Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, repaid by December 1990. The printed version consists of 20 volumes with 172,000 articles; the project was born in 1980, when a government committee suggested that negotiations be initiated with various publishers. This stage was finished in August 1985, when Bra Böcker in Höganäs became the publisher responsible for the project; the project specifications were for a modern reference work based on a scientific paradigm incorporating gender and environmental issues. Pre-orders for the work were unprecedented; the last volume came out in 1996, with three supplemental volumes in 2000. Associated with the Nationalencyklopedin project are also: NE:s Ordbok, a dictionary in three volumes NE:s Årsband, complementary volumes concerning current events and fast changing information distributed annually since 1997 NE:s Sverigeatlas, an atlas of Sweden NE:s Världsatlas, a world atlas NE-spelet, a quiz game with 8,000 questions In 1997, the first digital form of the encyclopedia was released on 6 CD-ROMs, in 2000 as an Internet subscription service.
The online version contains the dictionary as well as an updated version of the original encyclopedia. It has 356,000 entries; the service has been completed with several features not available in the printed version, such as a Swedish–English dictionary. Nordisk familjebok Swedish Wikipedia List of online encyclopedias Nationalencyklopedin - Official site Svenska uppslagsverk - Christofer Psilander's comprehensive bibliography on Swedish encyclopedias
VicTrack, the trading name of Victorian Rail Track Corporation, is a Victorian Government state-owned enterprise which owns all railway and tram lines, associated rail lands and other related rail-related infrastructure in the state of Victoria, with the exception of the heritage Puffing Billy Railway, owned by the Emerald Tourist Railway Board. VicTrack leases railway and tram land used for public transport to Public Transport Victoria which sub-leases the assets and infrastructure to rail and tram operators Australian Rail Track Corporation, Metro Trains Melbourne, V/Line and Yarra Trams. VicTrack retains responsibility for the freight lines around the Dynon Intermodal Freight Terminal, South Dynon Locomotive Depot and in North Melbourne. VicTrack carries out a range of commercial activities on railway land, including: property leasing and licensing of surplus railway land providing telecommunications services using surplus railway network capacity outdoor advertising commercial property development environmental programs on railway lands such as remediation of contaminated land.
In 2015, the Andrews Government formed the Level Crossing Removal Authority to oversee the removal of 50 level crossings on the Melbourne railway network by 2023. The Transport Integration Act 2010 provides that VicTrack's primary object is "to act as the custodial owner of the State's transport-related land and assets" consistent with the vision statement in the Act and objectives which emphasise transport integration and sustainability; the Act states that VicTrack's activities should be directed at supporting the transport system and other purposes which support Government policy. Victorian Rail Track was established on 1 July 1997 by the Rail Corporations Act 1996 to hold and maintain railway land and infrastructure in Victoria for the Government of Victoria. In 1999, the standard gauge tracks from Melbourne to Serviceton and to Albury were leased for five years to the newly formed Australian Rail Track Corporation; this was extended for another 10 years and in May 2008, for another 45 years.
As part of the extension, the rundown and underutilised broad gauge line from Seymour to Albury that paralleled the Melbourne to Sydney line, was converted to standard gauge. Included was construction of a five kilometre Wodonga Rail Bypass to eliminate 11 level crossings. In May 1999, a 45-year lease on the regional network was sold to Freight Victoria; the lease was included in the sale of the business to Pacific National in August 2004, before being bought back by the State Government in 2007. In July 2008, the line from Maroona to Portland was leased to the ARTC for 50 years with $15 million to be invested in the line; the line was handed over in March 2009. In August 1999, the office of Director of Public Transport was created in the Department of Transport to manage and regulate public transport in Victoria; the responsibilities of the Director included the entering into and management of franchising contracts with train and bus companies to provide public transport services in Melbourne and Victoria.
