New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l
Raphael is an archangel responsible for healing in the traditions of most Abrahamic religions. Not all branches of these religions consider the identification of Raphael to be canonical. In Christianity, Raphael is associated with an unnamed angel mentioned in the Gospel of John, who stirs the water at the healing pool of Bethesda. Raphael is an angel in Mormonism, as he is mentioned in the Doctrine and Covenants. Raphael is mentioned in the Book of Tobit, accepted as canonical by Catholics and some Anglicans. Raphael is a venerated angel within the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Lutheran traditions, he is given the title "Saint Raphael". In Islam, Raphael is the fourth major angel. Though unnamed in the Quran, hadith identifies Israfil with the angel of Quran 6:73. Within Islamic eschatology, Israfil is traditionally attributed to a trumpet, poised at his lips, when God so commands he shall be ready to announce the Day of Resurrection; the angels mentioned in the Torah, the older books of the Hebrew Bible, are without names.
Shimon ben Lakish of Tiberias, asserted that all the specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon, modern commentators would tend to agree. According to the Babylonian Talmud, Raphael is identified as one of the three angels that appeared to Abraham in the oak grove of Mamre, in the region of Hebron.. Michael, as the greatest, walked with Gabriel to his right and Raphael to his left. All three angels were commanded to carry out a specific mission. Gabriel's mission was to destroy Sodom. Rashi writes, "Although Raphael's mission included two tasks, they were considered a single mission since they were both acts that saved people." Raphael is named in several Jewish apocryphal books. The Life of Adam and Eve lists the archangels as well: Michael, Uriel and Joel. Medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides made a Jewish angelic hierarchy, which includes the archangel Raphael. Medieval French rabbi and Tanakh commentator Rashi views Raphael as being one of the three angels that appeared to Abraham in the oak grove of Mamre in the Book of Genesis.
Raphael is mentioned in the Book of Enoch alongside archangels Michael and Uriel. Raphael bound Azazel under a desert called Dudael according to Enoch 10:4–6: And again the Lord said to Raphael: "Bind Azazel hand and foot, cast him into the darkness: and make an opening in the desert, in Dudael, cast him therein, and place upon him rough and jagged rocks, cover him with darkness, let him abide there for and cover his face that he may not see light. And on the day of the great judgment he shall be cast into the fire." "Raphael, one of the holy angels, over the spirits of men." When Enoch asked who the four figures were that he had seen: "And he said to me:'This first is Michael, the merciful and long-suffering: and the second, set over all the diseases and all the wounds of the children of men, is Raphael: and the third, set over all the powers, is Gabriel: and the fourth, set over the repentance unto hope of those who inherit eternal life, is named Phanuel.' And these are the four angels of the Lord of Spirits and the four voices I heard in those days."
Of archangels in the angelology of post-Exilic Judaism, only Michael, mentioned as archangel, Gabriel are mentioned by name in canonical books. The identification of Raphael is not accepted as canonical by most denominations of Protestantism, as the name only appears in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit; the name "Raphael" is recognized in church tradition as a result of Protestantism's origins in Catholicism. Raphael are not venerated in Protestantism; the Book of Tobit is considered deuterocanonical by Catholics and some Anglicans. In it, Raphael first appears disguised as the human travelling companion of Tobit's son, calling himself "Azarias the son of the great Ananias". During the course of the journey, the archangel's protective influence is shown in many ways including the binding of a demon in the desert of upper Egypt. After returning and healing the blind Tobit, Azarias makes himself known as "the angel Raphael, one of the seven, who stand before the Lord" Tobit 12:15, he is venerated as Saint Raphael the Archangel.
