Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A driver's license is an official document plastic and the size of a credit card, permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, truck, or bus on a public road. In most international agreements the wording driving permit is used, for instance in the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic; the term driver's license is American English. In this article, the American terminology and spelling is used but in country specific sections, the local spelling variant is used; the laws relating to the licensing of drivers vary between jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, a permit is issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires their permit before beginning to drive. Different categories of permit exist for different types of motor vehicles large trucks and passenger vehicles; the difficulty of the driving test varies between jurisdictions, as do factors such as age and the required level of competence and practice.
Karl Benz, inventor of the modern automobile, received a written "Genehmigung" from the Grand Ducal authorities to operate his car on public roads in 1888 after residents complained about the noise and smell of his Motorwagen. Up until the start of the 20th century, European authorities issued similar permits to drive motor vehicles ad hoc, if at all. Mandatory licensing for drivers came into force on 1 January 1904 after the Motor Car Act 1903 received royal assent in the United Kingdom; every car owner had to register their vehicle with their local government authority and be able to prove registration of their vehicle on request. The minimum qualifying age was set at 17; the "driving licence" gave its holder'freedom of the road' with a maximum 20 mph speed limit. Compulsory testing was introduced with the passing of the Road Traffic Act. Prussia a state within the German Empire, introduced compulsory licensing on 29 September 1903. A test on mechanical aptitude had to be passed and the Dampfkesselüberwachungsverein was charged with conducting these tests.
In 1910, the German imperial government mandated the licensing of drivers on a national scale, establishing a system of tests and driver's education requirements, adopted in other countries. In 1909, the Convention with Respect to the International Circulation of Motor Vehicles recognized the need for qualifications and authorization for international driving. In 1929, the notion of an "International Driving Permit" was first mooted in an international convention. In 1949, the United Nations hosted another convention on road traffic that standardised rules on roads, rules, driver's permits and such, it specified that national "driving permits" should be pink and that an "International Driving Permit" for driving in a number of countries should have "grey" covers with white pages and that "The entire last page shall be drawn up in French". In 1968, the Convention on road traffic, ratified in 1977 and further updated in 2011, further modernised these agreements, its main regulations about drivers permits are in Annex 6 and Annex 7.
The active version of those is in force in each contracting party no than "29 March 2011". Article 41 of the convention describes key requirements: every driver of a motor vehicle must hold appropriate documentation. Other countries in Europe introduced driving tests during the twentieth century, the last of them being Belgium where, until as as 1977, it was possible to purchase and hold a permit without having to undergo a driving test; as automobile-related fatalities soared in North America, public outcry provoked legislators to begin studying the French and German statutes as models. On August 1, 1910, North America's first licensing law for motor vehicles went into effect in the U. S. state of New York, though it applied only to professional chauffeurs. In July 1913, the state of New Jersey became the first to require all drivers to pass a mandatory examination before receiving a license. Many countries, including Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States, have
Swedish Rail Administration
The Swedish Rail Administration was a Swedish State administrative authority which acted as owner on behalf of the State and maintained all main railway lines in Sweden. Its headquarters was located in Borlänge; the Swedish Rail Administration was formed in 1988, when Swedish State Railways was split in two parts, leaving Statens Järnvägar as a train operator and as a real estate owner, only to be split again in 2001. The Swedish Railway Inspectorate was a part of the Swedish Rail Administration until 2004, when the Swedish Rail Agency was formed, taking over its responsibilities; that agency was in turn incorporated into the newly formed Swedish Transport Agency in 2009. In 2010, the Government directed a merger with the Swedish Road Administration to create the new Swedish Transport Administration, the subsidiary responsible for railway maintenance was spun off in a separate aktiebolag, Infranord. Jan Brandborn 1988-1995 Monica Andersson 1995-1997 Bo Bylund 1997-2005 Per-Olof Granbom 2006-2008 Minoo Akhtarzand 2008-2010 Official website
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles. In most cases, the engineered works will have a series of dams and locks that create reservoirs of low speed current flow; these reservoirs are referred to as slack water levels just called levels. A canal is known as a navigation when it parallels a river and shares part of its waters and drainage basin, leverages its resources by building dams and locks to increase and lengthen its stretches of slack water levels while staying in its valley. In contrast, a canal cuts across a drainage divide atop a ridge requiring an external water source above the highest elevation. Many canals have been built at elevations towering over valleys and other water ways crossing far below. Canals with sources of water at a higher level can deliver water to a destination such as a city where water is needed; the Roman Empire's aqueducts were such water supply canals. A navigation is a series of channels that run parallel to the valley and stream bed of an unimproved river.
