England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Dhol can refer to any one of a number of similar types of double-headed drum used, with regional variations, throughout the Indian subcontinent. Its range of distribution in India and Pakistan includes northern areas such as the Punjab, Delhi, Sindh, Assam Valley, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh; the range stretches westward as far as eastern Afghanistan. A related instrument is dholki. Someone who plays the dhol is known as dhuliya; the dhol is a double-sided barrel drum played as an accompanying instrument in regional music forms. In qawwali music, the term dhol is used to describe a similar, but smaller drum used with the smaller tabla, as a replacement for the left hand tabla drum; the typical sizes of the drum vary from region to region. In Punjab, the dhol remains bulky to produce the preferred loud bass. In other regions, dhols can be found in varying shapes and sizes and made with different woods and materials; the drum consists of a wooden barrel with animal hide or synthetic skin stretched over its open ends, covering them completely.
These skins can be stretched or loosened with a tightening mechanism made up of either interwoven ropes, or nuts and bolts. Tightening or loosening the skins subtly alters the pitch of the drum sound; the stretched skin on one of the ends is thicker and produces a deep, low frequency sound and the other thinner one produces a higher frequency sound. Dhols with synthetic, or plastic, treble skins are common; the dhol is played using two wooden sticks made out of wood, cane, or bamboo. The stick used to play the bass side of the instrument, known as the dagga in Punjabi, is the thicker of the two, is bent in an eighth- or quarter-circular arc on the end that strikes the instrument; the other stick, known as the tihli, is much thinner and flexible and used to play the higher note end of the instrument. The dhol is slung over the shoulder or, more around the neck of the player with a strap made up of woven cotton; the surface of the wooden barrel is in some cases decorated with engraved patterns and sometimes paint.
In the pre-Partition era, dozens of rhythms were played on the Punjabi dhol, which corresponded to specific functions. However, with the decline or disappearance of some cultural practices, recent generations of dhol-players have become unfamiliar with many of these. At the same time, the growth of folkloric staged bhangra dance in Punjab inspired the creation of many new rhythms particular to that dance; some of the most common Punjabi dhol rhythms are bhangra and kaharva, a dance and song rhythm. The staged "bhangra" dance, originating in the 1950s, gave special prominence to kaharva, for the performance of actions called luddi. In the 1970s, many more actions were added to staged bhangra to go with the kaharva rhythm, which started to become one of the most prominent rhythms associated with the dance. At the same time, this type of rhythm would be played on the dholki drum to accompany Punjabi songs. So when, in the 1990s, Punjabi pop songs began to evoke bhangra dance, they used the kaharva rhythm.
It is known now by various names. Some dhol-players call it kaharva, its technical name, while other players in Punjab call it luddi to refer to the dance of that name. With the style of dhol-playing that developed in the U. K. the name chaal was adopted—probably in reference to the "chaal" movements it accompanies in modern bhangra—however, that term is not used elsewhere. The introduction of electronic devices such as tape recorders has led to a decline in the importance of dhol players in celebratory events. Dhol music still figures in the studio recordings of present-day raas and bhangra music artists. Several percussion instruments such as the dhol used to exist during the Indus Valley Civilisation. Dhol is depicted in earliest ancient Indian sculptural arts as one of the chief percussion instruments for ancient Indian music along with tabla. Ain-i-Akbari, describes the use of Dhol in the orchestra of the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great; the Indo-Aryan word "dhol" appears in print around 1800 in the treatise Sangitasara.
