Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the emperors Tiberius, Claudius and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors; these two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus, in 14 AD, to the years of the First Jewish–Roman War, in 70 AD. There are substantial lacunae in the surviving texts, including a gap in the Annals, four books long. Tacitus' other writings discuss oratory and the life of his father-in-law, the general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain focusing on his campaign in Britannia. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians, he lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics. Details about his personal life are scarce.
What little is known comes from scattered hints throughout his work, the letters of his friend and admirer Pliny the Younger, an inscription found at Mylasa in Caria. Tacitus was born in 57 to an equestrian family. One scholar's suggestion of Sextus has gained no approval. Most of the older aristocratic families failed to survive the proscriptions which took place at the end of the Republic, Tacitus makes it clear that he owed his rank to the Flavian emperors; the claim that he was descended from a freedman is derived from a speech in his writings which asserts that many senators and knights were descended from freedmen, but this is disputed. His father may have been the Cornelius Tacitus who served as procurator of Germania. There is no mention of Tacitus suffering such a condition, but it is possible that this refers to a brother—if Cornelius was indeed his father; the friendship between the younger Pliny and Tacitus leads some scholars to conclude that they were both the offspring of wealthy provincial families.
The province of his birth remains unknown, though various conjectures suggest Gallia Belgica, Gallia Narbonensis or Northern Italy. His marriage to the daughter of Narbonensian senator Gnaeus Julius Agricola implies that he came from Gallia Narbonensis. Tacitus' dedication to Lucius Fabius Justus in the Dialogus may indicate a connection with Spain, his friendship with Pliny suggests origins in northern Italy. No evidence exists, that Pliny's friends from northern Italy knew Tacitus, nor do Pliny's letters hint that the two men had a common background. Pliny Book 9, Letter 23 reports that, when he was asked if he was Italian or provincial, he gave an unclear answer, so was asked if he was Tacitus or Pliny. Since Pliny was from Italy, some infer that Tacitus was from the provinces Gallia Narbonensis, his ancestry, his skill in oratory, his sympathetic depiction of barbarians who resisted Roman rule have led some to suggest that he was a Celt. This belief stems from the fact that the Celts who had occupied Gaul prior to the Roman invasion were famous for their skill in oratory, had been subjugated by Rome.
As a young man, Tacitus studied rhetoric in Rome to prepare for a career in law and politics. In 77 or 78, he married daughter of the famous general Agricola. Little is known of their domestic life, save that Tacitus loved the outdoors, he started his career under Vespasian, but entered political life as a quaestor in 81 or 82 under Titus. He advanced through the cursus honorum, becoming praetor in 88 and a quindecimvir, a member of the priestly college in charge of the Sibylline Books and the Secular games, he gained acclaim as an orator. He served in the provinces from c. 89 to c. 93, either in command of a legion or in a civilian post. He and his property survived Domitian's reign of terror, but the experience left him jaded and ashamed at his own complicity, giving him the hatred of tyranny evident in his works; the Agricola, chs. 44–45, is illustrative: Agricola was spared those years during which Domitian, leaving now no interval or breathing space of time, but, as it were, with one continuous blow, drained the life-blood of the Commonwealth...
It was not long before our hands dragged Helvidius to prison, before we gazed on the dying looks of Mauricus and Rusticus, before we were steeped in Senecio's innocent blood. Nero turned his eyes away, did not gaze upon the atrocities which he ordered. From his seat in the Senate, he became suffect consul in 97 during the reign of Nerva, being the first of his family to do so. During his tenure, he reached the height of his fame as an orator when he delivered the funeral oration for the famous veteran soldier Lucius Verginius Rufus. In the following year, he wrote and published the Agricola and Germania, foreshadowing the literary endeav
Runestones at Aspa
The Runestones at Aspa are four runestones located at Aspa, about six kilometers north of Runtuna, Södermanland, where a road has passed a creek since prehistoric times. One of the stones Sö Fv1948. Another stone Sö 137 is raised in memory of a Viking. Aspa was the location of the local assembly called the Tingshögen for the Rönö Hundred administrative area until 1600, the newly elected king passed the stones during his Eriksgata; the Eriksgata was the traditional journey of the newly elected medieval Swedish kings through the important provinces to have their election confirmed by the local assemblies. The actual election took place at the Stone of Mora in Uppland. Runestones at other locations that tradition holds were associated with the Eriksgata include U 793 at Ulunda and Vg 4 at Stora Ek. There were several runestones and standing stones erected at the Tingshögen, but today only a few remain, some of these were recovered from having been reused as construction materials at a bridge; the inscription on this stone consists of bound columns of text within bands that end in snake heads, may be indicative of the influence of earlier Danish inscriptions on decorated runestones in Sweden.