Regarding the healing powers attributed to Raphael, there is his declaration to Tobit that he was sent by the Lord to heal him of his blindness and to deliver Sarah, his future daughter-in-law, from the demon Asmodeus, who kills every man she marries on their wedding night before the marriage can be consummated. In the New Testament, only the archangels Michael are mentioned by name. Manuscripts of John 5:1–4 refer to the pool of Bethesda, where the multitude of the infirm lay awaiting the moving of the water, for "an angel of the Lord descended at certain times into the pond, and he that went down first into the pond after the motion of the water was made whole of whatsoever infirmity he lay under". Because of the healing role assigned to Raphael, this particular angel is associated with the archangel. Due to his actions in the Book of Tobit and the Go
Louise of the Netherlands
Louise of the Netherlands was the Queen of Sweden and Norway as spouse of King Charles XV of Sweden and IV of Norway. Princess Louise was born on 5 August 1828 in The Hague, her father was Prince Frederick of the Netherlands, the second child of King William I of the Netherlands and Wilhelmina of Prussia. Her mother Louise was the eighth child of King Frederick William III of Prussia and Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, her education was to large extent entrusted to her Belgian governess Victoire Wauthier, she studied French, English and piano. In 1849, Louise was selected as a suitable spouse for Crown Prince Charles, the son of King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway and Josephine of Leuchtenberg; the marriage was arranged after the negotiations to arrange a marriage between Charles and a Prussian princess had failed. King Oscar I of Sweden wished to secure royal family connections between the new Bernadotte dynasty and the old royal dynasties of Europe, a Protestant princess was seen as a necessary queen of the Protestant Sweden-Norway after two Catholic predecessors.
Louise fulfilled these credentials, a great dowry was expected from the rich House of Orange-Nassau. Cabinet secretary L Manderström was sent to inspect her, diplomatically let it be known in his report that Louise had an excellent education and a good character but that she was not attractive. In August 1849, a meeting was arranged between Charles in the Hague. Louise fell in love with Charles and felt an immediate attraction, while Charles in contrast was disappointed in her appearance. Charles, was convinced to agree to the marriage by the King; the engagement was declared in February 1850. The expectations of her great fortune was debated in Sweden, both in the parliament during the discussions about the allowance, in the radical press, who suggested that the monarch would now be able to finance the construction of the Swedish rail road net by himself. In reality, her dowry turned out to be small. During the engagement, Louise studied the Swedish history; because the Dutch government had supported the marriage, she did not have to renounce her rights to the Dutch throne upon her marriage.
Louise left Germany by a Swedish boat from Travemünde and arrived to Sweden with her parents and sister Marie, who were present at her wedding. Princess Louise and Crown Prince Charles married at Storkyrkan in Stockholm on 19 June 1850, she was given Countess Elisabet Piper as her senior lady-in-waiting and Ottiliana Sparre and Ulrika Sprengsporten as maids-of-honor. After the wedding, her father-in-law the King took her on a tour through Sweden to introduce her to the country; the relationship between Louise and Charles was unhappy. The couple had dissimilar personalities, with Louise being introverted and with a preference for a simple life, Charles extraverted and with a love for parties and social life. Louise was unhappily in love with Charles, who found her unattractive and was unfaithful to her, which pained her considerably. From 1852 until 1860, Charles had a relationship with Josephine Sparre, maid of honor to Louise, which caused a scandal. Sparre was described as so dominant that the Crown Princess and her maid of honor was said to have changed places with each other and Louise being the lady-in-waiting to Josephine Sparre rather than the other way around.
Fritz von Dardel described Sparre: "The lady in question is a great favorite of the Crown Prince as well as with the Crown Princess, she governs them both in everything about their daily life. Gifted with an unusual talent to please and make herself indispensable, she has managed to capture the Crown Prince to a strange degree." Louise was given sympathy and Charles was considered to be treating her with neglect. A known episode which attracted attention took place at the birthday garden party of Louise at Drottningholm Palace in 1857, when the Crown Prince proposed a toast to his "secret love" with both Louise and Josephine Sparre present; this caused a scene, his brother, Prince Oscar, reprimanded him indirectly by asking his own spouse, Sofia of Nassau, to toast with him. This scene suffer a nervous attack. Louise bore two children. Due to complications that arose at the birth of Prince Carl Oscar, Louise was unable to have any more children. In 1854, her 2-year-old son, Carl Oscar, died of pneumonia.