The Punjabi dhol is used in the Punjab region of northern India. In Pakistan, the dhol is predominantly played in the Panjab region. In India it is found in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi; the beats of dhol have been an element in the ceremonies of the great Sufi mystics and their followers. The patterns of dhol have been developed to catalyze the mind of the devotee, seeking spiritual trance. Traditionally the Punjabi dhol has been the domain of men. In Assam, the dhol is used in Rongali Bihu, the Assamese new year celebrations in the month of April. Celebrated in mid-April every year, the dhol is an important and a quintessential instrument used in Bihu dance and is similar to drums used in China. There is a similar festival of playing waist drums in China known as "Ansai Waist Drum Dance"; the origin of the Dhol in Assam dates back to at least the 14th century where it was referred in Assamese Buranjis as being played by the indigenous people. This shows that the origin of Dhol in Assam was much older than the rest of India, the name was proba
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
S-Endz known as Turi and Casey Rain is a British Asian vocalist, music producer and presenter. He is best known as a member of the critically acclaimed UK rap/alternative/bhangra band Swami, he now adheres to a vegan diet. S-Endz grew up in the culturally diverse area of Birmingham, he is mixed-race. S-Endz' first cousin Apache Indian broke the UK mainstream pop audience with a blend of bhangra and reggae produced by his cousins Simon "Subs" Duggal and Diamond "DJ Swami" Duggal. Subs & DJ Swami would form the band Swami, which S-Endz would join as a vocalist in 2004. S-Endz contributed rap vocals to many of the tracks on the 2004 Swami release DesiRock and all of the tracks on the 2005 remixed rap-rock version of the album, entitled So Who Am I released on Sony BMG; this album became a significant milestone for British Asian music. S-Endz himself was awarded with a "Rowdiest MC" award by BBC Radio 1 DJ's Bobby Friction & DJ Nihal in 2005; when asked to describe his musical style in a 2005 interview with UKBhangra.com, S-Endz replied: "My musical style as a vocalist and performer is like the bastard child of DMX and Courtney Love, babysat by Slipknot and taught to create music by Prince, Kurt Cobain and Tupac Shakur and genetically modified with the soul of Jason Voorhees while he’s wielding a chainsaw."In 2007, Swami released the album "Equalize" internationally through EMI/Virgin Records to great acclaim.
The'4 Faces' album cover, featuring the outlines of Diamond, S-Endz and Bobby became the new Swami logo, appearing on flyers and merchandise. S-Endz appeared on the songs "Electro Jugni" and "Intoxicated" from this album; the album featured many international talents including Pras from The Fugees and award-winning South African R&B star Ishmael. The album was followed by the EP of "Electro Jugni/She's Mine", on which S-Endz appeared and co-wrote the tracks featured on it, including "She's Mine", Swami's first song to be sung in English. S-Endz wrote the male R&B verses that Sups adlibs. In Summer 2009, Swami began to promote an upcoming Greatest Hits compilation entitled "53431"; the compilation includes two new songs, "Sugarless" and "Tonight" - both of which were co-written by and feature S-Endz. "Sugarless" was released as a free download in June 2009 to massive critical acclaim from fans and media alike. Indian music blog Bhangraw reported that this would be the last material from Swami that would include Punjabi vocals and that their next album would be in English.
In March 2013, Swami released Back It Up, the first single from their upcoming release UPGRADE. The song was written by S-Endz, DJ Swami and Liana McCarthy, features co-lead and rap vocals by S-Endz on the English Mix, chorus/rap vocals on the Desi Mix; this was followed in 2014 by another single, Do It Again, released with a music video shot in India. Both of these songs appeared in a remix form on two further Swami albums released in 2017, "Upgrade" and "Sidetrkd" on which S-Endz co-wrote and features on all songs; the early roots of S-Endz' solo career began to take shape in September 2006, when two tracks written and performed by S-Endz under the name Turi were premiered on the BBC Asian Network in an exclusive live performance for Bobby Friction's show. According to S-Endz' official website at the time, the two tracks are called "Welcome 2 the New Wave", "In the Haze". No release information has been given for either two songs. In early 2007 the track "Giveit2me", produced by Simon "Subs" Duggal, was premiered via S-Endz's MySpace page.
