The Rhine is one of the major European rivers, which has its sources in Switzerland and flows in an northerly direction through Germany and The Netherlands to the North Sea. The river begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and the Franco-German border flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and empties into the North Sea; the largest city on the Rhine is Cologne, with a population of more than 1,050,000 people. It is the second-longest river in Central and Western Europe, at about 1,230 km, with an average discharge of about 2,900 m3/s; the Rhine and the Danube formed most of the northern inland frontier of the Roman Empire and, since those days, the Rhine has been a vital and navigable waterway carrying trade and goods deep inland. Its importance as a waterway in the Holy Roman Empire is supported by the many castles and fortifications built along it. In the modern era, it has become a symbol of German nationalism.
Among the biggest and most important cities on the Rhine are Cologne, Düsseldorf, Rotterdam and Basel. The variants of the name of the Rhine in modern languages are all derived from the Gaulish name Rēnos, adapted in Roman-era geography as Greek Ῥῆνος, Latin Rhenus; the spelling with Rh- in English Rhine as well as in German Rhein and French Rhin is due to the influence of Greek orthography, while the vocalisation -i- is due to the Proto-Germanic adoption of the Gaulish name as *Rīnaz, via Old Frankish giving Old English Rín,Old High German Rīn, early Middle Dutch Rijn. The diphthong in modern German Rhein is a Central German development of the early modern period, the Alemannic name Rī retaining the older vocalism, as does Ripuarian Rhing, while Palatine has diphthongized Rhei, Rhoi. Spanish is with French in adopting the Germanic vocalism Rin-, while Italian and Portuguese retain the Latin Ren-; the Gaulish name Rēnos belongs to a class of river names built from the PIE root *rei- "to move, run" found in other names such as the Reno in Italy.
The grammatical gender of the Celtic name is masculine, the name remains masculine in German and French. The Old English river name was variously inflected as feminine; the length of the Rhine is conventionally measured in "Rhine-kilometers", a scale introduced in 1939 which runs from the Old Rhine Bridge at Constance to Hoek van Holland. The river is shortened from its natural course due to a number of canalisation projects completed in the 19th and 20th century; the "total length of the Rhine", to the inclusion of Lake Constance and the Alpine Rhine is more difficult to measure objectively. Its course is conventionally divided as follows: The Rhine carries its name without distinctive accessories only from the confluence of the Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein and Rein Posteriur/Hinterrhein next to Reichenau in Tamins. Above this point is the extensive catchment of the headwaters of the Rhine, it belongs exclusively to the Swiss canton of Graubünden, ranging from Saint-Gotthard Massif in the west via one valley lying in Ticino and Italy in the south to the Flüela Pass in the east.
Traditionally, Lake Toma near the Oberalp Pass in the Gotthard region is seen as the source of the Anterior Rhine and the Rhine as a whole. The Posterior Rhine rises in the Rheinwald below the Rheinwaldhorn; the source of the river is considered north of Lai da Tuma/Tomasee on Rein Anteriur/Vorderrhein, although its southern tributary Rein da Medel is longer before its confluence with the Anterior Rhine near Disentis. The Anterior Rhine springs from Lai da Tuma/Tomasee, near the Oberalp Pass and passes the impressive Ruinaulta formed by the largest visible rock slide in the alps, the Flims Rockslide; the Posterior Rhine starts near the Rheinwaldhorn. One of its tributaries, the Reno di Lei, drains the Valle di Lei on politically Italian territory. After three main valleys separated by the two gorges and Viamala, it reaches Reichenau in Tamins; the Anterior Rhine arises from numerous source streams in the upper Surselva and flows in an easterly direction. One source is Lai da Tuma with the Rein da Tuma, indicated as source of the Rhine, flowing through it.
Into it flow tributaries from the south, some longer, some equal in length, such as the Rein da Medel, the Rein da Maighels, the Rein da Curnera. The Cadlimo Valley in the canton of Ticino is drained by the Reno di Medel, which crosses the geomorphologic Alpine main ridge from the south. All streams in the source area are sometimes captured and sent to storage reservoirs for the local hydro-electric power plants; the culminating point of the Anterior Rhine's drainage basin is the Piz Russein of the Tödi massif of the Glarus Alps at 3,613 metres above sea level. It starts with the creek Aua da Russein. In its lower course the Anterior Rhine flows through a gorge named Ruinaulta; the whole stretch of the Anterior Rhine to the Alpine Rhine confluence next to Reichen
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Greed, or avarice, is an inordinate or insatiable longing for material gain, be it food, status, or power As a secular psychological concept, greed is an inordinate desire to acquire or possess more than one needs. The degree of inordinance is related to the inability to control the reformulation of "wants" once desired "needs" are eliminated. Erich Fromm described greed as "a bottomless pit which exhausts the person in an endless effort to satisfy the need without reaching satisfaction." It is used to criticize those who seek excessive material wealth, although it may apply to the need to feel more excessively moral, social, or otherwise better than someone else. The purpose for greed, any actions associated with it, is to deprive others of potential means or future opportunities accordingly, or to obstruct them therefrom, thus insidious and tyrannical or otherwise having a negative connotation. Alternately, the purpose could be defense or counteraction from such dangerous, potential negotiation in matters of questionable agreeability.