As the Salic law prevailed at that time in Sweden, Louise's daughter was not eligible to ascend the throne. Charles was chagrined and disappointed because this meant that his progeny would not be the next monarch of Sweden. Louise offered Charles a divorce so he could remarry and produce a male heir, but he declined the offer. Crown Princess Louise was not considered a social success, her timid and shy nature was not appreciated in society because of her official position. Between 1857 and 1859, Crown Prince Charles was named regent during the incapacity of his father, she took over the representational duties of first lady from her mother-in-law. During her spouse's reign as prince regent, she was described in the well-known court chronicle of Fritz von Dardel: "A more lovable and talented woman would have recreated the atmosphere in this circle and exerted a good influence upon the Prince, who, of a good nature let himself be led by those he likes women. Although good and not one to plot, the crown princess lacks higher qualities.
She is a good housewife but thinks only of her
Edward the Martyr
Edward the Martyr was King of England from 975 until he was murdered in 978. Edward was the eldest son of King Edgar the Peaceful. On Edgar's death, the leadership of England was contested, with some supporting Edward's claim to be king and others supporting his younger half-brother Æthelred the Unready, recognized as a legitimate son of Edgar. Edward was chosen as king and was crowned by his main clerical supporters, the archbishops Dunstan of Canterbury and Oswald of Worcester; the great nobles of the kingdom, ealdormen Ælfhere and Æthelwine and civil war broke out. In the so-called anti-monastic reaction, the nobles took advantage of Edward's weakness to dispossess the Benedictine reformed monasteries of lands and other properties that King Edgar had granted to them. Edward's short reign was brought to an end by his murder at Corfe Castle in 978 in circumstances that are not altogether clear, his body was reburied with great ceremony at Shaftesbury Abbey early in 979. In 1001 Edward's remains were moved to a more prominent place in the abbey with the blessing of his half-brother King Æthelred.
Edward was reckoned a saint by this time. A number of lives of Edward were written in the centuries following his death in which he was portrayed as a martyr seen as a victim of the Queen Dowager Ælfthryth, mother of Æthelred, he is today recognized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion. Edward's date of birth is unknown, he was in his teens when he succeeded his father, who died at age 32 in 975. Edward was known to be King Edgar's son, but he was not the son of Queen Ælfthryth, the third wife of Edgar; this no more is known from contemporary charters. Sources of questionable reliability address the identity of Edward's mother; the earliest such source is a life of Dunstan by Osbern of Canterbury written in the 1080s. Osbern writes; when Eadmer wrote a life of Dunstan some decades he included an account of Edward's parentage obtained from Nicholas of Worcester. This denied that Edward was the son of a liaison between Edgar and a nun, presenting him as the son of Æthelflæd, daughter of Ordmær, "ealdorman of the East Anglians", whom Edgar had married in the years when he ruled Mercia.
Additional accounts are offered by Goscelin in his life of Edgar's daughter Saint Edith of Wilton and in the histories of John of Worcester and William of Malmesbury. Together these various accounts suggest that Edward's mother was a noblewoman named Æthelflæd, surnamed Candida or Eneda—"the White" or "White Duck". A charter of 966 describes Ælfthryth, whom Edgar had married in 964, as the king's "lawful wife", their eldest son Edmund as the legitimate son of the king. Edward is noted as the king's son. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a supporter of Ælfthryth and Æthelred, but Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury appears to have supported Edward, a genealogy created at his Glastonbury Abbey circa 969 gives Edward precedence over Edmund and Æthelred. Ælfthryth was the widow of Æthelwald, Ealdorman of East Anglia and Edgar's third wife. Cyril Hart argues that the contradictions regarding the identity of Edward's mother, the fact that Edmund appears to have been regarded as the legitimate heir until his death in 971, suggest that Edward was illegitimate.