A navigation always shares the drainage basin of the river. A vessel uses the calm parts of the river itself as well as improvements, traversing the same changes in height. A true canal is a channel that cuts across a drainage divide, making a navigable channel connecting two different drainage basins. Most commercially important canals of the first half of the 19th century were a little of each, using rivers in long stretches, divide crossing canals in others; this is true for many canals still in use. Both navigations and canals use engineered structures to improve navigation: weirs and dams to raise river water levels to usable depths. Since they cut across drainage divides, canals are more difficult to construct and need additional improvements, like viaducts and aqueducts to bridge waters over streams and roads, ways to keep water in the channel. There are two broad types of canal: Waterways: canals and navigations used for carrying vessels transporting goods and people; these can be subdivided into two kinds:Those connecting existing lakes, other canals or seas and oceans.
Those connected in a city network: such as the Canal Grande and others of Venice Italy. Aqueducts: water supply canals that are used for the conveyance and delivery of potable water for human consumption, municipal uses, hydro power canals and agriculture irrigation. Canals were of immense importance to commerce and the development and vitality of a civilization. In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of anthracite coal. The few canals still in operation in our modern age are a fraction of the numbers that once fueled and enabled economic growth, indeed were a prerequisite to further urbanization and industrialization – for the movement of bulk raw materials such as coal and ores are difficult and marginally affordable without water transport; such raw materials fueled the industrial developments and new metallurgy resulting of the spiral of increasing mechanization during 17th–20th century, leading to new research disciplines, new industries and economies of scale, raising the standard of living for any industrialized society.
The surviving canals, including most ship canals, today service bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical smaller inland waterways conceived and engineered as boat and barge canals have been supplanted and filled in, abandoned and left to deteriorate, or kept in service and staffed by state employees, where dams and locks are maintained for flood control or pleasure boating. Their replacement was gradual, beginning first in the United States in the mid-1850s where canal shipping was first augmented by began being replaced by using much faster, less geographically constrained & limited, cheaper to maintain railways. By the early 1880s, canals which had little ability to economically compete with rail transport, were off the map. In the next couple of decades, coal was diminished as the heating fuel of choice by oil, growth of coal shipments leveled off. After World War I when motor-trucks came into their own, the last small U. S. barge canals saw a steady decline in cargo ton-miles alongside many railways, the flexibility and steep slope climbing capability of lorries taking over cargo hauling as road networks were improved, which had the freedom to make deliveries well away from rail lined road beds or ditches in the dirt which couldn't operate in the winter.
Canals are built in one of three ways, or a combination of the three, depending on available water and available path: Human made streamsA canal can be created where no stream presently exists. Either the body of the canal is dug or the sides of the canal are created by making dykes or levees by piling dirt, concrete or other building materials; the finished shape of the canal as seen in cross section is known as the canal prism. The water for the canal must be provided like streams or reservoirs. Where the new waterway must change elevation engineering works like locks, lifts or elevators are constructed to raise and lower vessels. Examples include canals that connect valleys over a higher body of land, like Canal du Midi, Canal de Briare and the Panama Canal. A canal can be constructed by dredging a channel in the bottom of an existing lake; when the channel is complete, the lake is drained and the channel becom
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit
Borlänge is a locality in Dalarna County, Sweden. It is the seat of the Borlänge Municipality and has a total population of 51,604 inhabitants as of 2017. Borlänge was the name of a tiny village, the first historical information about it is from 1390; the village was insignificant up until about 1870. In 1875 a railway between Falun and Ludvika, via Borlänge was inaugurated and at the same time the construction of Domnarfvets Jernverk, the ironworks of neighbouring village Domnarvet, had started. Thanks to its railway station the village of Borlänge became important in servicing the ironworks. In 1898, Borlänge was granted privileges by the national Swedish government as a town of its own with about 1,300 inhabitants, but still today it belongs to the Church of Sweden's regionally dominant parish of Stora Tuna, centered on a large medieval cathedral by that name, now located in a rural district east of the city. In the 1900s, the Stora Kopparbergs Bergslag - the owner of the ironworks in Domnarvet at the time - built a papermill in an adjacent village to Borlänge called Kvarnsveden.
