, they were demonstrated both together and singly. These units were significant in pioneering multiple unit connections which could be connected and disconnected in the field, allowing units to be "lashed up" into more powerful combinations at will, allowing malfunctioning units to be replaced with fresh units with ease.

EMC #512, painted silver, was added to the ATSF locomotive #1 cab/booster pair to help pull the first regular run of the streamlined, Budd Company-built Super Chief on May 18, 1937, after the EMC E1 pair 2/2A built for the train burned out some of their traction motors on a record-breaking exhibition run days before. In 1938, having outlived their usefulness, the two demonstrators were scrapped. Trucks and some other components were re-used for the two EMC NW4 switchers built for the Missouri Pacific Railroad. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad #50 was fundamentally identical to demonstrators 511 and 512 when delivered. In this form, it hauled the first Diesel-powered Royal Blue until the introduction of the EMC EA/EB units in 1937. Following that, it had a semi-streamlined "shovel nose" applied to one end, transferred to the B&O-owned Chicago and Alton Railroad to haul the Abraham Lincoln; when the Alton left B&O control in the merger that created the Gulf and Ohio Railroad, #50 entered the GM&O roster as #1200.

After the 2nd world war, the shovel-nose treatment was removed, restoring the unit to its prior boxcab appearance. The locomotive was placed into local freight and passenger service until it was retired, upon which it was donated to the Museum of Transportation, St. Louis, where it remains. Atchison and Santa Fe Railway #1 was a twin-unit set built by St. Louis Car Company in August 1935 to haul the Santa Fe's new train, the Super Chief, for its first year of operation from May 12, 1936 until May 18 of the following year; the Santa Fe Railway was an ideal railroad to be a dieselization pioneer. Santa Fe saw the potential for rapid dieselization of its southwestern passenger service so the railroad asked for two locomotives like the EMC demonstrators as proof of concept, letting the railroad gain some experience with diesel operation before production model diesel locomotives and the lightweight, streamlined trains they would haul were ready; the 2226.6 mile route that these units were intended to run, covering mountain and desert, was unprecedented, exposed weaknesses in the design.

Their working up period extended for about eight months before they were introduced into service, during which time modifications were continually made to them. Santa Fe asked for some cosmetic "dressing up" of the locomotives, since they would be hauling a prestige passenger train, EMC obliged with a treatment by Sterling McDonald's GM styling department, which included large hooded air intakes at the front of the units and a striking paint scheme: Olive Green with Cobalt Blue and Sarasota Blue stripes separated by pinstripes of Crimson and Tuscan Red; this livery gave them more of a look of speed. The units were delivered with shrouding around their trucks, soon removed because the bearings on the trucks tended to run hot. Engine cooling was another problem that needed to be addressed durin

Hervé Déry

Hervé Déry was the Interim Librarian and Archivist of Canada from May 24, 2013 until June 22, 2014. Déry is a graduate of the University of Montreal, where he obtained a Bachelor's and a Master's degree in Economics, he has held various senior federal government positions since 1982. He served as the Assistant Deputy Minister and Corporate Secretary and Collaboration Sector at Library and Archives Canada from March 2012, he was appointed Interim Librarian and Archivist of Canada by Minister of Canadian Heritage James Moore on May 24, 2013, by the Governor in Council on November 23, 2013 at Her Majesty's pleasure. On April 14, 2014 Guy Berthiaume was appointed Librarian and Archivist of Canada by Minister of Canadian Heritage Shelly Glover for a five-year term commencing June 23, 2014

United States Army North

The United States Army North is a formation of the United States Army. An Army Service Component Command subordinate to United States Northern Command, ARNORTH is the joint force land component of NORTHCOM. ARNORTH is responsible for homeland defense support of civil authorities. ARNORTH is garrisoned at Texas. From early January 1943, when it was first created during World War II, under the command of Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark, until 2004, it was designated as the United States Fifth Army; the United States Fifth Army was one of the principal formations of the U. S. Army in the Mediterranean during World War II, was the first American field army to be activated outside of the United States, it was activated on 5 January 1943 at Oujda, French Morocco and made responsible for the defence of Algeria and Morocco. It was given the responsibility for planning the American part of the invasion of mainland Italy, therefore was not involved in the Allied invasion of Sicily, where it was instead assigned the role of training combat troops destined for Sicily.