This granite runestone, 2.07 meters in height, is classified as being carved in runestone style Fp, the classifiecation for inscriptions with bands that end in animal heads. It was raised in memory of a two men; the runic text says. The runestone was found in 1937 during trench work near a bridge and was moved adjacent to Sö 141; the stone was located at the Tingshögen, reused at the bridge. The Rundata designation for this Södermanland inscription, Sö Fv1948. Ostriþ: lit: -ira: ku......usi ÷ at: anunt ÷ auk: raknualt: sun: sin ÷: urþu: ta...ʀ: - an...-...u: ua-u: rikiʀ: o rauniki: ak: snialastiʀ: i: suiþiuþu Astrið let æra kumusi at Anund ok Ragnvald, sun sinn. Urðu daʀ Danku, vau rikiʀ a Rauningi ok sniallastiʀ i Sveþiuðu. Astrid had this memorial made after her son. Died in Denmark, were powerful in Rauningi and the ablest in Sweden. Runestone Sö 136 was documented during the surveys of runestones conducted in the late 17th century, but has since been lost; the inscription, however, is known from records.
It is classified as having been carved in runestone style Pr1. Svæinn ok Sloði þæiʀ ræisþu......... at faður sinn, hærsi hugsniallan. Hann vas und hifni bæztr. Sveinn and Slóði, they raised......... in memory of their father, an able-minded chieftain He was the best under heaven. This granite runestone, 2 meters in height, is classified as being carved in runestone style RAK, the classification for inscriptions with bands that are straight and do not end in animal heads, it was engraved with staveless runes. In the last row all the words but the last one were written with staveless runes. Sö 137 is considered to be one of the Viking runestones; the runic inscription emphasizes that the stone was located at the Tingshögen. A þura: raisþi: stin: þ--si at: ubi: buanti: sin B: stain: saʀ:si: stanr: at: ybi: o þik*staþi: at ¶: þuru: uar: han: uestarla: uakti: karla ¶ * sunr þaþ * raknasuatauimaʀ A Þora ræisþi stæin þsi at Øpi, boanda sinn. B Stæinn saʀsi standr at Øpi a þingstaði at Þoru ver. Hann vestarla væknti karla, sa þaʀ sunʀ það....
A Þóra raised this stone in memory of her husbandman. B This stone stands on the Assembly-place in memory of Þóra's husband, he armed men in the west. The son saw this there... This granite runestone, 2.1 meters in height, is classified as being carved in runestone style Fp. Similar to Sö 138, it has runic text written in the present tense, was originally located at the Tingshögen.: hiar: stainr: stin: at: kuþan: ybis: arfa: ak: þurunaʀ kylu: broþurs: kuþ hialbin: at: Hier stændr stæinn at goðan Øpis arfa ok Þorunnaʀ, Gyllu broðurs. Guð hialpin and. Here stands the stone in memory of Œpir's and Þórunnr's good heir, Gylla's brother. May God help spirit; this granite runestone was raised by two parents in memory of their son and has a Christian cross near the top of the inscription. The reference to bridge-building in the runic text is common in runestones during this time period; some are Christian references related to the soul passing the bridge into the afterlife. At this time, the Catholic Church sponsored the building of roads and bridges through the use of indulgences in return for the church's intercession for the soul of the departed.