A consequence of greedy activity may be an inability to sustain any of the costs or burdens associated with that, or is being accumulated, leading to a backfire or destruction, whether of self or more generally. So, the level of "inordinance" of greed pertains to the amount of vanity, malice or burden associated with it. Thomas Aquinas says that greed "is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things." In Dante's Purgatory, the avaricious penitents were bound and laid face down on the ground for having concentrated too much on earthly thoughts. Meher Baba dictated that "Greed is a state of restlessness of the heart, it consists of craving for power and possessions. Possessions and power are sought for the fulfillment of desires. Man is only satisfied in his attempt to have the fulfillment of his desires, this partial satisfaction fans and increases the flame of craving instead of extinguishing it, thus greed leaves the man endlessly dissatisfied.
The chief expressions of greed are related to the emotional part of man."Ivan Boesky famously defended greed in an 18 May 1986 commencement address at the UC Berkeley's School of Business Administration, in which he said, "Greed is all right, by the way. I want you to know that. I think. You can be greedy and still feel good about yourself"; this speech inspired the 1987 film Wall Street, which features the famous line spoken by Gordon Gekko: "Greed, for lack of a better word, is good. Greed is right, greed works. Greed clarifies, cuts through, captures the essence of the evolutionary spirit. Greed, in all of its forms. Scavenging and hoarding of materials or objects and robbery by means of violence, trickery, or manipulation of authority are all actions that may be inspired by greed; such misdeeds can include simony, where one profits from soliciting goods within the actual confines of a church. A well-known example of greed is the pirate Hendrick Lucifer, who fought for hours to acquire Cuban gold, becoming mortally wounded in the process.
He died of his wounds hours after having transferred the booty to his ship. Some research suggests, it is possible people. Quotations related to Greed at Wikiquote The dictionary definition of greed at Wiktionary Media related to Greed at Wikimedia Commons
History of Baden-Württemberg
The history of Baden-Württemberg covers the area included in the historical state of Baden, the former Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, part of the region of Swabia since the 9th century. In the 1st century AD, Württemberg was occupied by the Romans, who defended their control of the territory by constructing a limes. Early in the 3rd century, the Alemanni drove the Romans beyond the Rhine and the Danube, but they in turn succumbed to the Franks under Clovis I, the decisive battle taking place in 496; the area became part of the Holy Roman Empire. The history of Baden as a state began as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire; as a inconsequential margraviate, divided between various branches of the ruling family for much of its history, it gained both status and territory during the Napoleonic era, when it was raised to the status of grand duchy. In 1871, it became one of the founder states of the German Empire; the monarchy came to an end with the end of the First World War, but Baden itself continued in existence as a state of Germany until the end of the Second World War.
Württemberg spelled "Wirtemberg" or "Wurtemberg" in English, developed as a political entity in southwest Germany, with the core established around Stuttgart by Count Conrad. His descendants expanded Württemberg while surviving Germany's religious wars, changes in imperial policy, invasions from France; the state had a basic parliamentary system. Recognised as a kingdom in 1806–1918, its territory now forms part of the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg, one of the 16 states of Germany, a young federal state that has only existed since 1952; the coat of arms represents the state's several historical component parts, of which Baden and Württemberg are the most important. The origin of the name "Württemberg" remains obscure. Scholars have universally rejected the once-popular derivation from "Wirth am Berg"; some authorities derive it from a proper name: "Wiruto" or "Wirtino," others from a Celtic place-name, "Virolunum" or "Verdunum". In any event, from serving as the name of a castle near the Stuttgart city district of Rotenberg, the name extended over the surrounding country and, as the lords of this district increased their possessions, so the name covered an ever-widening area, until it reached its present extent.