It is a reggae-fuelled commercial hip-hop track. On 12 March, it was playlisted on the BBC Asian Network and remained in their "A" playlist for 2 months. S-Endz' official website was updated in October 2007, revealing that his upcoming release is to be titled Emanate, it mentioned the names of two new songs, "Electric Man" and "She's Like My Shadow", both of which premiered on S-Endz' MySpace page. In 2007 S-Endz co-wrote and featured on the song "Wise In The Mind" by Fusing Naked Beats; this song featured London rappers Swami Baracus and Mic Assassin. On 5 September 2008, a remix of "She's Like My Shadow" featuring Detroit rapper Kidd Skilly was announced via S-Endz' MySpace blog, it premiered on S-Endz' official website as well as appearing on Kidd Skilly's mixtape'Undercover Superstar Vol. 1'. On 15 April 2009, a new song entitled "Dark Days" appeared on S-Endz' official website. However, he states; the USA/Canadian magazine ANOKHI featured an exclusive article about S-Endz in their Summer 2009 issue.
The article states that Emanate will be released in the fall of 2009, the first single "Do U Wanna Come"? will be released in the summer to coincide with a number of live shows. In mid July 2009, a clip of "Do U Wanna Come?" was uploaded to S-Endz' MySpace page, a few days a brand new track "We Got Some Breaking Up To Do" was premiered on entertainment site DesiHits.com. This track showcases S-Endz' trademark flows on top of the pop song of the same name by the Danish group Private. In August 2009, S-Endz announced the release of a digital EP featuring his new single "Outer Space" which features vocalists Kazz Kumar and Rukas; the EP was released on 21 October 2009. In April 2010, Radio New Zealand aired'Urban Disturbance in Broadcasting House' - a documentary exploring the life and career of BBC Radio 1 DJ Zane Lowe; this documentary contained 3 original pieces of music by S-Endz. It was announced, via YouTube clip in February 2011 that S-Endz has again collaborated with Kazz Kumar, creating a follow-up to her 2010 single'Fashion'.
The new version, entitled'Fashion Part II
Diamond Duggal known as DJ Swami, is a music producer, DJ, songwriter and guitarist. He is the leader of UK electronic/world music act Swami and known as producer with his brother Simon Duggal as Simon and Diamond. With Ivor Novello and Mercury Prize nomination for Apache Indian, the brothers produced and played alongside mentor Mutt Lange on the Shania Twain double Grammy-nominated album Up!. DJ Swami won the Best Producer category twice at the UK Asian Music Awards, he won Best Mixed Album at the South African Music Awards in 2010. An internationally accomplished music producer, Diamond Duggal has produced for a variety of platinum-selling award-winning artists, including Shania Twain, Pras Michel, Apache Indian, Maxi Priest, Stereo Nation, Nazia Hassan, Zoheb Hassan, Viktor Kiraly, Linda Kiraly, Meja, D. M. C. Keith Murray and China Black as well as remixing The Beat and Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, he has performed and toured as a guitarist with Robbie Williams and Blue. His most successful solo Swami album to date was 2004's DesiRock, the title track from, used in a variety of films, TV shows and video games.
Born Diamond Jyoti Duggal, he grew up in the Handsworth district of Birmingham, England in a melting pot of second-generation Indian and Jamaican multi-culturalism. By the age of 12, he was playing guitar in local reggae and rock bands. While learning the craft of music through listening to records by Jimi Hendrix, Ravi Shankar, Laxmikant Pyarelal and local Birmingham artists Steel Pulse and UB40, Diamond witnessed his first glance of a new musical hybrid and what was to become his life’s passion. In 1991, as production duo Simon and Diamond, the brothers launched the groundbreaking production fusion sound of dancehall reggae and bhangra with the artist Apache Indian; the project received huge public and media interest due to its cultural diversity and was making huge waves in the UK, USA, Canada and India. This marked a new milestone in British Asian popular music, soon followed by a record deal with Island Records and a publishing deal with Sony Music in 1992; the Apache Indian debut album'No Reservations' became a huge international success.