There are many examples of these bridge stones dated from the 11th century, including runic inscriptions Sö 101, U 489, U 617. Sloþi auk * rahnfriþ * þau * litu * biþi * bro * kara * a... *...in * ra-n * eftiʀ ihulbiarn * sun sin * Sloði ok Ragnfriðr þau letu baði bro gæra o sin ræsa æftiʀ Igulbiorn, sun sinn. Slóði and Ragnfríðr, they both had the bridge made and the stone raised in memory of Ígulbjôrn, their son. Runeindskrifter fra Södernmanland - Drawing of Sö 136 Photograph of side A of Sö 137. An English Dictionary of Runic Inscriptions of the Younger Futhark, at the university of Nottingham
De origine actibusque Getarum, or the Getica, written in Late Latin by Jordanes in or shortly after 551 AD, claims to be a summary of a voluminous account by Cassiodorus of the origin and history of the Gothic people, now lost. However, the extent to which Jordanes used the work of Cassiodorus is unknown, it is significant as the only remaining contemporaneous resource that gives the full story of the origin and history of the Goths. Another aspect of this work is the customs of Slavs; the Getica begins with a geography/ethnography of the North of Scandza. He lets the history of the Goths commence with the emigration of Berig with three ships from Scandza to Gothiscandza, in a distant past. In the pen of Jordanes, Herodotus' Getian demi-god Zalmoxis becomes a king of the Goths. Jordanes tells how the Goths sacked "Troy and Ilium" just after they had recovered somewhat from the war with Agamemnon, they are said to have encountered the Egyptian pharaoh Vesosis. The less-fictional part of Jordanes' work begins when the Goths encounter Roman military forces in the 3rd century AD.
The work concludes with the defeat of the Goths by the Byzantine general Belisarius. Jordanes concludes the work by stating that he writes to honour those who were victorious over the Goths after a history of 2030 years; because the original work of Cassiodorus has not survived, the work of Jordanes is one of the most important sources for the period of the migration of the European tribes, the Ostrogoths and Visigoths in particular, from the 3rd century CE. Cassiodorus had claimed to have the Gothic "folk songs" — carmina prisca — as an important source, its main purpose was to give the Gothic ruling class a glorious past, to match the past of the senatorial families of Roman Italy. Jordanes stated. A controversial passage identifies the ancient people of Venedi mentioned by Tacitus, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy, with the Slavs of the 6th century; as early as 1844, it has been used by eastern European scholars to support the idea of the existence of a Slavic ethnicity long before the last phase of the Late Roman period.
Others have rejected this view, based on the absence of concrete archaeological and historiographical data. The book is important to some medieval historians because it mentions the campaign in Gaul of one Riothamus, "King of the Brettones,", a possible source of inspiration for the early stories of King Arthur. One of the major questions concerning the historicity of the work is whether the identities mentioned are as ancient as stated or date from a time; the evidence allows a wide range of views, the most skeptical being that the work is mythological, or if Jordanes did exist and is the author, that he describes peoples of the 6th century only. According to the latter, his main source's credibility is questionable for a number of reasons. First, the originality of his main source, Cassiodorus, is debatable because large part of it consists of culling of ancient Greek and Latin authors for descriptions of peoples who might have been Goths. Not only that but it seems that Jordanes has distorted Cassiodorus's narrative by presenting us a cursory abridgement of the latter, mixed with 6th century ethnic names.
Some scholars claim, that while acceptance of Jordanes at face value may be too naive, a skeptical view is not warranted. For example, Jordanes says that the Goths originated in Scandinavia 1490 BC. Austrian historian Herwig Wolfram, believes that there might be a kernel of truth in that claim, if we assume that a clan of the Gutae left Scandinavia long before the establishment of the Amali in the leadership of the Goths; this clan might have contributed to the ethnogenesis of the Gutones in east Pomerania. Another example is the name of the king Cniva which David S. Potter thinks is genuine because, since it doesn't appear in the fictionalized genealogy of Gothic kings given by Jordanes, he must have found it in a genuine 3rd-century source. Danish scholar Arne Søby Christensen on the other hand claims that the Getica was an fabricated account, that the origin of the Goths in the book is a construction based on popular Greek and Roman myths as well as a misinterpretation of recorded names from Northern Europe.