To further these goals, the Director leased the metropolitan and intrastate train and tram infrastructure and assets from VicTrack through the Metropolitan Infrastructure Head Lease, would sub-lease various assets to the various franchisees through Infrastructure Leases. On 2 April 2012, these functions of the Director were transferred to the newly created Public Transport Victoria, as were the leases; the Victorian Rail Track Corporation was re-established with a new corporate charter from 1 July 2010 by the Transport Integration Act 2010. The 2010 Act changed the name of the Rail Corporations Act 1996 to the Rail Management Act 1996. VicTrack is assets in Victoria. VicTrack leases the metropolitan and intrastate train and tram infrastructure and assets to Public Transport Victoria, which sub-leases the infrastructure and assets to the metropolitan train and tram operators and V/Line. PTV manages the obligations contained in the sub-leases on behalf of the State. Metro Trains Melbourne operates Melbourne's railway network of 837 km of track and is responsible for 215 railway stations.
V/Line operates to 91 railway stations and is track manager of the Victorian intrastate rail network outside of the ARTC and Metro Trains Melbourne sub-leases. Yarra Trams operates Melbourne's tram network of 250 km double track. ARTC sub-leases from PTV the interstate standard gauge railway tracks from Melbourne to Serviceton and to Albury. Official website
Banedanmark is a Danish company responsible for maintenance and traffic control of most of the Danish railway network. Branched off from DSB as a government agency in 1997. From 2004 to 2010 Banedanmark was a state-owned company under the Danish Ministry of Transport. In 2010 Banedanmark once again became a government agency under the Danish Ministry of Transport. In 2008, Banedanmark announced plans for the conversion of signalling across the entire national network to European Train Control System Level 2; this was necessitated by the near obsolete nature of parts of the network. In 2009 the Danish government approved funding of €3.3 billion over several years to Banedanmark for the project, with projected completion in 2021. This makes Denmark the first European country to attempt a complete conversion of a national network to ETCS Level 2. Official website Details on the company from the CVR register Ministry of Transport
Politics of Sweden
Politics of Sweden takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system; the Judiciary is independent, employed until retirement. Sweden is a monarchy. Sweden has a typical Western European history of democracy, beginning with the old Viking age Ting electing kings, ending with a regular royal power in the 14th century, that in periods became more or less democratic depending on the general European trends; the current democratic regime is a product of a stable development of successively added democratic institutions introduced during the 19th century up to 1921, when women's suffrage was introduced. The Government of Sweden has adhered to parliamentarism — de jure since 1975, de facto since 1917. Since the Great Depression, Swedish national politics has been dominated by the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which has held a plurality in parliament since 1917.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Sweden as "full democracy" in 2016. The Constitution of Sweden consists of four fundamental laws; the most important is the Instrument of Government of 1974 which sets out the basic principles of political life in Sweden, defining rights and freedoms. The Act of Succession is a treaty between the old Riksdag of the Estates and House of Bernadotte regulating their rights to accede to the Swedish throne; the four fundamental laws are: Instrument of Government Act of Succession Freedom of the Press Act Fundamental Law on Freedom of Expression King Carl XVI Gustaf of the House of Bernadotte became king in 1973. His authority is formal and representational. Heiress apparent to the throne is Crown Princess Victoria since 1980. Following the general elections held on 26 September 2014, Stefan Löfven of the Swedish Social Democratic Party was elected Prime Minister of Sweden by the new parliament on 2 October. Together with the Green Party, Löfven presides over a minority government.
The Deputy Prime Minister is Isabella Lövin of the Green Party. The highest executive authority of the State is vested in the Government, which consists of a Prime Minister and 22 Ministers who head the ministries; the Ministers are appointed at the sole discretion of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister is appointed following a vote in the Riksdag itself; the Monarch plays no part in this process. The only way to get rid of a government is through a motion of no confidence in the Riksdag; this motion must get a majority of the total number of votes in the Riksdag. Another example of the power the legislature has given the Government is the adoption of the budget in the Riksdag; the Government's proposition to budget is adopted, unless a majority of the members of the Riksdag vote against it. This is to make it possible to govern in minority; the unicameral Riksdag has 349 members, popularly elected every 4 years. It is in session from September through mid-June. Legislation may be initiated by members of the Riksdag.
Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation for a four-year term. The Riksdag can alter the Constitution of Sweden, but only with approval by a supermajority and confirmation after the following general elections; the Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading political role since 1917, after Reformists confirmed their strength and the revolutionaries left the party. After 1932, the Cabinets have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections have given the centre-right bloc enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government; this is considered one reason for the Swedish post-war welfare state, with a government expenditure of more than 50% of the gross domestic product. Swedish law, drawing on Germanic and Anglo-American law, is neither as codified as in France and other countries influenced by the Napoleonic Code, nor as dependent on judicial practice and precedents as in the United States. Courts: Civil and criminal jurisdiction Supreme Court or Högsta domstolen Courts of appeal or Hovrätter District courts or Tingsrätter Administrative Courts: Litigation between the Public and the Government.
The Supreme Administrative Court or Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen Administrative courts of appeal or Kammarrätter Administrative courts or Förvaltningsrätt Ombudsman: The Parliamentary Ombudsman or Justitieombudsmannen The Chancellor of Justice or Justitiekanslern Sweden has a history of strong political involvement by ordinary people through its "popular movements", the most notable being trade unions, the women's movement, the temperance movement, — more — sports movement. Election turnout in Sweden has always been high in international comparisons, although it has declined in recent decades, is around 87%; some Swedish political figures that have become known worldwide include Joe Hill, Carl Skoglund, Raoul Wallenberg, Folke Bernadotte, Dag Hammarskjöld, Olof Palme, Carl Bildt, Hans Blix, Anna Lindh. According to a survey investigation by the sociologist Jenny Hansson, Swedish national parliamentarians have an average work week of 66 hours, including side responsibilities. Hansson's investigation further reports that the average Swedish national parliamentarian sleeps 6.5 hours per night.
Sweden is divided
Railways of Slovak Republic
Not to be confused with Slovenske železnice. Railways of the Slovak Republic is the state-owned railway infrastructure company in Slovakia; the company was established in 1993 as the successor of the Československé státní drahy in Slovakia. Until 1996 it had formal and since a de facto monopoly on railroad transportation in the country. In 2002 a law divided the company: ŽSR was left with infrastructure maintenance, transport was moved into company "Železničná spoločnosť, a. s.". In 2005 this new company was further split into "Železničná spoločnosť Slovensko, a. s." providing passenger services and "Železničná spoločnosť Cargo Slovakia, a. s." providing freight services. ŽSR provides transportation and services that correspond to the interests of state transport policy and market requirements, including related activities Railway has become an important prerequisite for economic and social development of the country. In 1837 the construction of the first European Railway Highway started, its construction became a potential threat to market of agricultural goods and timber from western Slovakia.
Therefore, a company was founded to build a horse railway that would link the five royal cities between Bratislava and Trnava. The service was providing until the first half of the 19th century. At beginning, the construction of the railway was in the hands of the state. In year 1854, the state entrusted railway building to private entrepreneurs; the intensity of construction changed after settlement in 1867. Ministry of Transport and Public Works was established, its main objective was construction of transport communications independent of Austria. In Slovakia this meant extensive construction of railways. In the period between 1867 and 1873 a number of major railways were built: Košice – Žilina – Bohumín Pešť – Fiľakovo – Lučenec – Zvolen – Vrútky Michaľany – Humenné – Medzilaborce – Lupkov – Przemysl Košice – Michaľany – Slovenské Nové Mesto – Čop Bratislava – Trenčín Prešov – Orlov – Tarnov Fiľakovo – Plešivec – Dobšiná, Jesenské – TisovecHungary tried to use private capital for railway construction.
The lack of funds threatened the construction of railways and Hungary started in 1868 to build railways on its own. The railway construction was accompanied by a series of scandals and corruption affairs among aristocracy and businessmen. In spite of this fact, the basis of the railway network was set up in short time. Bankruptcy of the Vienna stock exchange was the beginning of an economic crisis affecting the economy of the monarchy throughout the first half of the 70th of the 19th century. Changing economic circumstances was reflected on the further construction of railways. During this period, the country was aware of the strategic importance of railway transportation for economy and policy; the state responded to the situation with a number of actions: stopped the construction of expensive railways and created legal conditions for the construction of local railways. After the formation of Czechoslovakia, the most important task was to maintain and run the rail network defined by the new boundaries.