In 1997, Diamond started the group Swami with drummer and brother Simon, vocalist Taz Singh and Indian percussionist Kam Bura. The band performed a number of local and European shows before releasing their debut album Desi Nu Skool Beatz on their SubDub Records label in 1999; the album was given an international release in 2000 on Nation Records. The guitar surfing electronic title track "Mehbooba" went on to feature in the Olsen Twins Warner Brothers movie New York Minute. Diamond took to the studio in 2002 to work with Shania Twain on her follow-up album to Come On Over entitled Up!. The album was produced by a international team co-ordinated between producer Mutt Lange and Diamond. Shania Twain’s Up! Topped the American Billboard for six weeks in late 2002 with multi-platinum sales exceeding 15 million and received two Grammy nominations in 2004. Swami's follow-up album was So Who Am I on SonyBMG in 2005; the title track "DesiRock" embraced clubs the world over with DJ Swami’s unique left field electronic beats and anthemic bhangra melodies and reached wider audiences in the EA Games FIFA World Cup 2006 video game as well as the UK movie Mischief Night.
In 2005, Diamond won "Best Producer" at the UK Asian Music Awards. In June 2007, Diamond was listed in the official Guardian Glastonbury Festival Guide as one of the Top 5 acts to see at Glastonbury 2007 alongside Amy Winehouse and the Arctic Monkeys. In January 2008, Swami's album Equalize was voted album of the year by DesiHits.com. The album features mainstream collaborations from the USA, South Africa, France and India. In March 2008, as DJ Swami, he won "Best Producer" at the UK Asian Music Awards for a second time. In August 2008, Swami's "Hey Hey" music video received its Canadian premiere at Toronto's FILMI South Asian Film Festival. In April 2010, Diamond won SAMA Best Mix Engineer at the South Africa Music Awards. In 2013, Diamond produced the single'Fire' for artist Viktor Kiraly reaching the number 1 chart position in Hungary's MAHASZ Top 40. In 2014, Diamond produced the second single'Running Out Of Time' for Viktor Kiraly featuring Run DMC reaching the number 1 chart position in Hungary's VIVA chart.
In 2015, Diamond completed production for Zoheb Hassan album Signature featuring the legendary vocals of his sister Nazia Hassan. In 2017, DJ Swami produced and toured the UK with new electronic meets Punjabi folk project PunjabTronix as part of the ReImagine India cultural exchange programme. Sub Culture Vol. 1 Sub Culture Vol. 2 Doggy – "Psyche" Demonik – "Labyrinthe" The Badman – "Magic Style/Shape Dancing" The Badman Presents N. D. X. – "Come With Me/Higher than Heaven" Aretha Daye – "No More" Apache Indian – No Reservations Apache Indian – "Arranged Marriage" Apache Indian – "Chok There" Louie Rankin – "Typewriter" Johnny Zee – "Cum Be My Lover" Dillinger – "Cokane in My Brain" Erasure – "Run to the Sun" The Beat – "Mirror in the Bathroom" Raise – "I Got It" Stereo Nation – "I’ve Been Waiting" Stereo Nation – Jambo Swami – Desi Nu Skool Beatz Swami – "Transmission" Taz – Nasha Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan – Redefined Pure Garage Volume 2 Shania Twain – Up! Swami – BhangraDo
BBC Radio 1
BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation which broadcasts internationally, specialising in modern popular music and current chart hits throughout the day. Radio 1 provides alternative genres after 7 pm, including electronica, hip hop and indie; the choice of music and presenting style is that of programme hosts, however those who present in the daytime have to rotate a number of songs a specific number of times per week. It was launched in 1967 to meet the demand for music generated by pirate radio stations, when the average age of the UK population was 27; the BBC claim that they target the 15–29 age group, the average age of its UK audience since 2009 is 30. BBC Radio 1 started 24-hour broadcasting on 1 May 1991. Radio 1 was established in 1967 as a successor to the BBC Light Programme, which had broadcast popular music and other entertainment since 1945. Radio 1 was conceived as a direct response to the popularity of offshore pirate radio stations such as Radio Caroline and Radio London, outlawed by Act of Parliament.