The purpose of this fabrication, according to Christensen, was to establish a glorious identity for the peoples that had gained power in post-Roman Europe. Canadian scholar Walter Goffart suggests another incentive: Getica was part of a conscious plan by emperor Justinian and the propaganda machine at his court, he wanted to affirm that Goths did not belong to the Roman world, thus justifying the claims of the Eastern Roman Empire to the western part of the latter. The migration of the Goths from Scandinavia however bears some similarities with the story of the Gutasaga, which tells of an emigration, associated with the historical migration of the Goths during the Migration period: This Thielvar had a son called Hafthi, and Hafthi's wife was called Whitestar. Those two were the first to settle on Gotland; the first night they slept together. And it seemed to her, she told this dream to her husband Hafthi. He interpreted it thus: "All is bound with bangles, it will be inhabited, this land, we shall have three sons."
While still unborn, he gave them all names: "Guti will own Gotland, Graip will be the second, Gunfiaun third." These divided Gotland into three pa
Freyr, sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a attested god associated with sacral kingship and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology. Freyr is said to "bestow peace and pleasure on mortals". Freyr, sometimes referred to as Yngvi-Freyr, was associated with Sweden and seen as an ancestor of the Swedish royal house. In the Icelandic books the Poetic Edda and the Prose Edda, Freyr is presented as one of the Vanir, the son of the sea god Njörðr, as well as the twin brother of the goddess Freyja; the gods gave him the realm of the Elves, as a teething present. He rides the shining dwarf-made boar Gullinbursti and possesses the ship Skíðblaðnir which always has a favorable breeze and can be folded together and carried in a pouch when it is not being used. Freyr is known to have been associated with the horse cult, he kept sacred horses in his sanctuary at Thrandheim in Norway. He has the servants Skírnir and Beyla; the most extensive surviving Freyr myth relates Freyr's falling in love with the female jötunn Gerðr.
She becomes his wife but first Freyr has to give away his sword which fights on its own "if wise be he who wields it." Although deprived of this weapon, Freyr defeats the jötunn Beli with an antler. However, lacking his sword, Freyr will be killed by the fire jötunn Surtr during the events of Ragnarök. Like other Germanic deities, veneration of Freyr is revived in the modern period in Heathenry movement. Written around 1080, one of the oldest written sources on pre-Christian Scandinavian religious practices is Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum. Adam claimed to have access to first-hand accounts on pagan practices in Sweden, he refers to Freyr with the Latinized name Fricco and mentions that an image of him at Skara was destroyed by the Christian missionary, Bishop Egino. His description of the Temple at Uppsala gives some details on the god. In the account Adam states that when a marriage is performed a libation is made to the image of Fricco. Historians are divided on the reliability of Adam's account.
While he is close in time to the events he describes he has a clear agenda to emphasize the role of the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen in the Christianization of Scandinavia. His timeframe for the Christianization of Sweden conflicts with other sources, such as runic inscriptions and archaeological evidence does not confirm the presence of a large temple at Uppsala. On the other hand, the existence of phallic idols was confirmed in 1904 with a find at Rällinge in Södermanland, Sweden; when Snorri Sturluson was writing in 13th century Iceland, the indigenous Germanic gods were still remembered although they had not been worshiped for more than two centuries. In the Gylfaginning section of his Prose Edda, Snorri introduces Freyr as one of the major gods; this description has similarities to the older account by Adam of Bremen but the differences are interesting. Adam assigns control of the weather and produce of the fields to Thor but Snorri says that Freyr rules over those areas. Snorri omits any explicitly sexual references in Freyr's description.