Two divisions, which were set up in the cities Košice and Bratislava, were responsible for the network managing. Slovakia inherited rail network, insufficient for the new state requirements; the only one efficient line was Košice-Bohumín. The state therefore decided to take over the operation of all private railways and extend the rail lines; the pressure of competition from the road freight transport stimulated further developments. The speed of freight trains was increased up to 70 km/h by applying continuous braking. Significant progress in passenger traffic was achieved by motorization of local railways. On 3 March 1939 the Slovak State was established. However, it was dependent on Germany; the war caused high intensity of freight transport. The key role was played by export of raw materials and food products. Passenger transport was characterized by extensive seasonal movements of agricultural and industrial workers from Poland, Slovakia and Russia travelling to the Germany. After the World War II, Czechoslovakia was renewed.
The first task needed to be solved was the reconstruction of the rail network. In the 1948, the regime of communism began. All private railways were nationalized; the overloaded line Čierna nad Tisou – Košice Žilina – Bohumín was the drive to extend the rail network on the South of Slovakia. At the same time, the electrification of railways was carried out; the new constitution in 1960 defined Czechoslovakia as a socialist state. Rail transport was marked on Joseph Stalin's conception of "iron and steel". There was strong emphasis on transport of raw materials, building materials and food. Industrialization had a significant impact on the growth of passenger transport—people traveled to work and school over large distances; the growth in intensity caused imbalance between demand and technical capabilities. The situation became relaxed during the 1970s due to the development of individual car transport and the intensity of rail transport started declining. On 1 January 1993 Slovak Republic became independent.
At the same time, the Railways of Slovak Republic were established. The bad initial situation requested measures to execute consolidation as quick as possible; the most important was to create conditions for privatization and to optimize rail activity for business requirements. The strategic objective was to provide access to European Union trade market and capitalize on convenient territory of Slovak Republic and its touristic attractiveness; the governing bodies of ŽSR are the Management General Director. The Management Board is the top body of the railways, it has nine members—six members of them are exper
Getlink Groupe Eurotunnel, is a public company which manages and operates the Channel Tunnel between England and France, including the Eurotunnel Shuttle vehicle services, earns revenue on other trains through the tunnel. It is listed on both the Euronext London and Euronext Paris markets, was listed on the London Stock Exchange until 19 July 2012; the company is based in Paris. The railway operation has 50.45 kilometres of double track railway in the main tunnels, plus extensive surface level terminal facilities at Folkestone in England and at Calais in France. Signalling and electric traction supply at 25 kV AC are under Getlink control. Train operation consists of shuttle trains conveying cars and coaches and other trains conveying heavy goods vehicles between the two terminals. Other trains using Getlink infrastructure are operated by the respective owners. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company was formed on 13 August 1986, with the objective of financing and operating a tunnel between England and France.
The company awarded a contract for the construction of the tunnel to TransManche Link. The tunnel cost around £9.5bn to build, about double TML's original estimate of £4.7bn. The tunnel was financed from investment by shareholders and from £8bn of debt, was opened on 6 May 1994 by Queen Elizabeth II, President François Mitterrand. In its first year of operation, the company lost £925m because of disappointing revenue from passengers and freight, together with heavy interest charges on its £8bn of debt. In April 2004, a dissident shareholder group led by Nicolas Miguet succeeded in taking control of the board. However, in February 2005, Jean-Louis Raymond, the Chief Executive appointed after the boardroom coup and Jacques Gounon took complete control becoming Chairman and Chief Executive. In July 2006, shareholders voted on a deal which would have seen half the debt, by reduced to £6.2bn, exchanged for 87% of the equity. However this plan failed, on 2 August 2006, the company was placed into bankruptcy protection by a French court for six months.