Radio 1 was launched at 6:55 am on Saturday 30 September 1967. Broadcasts were on 247 metres high wave, using a network of transmitters which had carried the Light Programme. Most were of comparatively low power, at less than 50 kilowatts, leading to patchy coverage of the country; the first disc jockey to broadcast on the new station was Tony Blackburn, whose cheery style, first heard on Radio Caroline and Radio London, won him the prime slot on what became known as the "Radio 1 Breakfast Show". The first words on Radio 1 – after a countdown by the Controller of Radios 1 and 2, Robin Scott, a jingle, recorded at PAMS in Dallas, beginning "The voice of Radio 1" – were: And, good morning everyone. Welcome to the exciting new sound of Radio 1; this was the first use of US-style jingles on BBC radio, but the style was familiar to listeners who were acquainted with Blackburn and other DJs from their days on pirate radio. The reason jingles from PAMS were used was that the Musicians' Union would not agree to a single fee for the singers and musicians if the jingles were made "in-house" by the BBC.
The first music to be heard on the station was "Theme One", specially composed for the launch by George Martin. It was followed by an extract from "Beefeaters" by Johnny Dankworth; the first complete record played on Radio 1 was "Flowers in the Rain" by The Move, the number 2 record in that week's Top 20. The second single was "Massachusetts" by The Bee Gees; the breakfast show remains the most prized slot in the Radio 1 schedule, with every change of breakfast show presenter exciting considerable media interest. The initial rota of staff included John Peel and a gaggle of others, some transferred from pirate stations, such as Keith Skues, Ed Stewart, Mike Raven, David Ryder, Jim Fisher, Jimmy Young, Dave Cash, Kenny Everett, Simon Dee, Terry Wogan, Duncan Johnson, Doug Crawford, Tommy Vance, Chris Denning, Emperor Rosko, Pete Murray, Bob Holness. Many of the most popular pirate radio voices, such as Simon Dee, had only a one-hour slot per week Initially, the station was unpopular with some of its target audience who, it is claimed, disliked the fact that much of its airtime was shared with Radio 2 and that it was less unequivocally aimed at a young audience than the offshore stations, with some DJs such as Jimmy Young being in their 40s.
The fact that it was part of an "establishment" institution such as the BBC was a turn-off for some, needle time restrictions prevented it from playing as many records as offshore stations had. It had limited finances and as in January 1975, suffered disproportionately when the BBC had to make financial cutbacks, strengthening an impression that it was regarded as a lower priority by senior BBC executives. Despite this, it gained massive audiences, becoming the most listened-to station in the world with audiences of over 10 million claimed for some of its shows. In the early-mid-1970s Radio 1 presenters were out of the British tabloids, thanks to the Publicity Department's high-profile work; the touring summer live broadcasts called the Radio 1 Roadshow – as part of the BBC'Radio Weeks' promotions that took Radio 1, 2 and 4 shows on the road – drew some of the largest crowds of the decade. The station undoubtedly played a role in maintaining the high sales of 45 rpm single records although it benefited from a lack of competition, apart from Radio Luxembourg and Manx Radio in the Isle of Man..
Alan Freeman's'Saturday Rock Show' was voted'Best Radio Show' five years running by readers of a national music publication, was axed by controller Derek Chinnery. Annie Nightingale, who joined in 1970, was Britain's first female DJ and is now the longest serving presenter, having evolved her musical tastes with the times. On Thursday 23 November 1978 the station moved to two new medium wave frequencies which allowed a major increase in transmitter powers and improved coverage of the UK. 247 metres was passed to Radio 3. The station was on medium wave only until the early 80s, when it took over the Radio 2 FM frequency for a number of hours on weekend afternoons and late weekday evenings; the BBC set up an FM channel specifically
Virgin Records Ltd. is a British record label founded by entrepreneurs Richard Branson, Simon Draper, Nik Powell, musician Tom Newman in 1972. It grew to be a worldwide phenomenon over time, with the success of platinum performers such as George Michael, Paula Abdul, Janet Jackson, Roy Orbison, Tangerine Dream, Keith Richards, the Human League, Culture Club, Simple Minds, Lenny Kravitz, dc Talk, the Smashing Pumpkins, Mike Oldfield and Spice Girls, among others. After its acquisition by Universal Music Group through its purchase of EMI in 2012, UMG absorbed Virgin's British operations to create Virgin EMI Records in March 2013. Today, the operations of Virgin Records America, Inc. the company's North American operations founded in 1986, are still active and headquartered in Hollywood and have operated under the Capitol Music Group imprint owned by UMG, since 2007. The US operations have taken on the name Virgin Records. A minor number of artists remain on Virgin Records America's roster, mostly occupied with European artists such as Bastille, Circa Waves, Corinne Bailey Rae, Ella Eyre, Walking on Cars, Seinabo Sey, Prides.