Those discrepancies can be explained in several ways. It is possible that the Norse gods did not have the same roles in Icelandic and Swedish paganism but it must be remembered that Adam and Snorri were writing with different goals in mind. Either Snorri or Adam may have had distorted information; the only extended myth related about Freyr in the Prose Edda is the story of his marriage. The woman is a beautiful giantess. Freyr falls in love with her and becomes depressed and taciturn. After a period of brooding, he consents to talk to his foot-page, he tells Skírnir that he has fallen in love with a beautiful woman and thinks he will die if he cannot have her. He asks Skírnir to woo her for him; the loss of Freyr's sword has consequences. According to the Prose Edda, Freyr had to slew him with an antler, but the result at Ragnarök, the end of the world, will be much more serious. Freyr is fated to fight the fire-giant Surtr and since he does not have his sword he will be defeated. After the loss of his weapon Freyr still has two magical artifacts, both of them dwarf-made.
One is the ship Skíðblaðnir, which will have favoring breeze wherever its owner wants to go and can be folded together like a napkin and carried in a pouch. The other is the boar Gullinbursti. No myths involving Skíðblaðnir have come down to us but Snorri relates that Freyr rode to Baldr's funeral in a wagon pulled by Gullinbursti. Freyr is referred to several times in skaldic poetry. In Húsdrápa preserved in the Prose Edda, he is said to ride a boar to Baldr's funeral. In a poem by Egill Skalla-Grímsson, Freyr is called upon along with Njörðr to drive Eric Bloodaxe from Norway; the same skald mentions in Arinbjarnarkviða. In Nafnaþulur Freyr is said to ride the horse Blóðughófi. Freyr is mentioned in several of the poems in the Poetic Edda; the information there is consistent with that of the Prose Edda while each collection has some details not found in the other. Völuspá, the best known of the Eddic poems, describes the final confrontation between Freyr and Surtr during Ragnarök; some scholars have preferred a different translation, in which the sun shines "from the sword of the gods".
The idea is that the sword which Surtr slays Freyr with is the "sword of the gods" which Freyr had earlier bargained away for Gerðr. This would add a further layer of tragedy to the myth. Sigurður Nordal argued for this view but the possibility represented by Ursu
The Simris Runestones are two 11th-century runestones located at the vicarage of Simris, near Simrishamn, in southeasternmost Scania, Sweden. They were rediscovered in a church wall in 1716 during a restoration of the church. Although the territory was Danish at the time, they were made in the Swedish style of Uppland. One of the stones is notable in being one of the earliest native Scandinavian documents that mention Sweden; this runestone is dated to the second half of the 11th century as it is carved in runestone style Pr4, known as Urnes style, includes a design using serpent with its head depicted as seen from the side. Based on stylistic and rune-selection grounds, it has long been considered to have been made by a Swedish runemaster, it is 1.7 meters in height. This runestone was raised by Bjôrngeirr in memory of a brother called Hrafn who served a lord named Gunnulfr in Sweden; this runestone, together with the runestones Sö Fv1948. * biarngaiʀ × lit raisa * stain * þina * eftiʀ * rafn * broþur * sin * sun * kun--s * a suiþiuþu Biarngeʀ let resa sten þænna æftiʀ Rafn, broþur sin, swen Gunus a Sweþiuþu.
Bjôrngeirr had this stone raised in his brother, Gunnulfr's lad in Sweden. This runestone is dated to the first half of the 11th century and it is runestone style Fp and features text within a serpent with its head depicted as seen from overhead; the stone is 1.5 meters in height. Similar to DR 344, the runic inscription has long been considered to have been carved by a Swedish runemaster, it is believed to honor one of Canute the Great's warriors. Canute was king in Denmark from 1018 to 1035; the two other names mentioned in the runic text and Forkunnr, are personal names familiar in Sweden but not in Denmark during the Middle Ages, supporting the attribution of Swedish influence. × sigrif¶r: let * resa * sten: þensa: aiftiʀ * forkun: if--r * faþur: osulfs: triks: knus ¶ * hilbi: kuþ: on: hans Sigrefʀ let resa sten þænsa æftiʀ Forkun <if--r>,/æfʀ faþur Asulfs, drængs Knuts. Hialpi Guþ ond hans. Sigreifr had this stone raised in memory of Forkunn <if--r>,/ in memory of the father of Ásulfr, Knútr's valiant man.