Many area residents emigrated to the United States in the late early 20th centuries. In 1944, the City of Borlänge was incorporated after the market town joined the industrial towns of Domnarvet and Kvarnsveden. In 1971 the municipality of Borlänge was established when the Stora Tuna municipality merged with the City of Borlänge. From the 1940s onward, the municipality has been dominated by the Social Democratic Party. In the early 1970s, the Kvarnsvedens Pappersbruk paper mill and the Domnarvets Jernverk steel mill had a high demand for employees. Between 1970-1974, the Tjärna Ängar Million Programme district was built. In the 1990s, Borlänge had the highest crime rate per thousand inhabitants, dominated by violence and theft. During all of the 20th century Borlänge has been a typical heavy industry community with good economic growth. According to the Borlänge Municipality, as of 2017, Borlänge has a population of 51,604 inhabitants. 11,693 residents in the city are of foreign origin. Of these individuals, 8,837 were born abroad and 2,856 were born in Sweden.
Most of the residents of foreign background come from Asia, other Nordic countries, other parts of Europe. According to the Borlänge Municipality, in the 1990s, most foreign-born residents of Borlänge arrived from Southern Europe, due to the civil wars in Yugoslavia. During the 2000s, immigrants in the city came from Somalia and Turkey; the Somalia-born immigrants arrived via family reunification. This migration had decreased by the following decade, with most newcomers in Borlänge now consisting of asylum immigrants from Syria and Eritrea; as of 2016, there are 472 refugees in the municipality, most of whom originate from Syria and Somalia. The newer asylum immigrants in the city emigrated from Syria and Eritrea; as of 2017, the most common countries of origin for total foreign-born individuals residing in Borlänge are Somalia, Syria, Turkey, Thailand, Iran and Norway. Borlänge's official districts and their inhabitants from 1975-2010: According to the Borlänge Municipality, many of the city's inhabitants with a foreign background live in the neighborhoods of Jakobsgårdarna and Tjärna Ängar.
An agreement between the Borlänge Municipality and the Swedish Migration Board to receive 30 refugees per year has contributed to the population growth, with many arriving via family reunification. Additionally, people have relocated to the city from other areas. Many are young, with few individuals older than 60 years of age. Over a five-year period, the number of inhabitants in Tjärna Ängar increased as 1,000 young persons relocated to the neighborhood; the new arrivals principally came from two or three foreign backgrounds, included university students and people who had emigrated from abroad. In its December 2015 report, the Swedish Police Authority placed the Borlänge's Tjärna Ängar district in the second highest category of urban areas with high crime rates. In the summer of 2016, there was widespread vandalism, cars were torched and when firefighters arrived, they were attacked with stones and had to wait for police to escort them in order to complete their mission; the Dalarna University College has student accommodation in the area where female students are sexually harassed by the local male youth on a regular basis and avoid going outdoors after sunset.
In a 2018 interview, the local police commissioner stated in an interview that clan leaders and religious leaders have taken over the leadership of the area, where 9 out of 10 are born abroad. Police has noted a change in 2017 when crime happens, nobody calls the police but the injured parties settle among themselves according to "an eye for an eye" in a parallel justice system. Although the official number of inhabitants are 3500, inofficially the population may be as high as 6000-10000, when water usage and the weight of generated household waste is analysed. Borlänge has always been an industrial town surrounding the iron mill of Domnarvet and the paper mill of Kvarnsveden; as a city with a structure divided by rails and roads, with a modern city center, Borlänge houses the head office for a state authority - the National Swedish Transport Administration Trafikverket. Borlänge promotes itself as a shopping centre in Dalarna; this is possible due to the Kupolen area, situated abo