Early forms included Wirtenberg and Wirtenberc. Wirtemberg was long accepted, in the latter part of the 16th century Würtemberg and Wurttemberg appeared. In 1806, Württemberg became the official spelling, though Wurtemberg appears and occurs sometimes in official documents, on coins issued after that date. Württemberg's first known inhabitants, the Celts, preceded the arrival of the Suebi. In the first century AD, the Romans conquered the land and defended their position there by constructing a rampart. Early in the third century, the Alemanni drove the Romans beyond the Rhine and the Danube, but they in turn succumbed to the Franks under Clovis, the decisive battle taking place in 496. For about 400 years, the district was part of the Frankish empire and was administered by counts until it was subsumed in the ninth century by the German Duchy of Swabia; the Duchy of Swabia is to a large degree comparable to the territory of the Alemanni. The Suevi belonged to the tribe of the Alemanni, reshaped in the 3rd century.
The name of Swabia is derived from them. From the 9th century on, in place of the area designation "Alemania," came the name "Schwaben". Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval Kingdom of the East Franks, its dukes were thus among the most powerful magnates of Germany; the most notable family to hold Swabia were the Hohenstaufen, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268. For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were Holy Roman Emperors. With the death of Conradin, the last Hohenstaufen duke, the duchy itself disintegrated although King Rudolf I attempted to revive it for his Habsburg family in the late 13th century. With the decline of East Francia power, the House of Zähringen appeared to be ready as the local successor of the power in southwestern Germany and in the northwest in the Kingdom of Arles. Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founded the city of Bern in 1191, which became one of the House of Zähringen power centers. East of the Jura Mountains and west of the Reuss was described as Upper Burgundy, Bern was part of the Landgraviate of Burgundy, situated on both sides of the Aar, between Thun and Solothurn.
However Berthold died without an heir in 1218 and Bern was declared a Free imperial city by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. Berthold's death without heirs meant the complete disintegration of southwest Germany and led to the development of the Old Swiss Confederacy and the Duchy of Burgundy. Bern joined Switzerland in the year 1353. Swabia takes its name from the tribe of the Suebi, the name was used interchangeably with Alemannia during the existence of the stem-duchy in the High Middle Ages. Alsace belonged to it. Swabia was otherwise of great importance in securing the pass route to Italy. After the fall of the Staufers there was never again a Duchy of Swabia; the Habsburgs and the Württembergers endeavored in vain to resurrect it. Three of the noble families of the southwest attained a special importance: the Hohenstaufen, the Welf and the Zähringen; the most successful appear from the view of that time to be the Hohenstaufen, who, as dukes of Swabia from 1079 and as Frankish kings and emperors from 1138 to 1268, attained the greatest influence in Swabia.
During the Middle Ages, various counts ruled the territory that now forms Baden, among whom the counts and duchy of
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories. On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476; the title continued in the Carolingian family until 888 and from 896 to 899, after which it was contested by the rulers of Italy in a series of civil wars until the death of the last Italian claimant, Berengar I, in 924. The title was revived again in 962 when Otto I was crowned emperor, fashioning himself as the successor of Charlemagne and beginning a continuous existence of the empire for over eight centuries.
Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire, while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. Scholars concur, however, in relating an evolution of the institutions and principles constituting the empire, describing a gradual assumption of the imperial title and role; the exact term "Holy Roman Empire" was not used until the 13th century, but the concept of translatio imperii, the notion that he—the sovereign ruler—held supreme power inherited from the ancient emperors of Rome, was fundamental to the prestige of the emperor. The office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective, although controlled by dynasties; the German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire elected one of their peers as "King of the Romans", he would be crowned emperor by the Pope. The empire never achieved the extent of political unification as was formed to the west in France, evolving instead into a decentralized, limited elective monarchy composed of hundreds of sub-units: kingdoms, duchies, prince-bishoprics, Free Imperial Cities, other domains.
The power of the emperor was limited, while the various princes, lords and cities of the empire were vassals who owed the emperor their allegiance, they possessed an extent of privileges that gave them de facto independence within their territories. Emperor Francis II dissolved the empire on 6 August 1806 following the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine by emperor Napoleon I the month before. In various languages the Holy Roman Empire was known as: Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich, Italian: Sacro Romano Impero, Czech: Svatá říše římská, Polish: Święte imperium rzymskie, Slovene: Sveto rimsko cesarstvo, Dutch: Heilige Roomse Rijk, French: Saint-Empire romain. Before 1157, the realm was referred to as the Roman Empire; the term sacrum in connection with the medieval Roman Empire was used beginning in 1157 under Frederick I Barbarossa: the term was added to reflect Frederick's ambition to dominate Italy and the Papacy. The form "Holy Roman Empire" is attested from 1254 onward.