The United States Fifth Army was commanded by Lieutenant General Mark Wayne Clark, who would lead the Fifth Army for nearly two years, was to experience some of the toughest fighting of World War II, where it was engaged on the Italian Front, which was, in many ways more reminiscent of the trench warfare of the Western Front in World War I. Writing to Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers in late March 1944, Clark explained the difficulties of the fighting in Italy so far, which could be said of the whole campaign, they were, he claimed, "Terrain, weather prepared defensive positions in the mountains and well-trained enemy troops, grossly inadequate means at our disposal while on the offensive, with equal forces to the defender."The Fifth Army first saw action during the Salerno landings, the assault landings at Salerno, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, in September 1943. Due to the comparatively low numbers of American troops available in the Mediterranean Theater it was made up of one American and one British corps.

They were the U. S. VI Corps, under Major General Ernest J. Dawley and the British X Corps, under Lieutenant-General Richard L. McCreery. At Salerno, VI Corps landed on the right flank, X Corps on the left flank. Progress was slow, due in part to a lack of initiative by Dawley, the VI Corps commander, due to heavier than expected German resistance. However, heavy naval and air bombardment, along with a parachute drop by elements of the U. S. 82nd Airborne Division, had saved the forces from any danger of being driven back into the sea, combined with the approach of the British Eighth Army, under General Bernard Montgomery, the German 10th Army began to retreat. On 20 September, by which time the Fifth and Eighth Armies had linked up, Major General Dawley, VI Corps commander, was relieved of his command by Clark. Dawley was temporarily made deputy army commander, was soon replaced in command of VI Corps by Major General John P. Lucas. Progress was good for a couple of weeks and the Fifth Army crossed the Barbara Line and the Volturno Line until the Germans turned and fought.

They had established a position on the Winter Line, which included the formidable defensive positions at San Pietro Infine in the Liri Valley and at Monte Cassino. By this point, Fifth Army had been reinforced by a second American corps, II Corps, commanded by Major General Geoffrey Keyes. By the end of November Clark's Fifth Army had doubled in size, with the addition of French General Alphonse Juin's French Expeditionary Corps, from 130,247 men to 243,827. With the failure of the first operations to capture Monte Cassino, an attempt was made to exploit the Allied preponderance in seapower before the coming invasion of Normandy robbed the Mediterranean of the naval forces necessary for an amphibious assault to seize Rome. VI Corps, with its experience of amphibious landings at Salerno, was chosen for the assault and withdrawn from the line, replaced by the French Expeditionary Corps, they made a second attempt to capture Monte Cassino in conjunction with the amphibious assault by VI Corps, which again failed.

VI Corps landed at Anzio, unopposed, on 22 January 1944 in Operation Shingle, suffered many of the same problems as had been seen at Salerno. A perceived lack of initiative on the part of the commander, Major General Lucas, combined with worries about the Germans catching VI Corps off balance if it advanced too far inland resulted in the beachhead being bottled up; the Germans launched a series of attacks and counterattacks, with both sides sustaining heavy losses, nearly breached the last beachhead defences before again being driven off by heavy naval and air support. The fault, however, "was not due to Lucas's incompetence; the Apennines had been the rough dividing line between Fifth and Eighth Armies. However, the dividing line was shifted westwards, to allow the concentration of both armies on the western side of Italy for maximum firepower to break through to Rome. British V Corps was left on the Adriatic coast to pin down any German units there. Fifth Army was relieved of responsibility for Cassino and the final phases of that battle saw Indian, New Zealand