May God help his spirit. Nielsen, Michael Lerche. "Swedish Influence in Danic Runic Inscriptions". In Düwel, Klaus. Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 127–148. ISBN 3-11-016978-9
The Gutes were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting the island of Gotland. The ethnonym is related to that of the Goths, both names were Proto-Germanic *Gutaniz, their language is called Gutnish. They are one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with historical Geats; the name of the Gutes in Old West Norse is Gotar, same as that used for the Goths. Old Norse sources such as the sagas do not distinguish between the Goths and the Gutes. In accordance, the Old East Norse term for both Goths and Gutes seems to have been Gutar. Only the Goths and Gutes bear this name among all the Germanic tribes if Geat is related; the fact that the ethnonym is identical to Goth may be the reason why they are not mentioned as a special group until Jordanes' Getica, where they may be those who are called Vagoths. However Ptolemy mentions the Goutai as living in the south of the island of Skandia, who could be identical to the Gutes, since the "ou"-sound in Ancient Greek corresponds to the Latin and Germanic "u".
The oldest history of the Gutes is retold in the Gutasaga. According to legend they descended from a man named Þjelvar, the first to discover Gotland. Þjelvar had a son named Hafþi. These two were the first to settle on Gotland. Hafþi and Hvitastjerna had three children, Guti and Gunfjaun. After the death of their parents, the brothers divided Gotland into three parts and each took one, but Guti remained the highest chieftain and gave his name to the land and its people, it is related that because of overpopulation one third of the Gutes had to emigrate and settle in southern Europe: Over a long time, the people descended from these three multiplied so much that the land couldn't support them all. They draw lots, every third person was picked to leave, they could keep everything they owned and take it with them, except for their land.... They went up the river Dvina, up through Russia, they went so far that they came to the land of the Greeks.... They settled there, live there still, still have something of our language.
Some scholars, as for instance Wessén, Hoffman etc. have argued that this tale might be a reminiscence of the migration of the Goths. Certain linguists, as for instance Elias Wessén, point out that there are similarities between Gothic and Gutnish that are not found elsewhere in the Germanic languages. One example is the use of the word lamb for both young and adult sheep, only seen in Gutnish and Gothic. Before the 7th century, the Gutes made a trade and defence agreement with Swedish kings, according to the Gutasaga; this seems to have been due to Swedish military aggression. Although the Gutes were victorious in these battles, they found it more beneficial to try to negotiate a peace treaty with the Swedes. Many kings made war on Gotland while it was heathen, but the Gutes always maintained victory and their rights; the Gutes were sending many messengers to Sweden, but none of them succeeded in negotiating a peace, till Awair Strabain from Alva parish. He was the first to make peace with the king of the Swedes.
As he was a smooth-tongued man, wise indeed and artful, as the stories of him go, he established a fixed treaty with the Swedish king: 60 marks of silver a year -, the tax for the Gutes - with 40 for the king, out of that sixty, the jarls to get 20. This amount had been decided by agreement of the whole land before he left. So the Gutes made a trade and defence agreement with the king of the Swedes of their own free will, that they might go anywhere in all areas dominated by the Swedes and unfettered by tolls or any duties. So too the Swedes could come to Gotland with no ban on the import of corn, or any other restrictions; the king was to help whenever they needed it and asked. The king would send messengers to the Gotland national assembly, the jarls to collect their tax; these messengers must proclaim freedom to the Gutes to travel in peace over the sea, to all places where the Swedish king held sway. And the same went for anyone travelling there to Gotland, it gives Awair Strabain as the man who arranged the mutually beneficial agreement with the king of Sweden and the event would have taken place before the end of the ninth century, when Wulfstan of Hedeby reported that the island was subject to the Swedes.
Because of Gotland's central position in the Baltic Sea, from early on the Gutes became a nation of traders and merchants. The amount of silver treasure, found in Gotlandic soil during the Viking Age surpasses that of all the other Swedish provinces counted together, which tells of a traders' nation of indisputable rank among the North Germanic tribes; the Gutes were the leading tradesmen in the Baltic sea until the rise of the Hanseatic League. The Gutes were traveling merchants at the same time: so-called farmenn; this was an exceptionally dangerous occupation during the Middle Ages, since the Baltic Sea was full of pirates. The Gutnish farmenn always had to be ready for battle; the division and organisation of the early Gutnish society shows a nation ready for war. The "ram" seems to have been an early symbol for the Gutes, is still seen on the Gotlandic coat of arms; the history of Gotland can be read in the book Gutasaga. The Gutasaga is a saga treating the history of Gotland prior to Christianity.