In a decree following the 1512 Diet of Cologne, the name was changed to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, a form first used in a document in 1474. The new title was adopted because the Empire had lost most of its Italian and Burgundian territories to the south and west by the late 15th century, but to emphasize the new importance of the German Imperial Estates in ruling the Empire due to the Imperial Reform. By the end of the 18th century, the term "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" had fallen out of official use. Besides, contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has stated in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claim of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as to omit the national suffix as include it. This, or the shortened "Roman Empire of the German Nation", is used in Germany to refer to the Holy Roman Empire. In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body, called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. By the middle of the 8th century, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. In 751, Martel's son Pepin became King of the Franks, gained the sanction of the Pope; the Carolingians would maintain a close alliance with the Papacy. In 768, Pepin's son Charlemagne became King of the Franks and began an extensive expansion of the realm, he incorporated the territories of present-day France, northern Italy, beyond, linking the Frankish kingdom with Papal lands. In 797, the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VI was removed from the throne by his mother Irene who declared herself Empress; as the Church regarded a male Roman Emperor as the head of Christendom, Pope
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, situated on the Upper Rhine about 60 kilometres south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main. It had 82,000 inhabitants as of 2015. A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, was an important palatinate of Charlemagne. Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages as an Imperial Free City. Among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, the Diet of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic. Today, the city is famed as the origin of Liebfraumilch wine. Other industries include metal goods and fodder. Worms is located on the west bank of the river Rhine between the cities of Mainz.
On the northern edge of the city the Pfrimm flows into the Rhine, on the southern edge the Eisbach flows into the Rhine. Worms has 13 boroughs around the city centre, they are as follows: The climate in the Rhine Valley is temperate in winter and quite enjoyable in summer. Rainfall is below average for the surrounding areas. Winter snow accumulation is low and melts quickly. Worms was in ancient times a Celtic city named Borbetomagus meaning "water meadow", it was conquered by the Germanic Vangiones. In 14 BC, Romans under the command of Drusus captured and fortified the city, from that time onwards a small troop of infantry and cavalry were garrisoned there; the Romans renamed the city after the then-emperor and the local tribe. The name does not seem to have taken hold and the German Worms developed from Borbetomagus; the garrison grew into a small town with a regular Roman street plan, a forum, temples for the main gods Jupiter, Juno and Mars. Roman inscriptions and votive offerings can be seen in the archaeological museum, along with one of Europe's largest collections of Roman glass.
Local potters worked in the town's south quarter. Fragments of amphoras contain traces of olive oil from Hispania Baetica, doubtless transported by sea and up the Rhine by ship. During the disorders of 411–13 AD, the Roman usurper Jovinus established himself in Borbetomagus as a puppet-emperor with the help of King Gunther of the Burgundians, who had settled in the area between the Rhine and Moselle some years before; the city became the capital of the Burgundian kingdom under Gunther. Few remains of this early Burgundian kingdom survive, because in 436 it was all but destroyed by a combined army of Romans and Huns. Provoked by Burgundian raids against Roman settlements, the combined Romano-Hunnic army destroyed the Burgundian army at the Battle of Worms, killing King Gunther, it is said. The Romans led; the story of this war inspired the Nibelungenlied. The city appears on the Peutinger Map, dated to the 4th century. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, with an earlier mention in 346.
In the Frankish Empire, the city was the location of an important palatinate of Charlemagne, who built one of his many administrative palaces here. The bishops administered its territory; the most famous of the early medieval bishops was Burchard of Worms. Worms Cathedral, dedicated to St Peter, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Alongside the nearby Romanesque cathedrals of Speyer and Mainz, it is one of the so-called Kaiserdome; some parts in early Romanesque style from the 10th century still exist, while most parts are from the 11th and 12th century, with some additions in Gothic style. Four other Romanesque churches as well as the Romanesque old city fortification still exist, making the city Germany's second in Romanesque architecture only to Cologne. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages. Having received far-reaching privileges from King Henry IV as early as 1074, the city became an Imperial Free City, being independent of any local ruler and responsible only to the Holy Roman Emperor himself.