Branson and Powell had run a small record shop called Virgin Records and Tapes on Notting Hill Gate, specializing in "krautrock" imports, offering bean bags and free vegetarian food for the benefit of customers listening to the music on offer. The first real store was above a shoe shop at the Tottenham Court Road end of Oxford Street. After making the shop into a success, they turned their business into a fledged record label; the name Virgin, according to Branson, arose from Tessa Watts, a colleague of his, when they were brainstorming business ideas. She suggested Virgin – as they were all new to business – like "virgins"; the original Virgin logo was designed by English artist and illustrator Roger Dean: a young naked woman in mirror image with a large long-tailed serpent and the word "Virgin" in Dean's familiar script. A variation on the logo was used for the spin-off Caroline Records label; the first release on the label was the progressive rock album Tubular Bells by multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield, discovered by Tom Newman and brought to Simon Draper – who persuaded Richard and Nik to present it as their first release in 1973, produced by Tom Newman, for which the fledgling label garnered unprecedented acclaim.
This was soon followed by some notable krautrock releases, including electronic breakthrough album Phaedra by Tangerine Dream, The Faust Tapes and Faust IV by Faust. The Faust Tapes album retailed for 49p and as a result allowed this unknown band to reach number 12 in the album charts. Other early albums include Gong's Flying Teapot, which Daevid Allen has been quoted as having never been paid for; the first single release for the label was Kevin Coyne's "Marlene", taken from his album Marjory Razorblade and released in August 1973. Coyne was the second artist signed to the label after Oldfield. Although Virgin was one of the key labels of English and European progressive rock, the 1977 signing of the Sex Pistols reinvented the label as a new-wave outpost, a move that plunged the record company into the mainstream of the punk rock era. Under the guidance of Tessa Watts, Virgin's Head of Publicity, the Pistols rocketed the label to success. Shortly afterwards, the Nottingham record shop was raided by police for having a window display of the Sex Pistols' album Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols in the window.
Afterwards they signed other new wave groups: Public Image Ltd, Culture Club, Gillan and the Italians, Human League, Skids, the Motors, the Ruts, Shooting Star, Simple Minds, XTC. After modified versions of the twins label came the red and blue design introduced in 1975, which coincided with the height of punk and new wave; the current Virgin logo was created in 1978, commissioned by Simon Draper managing director of Virgin Records Limited. Brian Cooke of Cooke Key Associates commissioned a graphic designer to produce a stylised signature; the logo was first used on Mike Oldfield's Incantations album in 1978 and by the Virgin Records label until other parts of the Virgin Group adopted it, including Virgin Atlantic, Virgin Mobile and Virgin Money. In 1983 Virgin purchased Charisma Records, renaming it Charisma/Virgin later Virgin/Charisma, before folding the label in 1986 and transferring its remaining artists to Virgin. In the process they acquired comedy group Monty Python; the Charisma label was reactivated in the US in 1990 and enjoyed success with signings such as Maxi Priest, Right Said Fred, 38 Special and Enigma.
When this Charisma label was retired in 1992, all of its artists were, as before, transferred to Virgin. In 1987, Venture Records was created for new age and modern classical artists including Klaus Schulze, associated with Virgin since the early 1970s. 10 Records Immortal Records Delabel Caroline Records was a budget label used from 1973 to 1977. The name and