In May 2007, a new restructuring plan was approved by shareholders, whereby Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs and Citigroup agreed to provide £2.8bn of long term funding, the balance of the debt being exchanged for equity, the shareholders agreed to waive the unlimited free travel and other perks that they had enjoyed. In June 2007, the company entered into a partnership through subsidiary Europorte 2 with the Port of Dunkirk relating to rail freight traffic. Following the restructuring, Eurotunnel was able to announce a small net profit in 2007, of €1 million, for the first time in its existence. Half year earnings for 2008 rose to €26 million; the net profit for 2008 was €40 million, despite the costs associated with traffic loss from September 2008 to February 2009, following a fire in the tunnel, this allowed Eurotunnel to issue its first dividend of €0.04 per euro value. The return to financial health allowed the company to announce on 28 October 2009, the anticipated voluntary redemption of some of its convertible debt.
By anticipating to November 2009 the reimbursement of debt due in July 2010, it aimed to issue up to 119.4 million new ordinary shares, thus shore up its capital while reducing its debt load. In December 2009, the company and SNCF acquired Veolia Cargo; the company took over French operations: Veolia Cargo France, Veolia Cargo Link and CFTA Cargo are expected to be rebranded Europorte France, Europorte Link and Europorte proximity and become part of its Europorte freight business. Socorail has not been announced as being rebranded. In January 2010, the Port of Dunkirk awarded the company a seven year concession, to operate its 200 km railway system. In June 2010, the company acquired British railfreight company First GBRf for £31 million from FirstGroup, to be merged into its Europorte, it was rebranded GB Railfreight On 11 June 2012, a bid by the company for three Channel ferries belonging to the former operator SeaFrance for lease to another operator was accepted. Eurotunnel acquired the assets of SeaFrance ferries Berlioz and Nord Pas-de-Calais.
They were chartered to start the MyFerryLink ferry company on 20 August 2012. In the year 2015, statistics estimate that over 10.5 million passengers travelled on the Eurotunnel with 2,556,585 cars, 58,387 coaches and 1,483,741 goods vehicles making use of Eurotunnel's services. In November 2017, Groupe Eurotunnel was rebranded Getlink; the company operates shuttle services with Eurotunnel Class 9 locomotives. Europorte operates freight trains in France, as well as the cross channel freight services performed by Europorte 2 before 2009. Since the part acquisition of Veolia Cargo in 2009, it provides rail transport services to industrial locations through Socorail. Passenger services are operated by Eurostar, who has a practical monopoly on tunnel passenger services. Eurotunnel levies charges on other operators for use of the tunnel. Deutsche Bahn planned to operate passenger trains between London and Frankfurt and Cologne using the tunnel; the company o
Railway Technical Research Institute
Railway Technical Research Institute, or RTRI, is the technical research company under the Japan Railways group of companies. RTRI was established in its current form in 1986 just before Japanese National Railways was privatised and split into separate JR group companies. RTRI conducts research about everything related to trains and their operation. Funding is received from the government as well as the private railway companies. RTRI works both on developing new railway technology, such as magnetic levitation, improving the safety and economy of current technology. Research topics include earthquake detection and alarm systems, systems for detecting obstacles on level crossings, improving adhesion between train wheels and tracks, reducing energy usage, noise barriers and preventing vibrations, among other topics. RTRI is the main developer behind the Japanese SCMaglev program. 844 Shin-Kokusai Bldg. 3-4-1 Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0005, Japan Kunitachi Institute - 2-8-38 Hikari-cho, Kokubunji-shi, Tokyo, 185-8540, Japan Wind Tunnel Technical Center, Shiga Shiozawa Snow Testing Station, Minami-Uonuma, Niigata Hino Civil Engineering Testing Station, Tokyo Gatsugi Anti-Salt Testing Station, Niigata The RTRI is developing a variable gauge system, called the "Gauge Change Train", to allow 1,435 mm Shinkansen trains to access 1,067 mm lines of the original rail network.
Japan Railway & Technical Review Quarterly Report of RTRI - Print: ISSN 0033-9008 Online: ISSN 1880-1765 Hydrail Official website