As a result, Worms was the site of several important events in the history of the Empire. In 1122 the Concordat of Worms was signed. Most important, among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, that of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms, in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic after refusing to recant his religious beliefs. Worms was the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, both Martin Luther's German Bible and William Tyndale's first complete English New Testament by 1526; the city, known in medieval Hebrew by the name Varmayza or Vermaysa, was a centre of medieval Ashkenazic Judaism. The Jewish community was established there in the late 10th century, Worms's first synagogue was erected in 1034. In 1096, eight hundred Jews were murdered by the local mob; the Jewish Cemetery in Worms, dating from the 11th century, is believed to be the oldest surviv
Überlingen is a German city on the northern shore of Lake Constance. After the city of Friedrichshafen, it is the second largest city in the Bodenseekreis, a central point for the outlying communities. Since January 1, 1993, Überlingen has been categorized as a large district city; the history of Überlingen dates back to Roman times, but a variety of settlements pre-dated Roman occupation. Stone age settlements, discovered along the shoreline of Lake Constance, document that the lake supported several dozen thriving communities of 50–100 individuals; these settlements fall under the category of the Hallstatt culture, their habits and diet has been illuminated through the excavation of archaeological sites, such as a major site in Hallstadt, excavated in the mid-to late 19th century. Similar sites, although smaller, have been found in vicinity of Überlingen: a site near Hodingen, another near Dettingen, by Constance, a major site near the village of Unteruhldingen, where there is now an open air archaeological museum.
The dead were either buried in mounds or flat graves. Tools uncovered in archeological excavation suggest that these communities engaged in a combination of hunting and agriculture; the Alpine lands and the eastern Swiss Plateau were overrun by the troops of the emperor Augustus, who established the Roman writ from the Alps to the Danube, through the efforts of Augustus' stepsons Drusus and Tiberius. According to some interpretations of the Roman records, one of the Bodensee islands Mainau was the operations base for the military operations in the year 15 BCE; the necessities of troop transport and ship building and maintenance required the Romans to possess the entire Swiss shore of the lake, from these points along the lake, the Romans could mount a double-pointed excursion to the eastern Tyrol and present-day Bavaria, or to the West, in the Rhine valley. The Bodensee region, as a Roman province administered from Augusta Vindelicorum, present day Augsburg, was governed by a Finance official under Tiberius's command.
The road from Stockach to Überlingen, along the lake's shore to Uhldingen and on to Friedrichshafen, the east-west train tracks follow the path of the old Roman road. Evidence of conflicts between the Romans, their power waning, the Allemanic and other Germanic groups, their power rising, appears throughout the region. New settlements appeared on top of burned settlements and old villages and farmsteads reclaimed first by forests and meadows and again reclaimed by men. By the latter half of the fourth century, several families emerged as the warrior leaders, capable of fending off minor Roman come-backs, of protecting themselves, their kin, their dependents from not only the Romans, but other groups; as the Romans withdrew more and more of their forces, to concentrate on the western boundaries or to focus on the conquest defense of Iberia, Franks Clodwig, or Clovis, Goths Theodorich contested for control of the region. Throughout this period, Allemanic dukes maintained their primary seat in Überlingen.
The Alemannic Überlingen was first mentioned in 770 as Iburinga. Before that, it was known as Gunzoburg, the seat of the Alemannic or Swabian duke Gunzo; the probable site of Gunzo's villa has been identified in the northwestern quadrant of the city, just outside the present day inner moat. The Allemanic dukes were well connected to other families throughout Europe. Louis the Pious 814-840 and Louis the German 843-876 both married women from the Allemmanic Welfen families. In the 10th century, the Linzgau fell to an invasion of the Hungarians, ongoing battles with the Hungarians nearly brought the families of the region to ruin; the Investiture Controversy of the 11th-century brought further conflict. Villages and properties in the possession of one side of the conflict would be besieged and destroyed by members of the other party, in gruesome battle after gruesome battle, but by the end of the 11th century, the first half of the 12th, the Hohenstaufen emperors stabilized the Holy Roman Empire.
The family came from the region and Swabia, the Linzgau, the Bodensee region became the middle point of the Empire. This is the beginning of Überlingen's period of blossoming. Many of the documents from the period have been lost in the city fire in 1279, but a great deal can be extrapolated. Hand in hand with the expansion of the Holy Roman Empire, localities throughout the empire experienced infrastructure improvements: improved roads and exchange regulations encouraged trade in the all important centrally located Swabia; the exact date in which the city received its market rights is ambiguous, but it was between 1180 and 1191. He had been in the region several times: 1153, 1155, 1162, 1181, 1183, to hold court sessions, in 1187 he stayed in Wallhausen, across the lake, to sign the documents establishing the Cloister of Salem. At the end of the 14th century the city was granted status as a free imperial city. In 1547, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, broadened the city's market rights to prohibit any trade in grain o