It was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm B. 64, dating to ca. 1350. It is kept in the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm together with the Gutalagen, the legal code of Gotland, it was written in the Old Gutnish dialect of Old Norse. Gutasaga Gotlanders The Gotlanders
The Suebi were a large group of related Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Semnones and others, sometimes including sub-groups referred to as Suebi. In the broadest sense, the Suebi are associated with the early Germanic tribal group Irminones mentioned by classical authors. Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome, they are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars. During the reign of Augustus, the Suebi expanded southwards at the expense of Gallic tribes, establishing a Germanic presence in the immediate areas north of the Danube. During this time, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni established the first confederation of Germanic tribes in Bohemia. Under the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni, under pressure from East Germanic tribes, invaded Italy.
By the Crisis of the Third Century, new Suebian groups had emerged, Italy was invaded again by the Juthungi, while the Alamanni ravaged Gaul and settled the Agri Decumates. The Alamanni continued exerting pressure on Gaul, while the Alamannic chieftain Chrocus played an important role in elevating Constantine the Great to Roman Emperor. By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and overran Hispania, where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi. During the last years of the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Suebian general Ricimer was its de facto ruler; the Lombards settled Italy and established the Kingdom of the Lombards. The Alammani and Thuringii who remained in Germania gave their name to the German regions of Swabia and Thuringia respectively; the Suebi are thought to encompass the High German cultures and dialects predominant in Southern Germany and Austria. Etymologists trace the name from Proto-Germanic *swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning "one's own" people or on the third-person reflexive pronoun.
The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as being from the same root: Suiones, Samnites and Sabines, indicating the possibility of a prior more extended and common Indo-European ethnic name, "our own people". Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups seem to have a name with this same meaning, but recorded with a different pronunciation by the Romans. Alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for "vagabond". Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii near modern Hesse, in the position where writers mention the Chatti, he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni; some commentators believe that Caesar's Suebi were the Chatti or the Hermunduri, or Semnones. Authors use the term Suebi more broadly, "to cover a large number of tribes in central Germany". While Caesar treated them as one Germanic tribe within an alliance, albeit the largest and most warlike one authors, such as Tacitus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo, specified that the Suevi "do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation.
They occupy more than half of Germania, are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all are called Suebi". Although no classical authors explicitly call the Chatti Suevic, Pliny the Elder, reported in his Natural History that the Irminones were a large grouping of related Germanic gentes or "tribes" including not only the Suebi, but the Hermunduri and Cherusci. Whether or not the Chatti were considered Suevi, both Tacitus and Strabo distinguish the two because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled; the definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania were not always consistent and clear in the case of mobile groups such as the Suevi. Whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones and Ingaevones, Pliny adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae and the Vandili; the Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi and Burgundians, an area that Tacitus treated as Suebic.
That the Vandals might be a separate type of Germanic people, corresponding to the modern concept of East Germanic, is a possibility that Tacitus noted, but for example the Varini are named as Vandilic by Pliny, Suebic by Tacitus. At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, that native name would replace the foreign name "Germans"; the modern term "Elbe Germanic" covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples that at least overlaps with the classical terms "Suevi" and "Irminones". However, this term was developed as an attempt to define the ancient peoples who must have spoken the Germanic dialects that led to modern Upper German dialects spoken in Austria, Thuringia, Baden-Württemberg and German speaking Switzerland; this was proposed by Friedrich Maurer as one of five major Kulturkreise or "culture-groups" whose dialects developed in the southern German area from the first century BC through to the fourth century AD.
Apart from his own linguistic work with modern dialects, he referred to the archaeological and literary analysis of Germanic tribes done earlier by Gustaf Kossinna In terms of these pr