However, Barbara Yorke thinks that Æthelflæd was Edgar's wife, but Ælfthryth was a consecrated queen when she gave birth to her sons, who were therefore considered more "legitimate" than Edward. Æthelwold denied that Edward was legitimate, but Yorke considers this "opportunist special pleading". Edmund's full brother Æthelred may have inherited his position as heir. On a charter to the New Minster at Winchester, the names of Ælfthryth and her son Æthelred appear ahead of Edward's name; when Edgar died on 8 July 975, Æthelred was nine and Edward only a few years older. Edgar had been a strong ruler who had forced monastic reforms on a unwilling church and nobility, aided by the leading clerics of the day, Archbishop of Canterbury. By endowing the reformed Benedictine monasteries with the lands required for their support, he had dispossessed many lesser nobles, had rewritten leases and loans of land to the benefit of the monasteries. Secular clergy, many of whom would have been members of the nobility, had been expelled from the new monasteries.
While Edgar lived, he supported the reformers, but following his death, the discontents which these changes had provoked came into the open. The leading figures had all been supporters of the reform. Relations between Archbishop Dunstan and Bishop Æthelwold may have been strained. Archbishop Oswald was at odds with Ealdorman Ælfhere, Ealdorman of Mercia, while Ælfhere and his kin were rivals for power with the affinity of Æthelwine, Ealdorman of East Anglia. Dunstan was said to have questioned Edgar's marriage to Queen Dowager Ælfthryth and the legitimacy of their son Æthelred; these leaders were divided as to whether Æthelred should succeed Edgar. Neither law nor precedent offered much guidance; the choice between the sons of Edward the Elder had divided his kingdom, Edgar's elder brother Eadwig had been forced to give over a large part of the kingdom to Edgar. The Queen Dowager supported the claims of her son Æthelred, aided by Bishop Æthelwold.
Dorothea of Caesarea
Saint Dorothy is a 4th-century virgin martyr, executed at Caesarea Mazaca. Evidence for her actual historical existence or acta is sparse, she is called a martyr of the Diocletianic Persecution, although her death occurred after the resignation of Diocletian himself. She should not be confused with Dorothea of Alexandria, she and Theophilus are mentioned in the Roman Martyrology as martyrs of Caesarea in Cappadocia, with a feast day on 6 February. She is thus recognized as a saint, but because there is scarcely any non-legendary knowledge about her, she is no longer included in the General Roman Calendar; the earliest record that mentions Dorothea is found in the Martyrologium Hieronymianum. This first record contains only three basic facts: the day of martyrdom, the place where it occurred, her name and that of Theophilus. Virgin and martyr, Dorothea of Caesarea suffered during the persecution of Diocletian, 6 February, 311, at Caesarea in Cappadocia, she was brought before the prefect Sapricius, tried and sentenced to death.
On her way to the place of execution the pagan lawyer Theophilus said to her in mockery: "Bride of Christ, send me some fruits from your bridegroom's garden." Before she was executed, she sent him, by a six-year-old boy, her headdress, found to be filled with a heavenly fragrance of roses and fruits. Theophilus at once confessed himself a Christian, was put on the rack, suffered death; this is the oldest version of the legend, variously enlarged. The oldest known version of the legend is Aldhelm's De laudibus virginitatis, addressed to Abbess Hildelitha of Barking Abbey, Essex. Kirsten Wolf characterizes it as one of several legends invented in the fourth and fifth centuries to provide a story to go with a name on one of the various liturgical calendars. In the West she has been venerated since the seventh century. Dorothy's cult became widespread in Europe during the Middle Ages. In late medieval Sweden she was considered as the 15th member of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, in art she occurred with Saint Barbara, Catherine of Alexandria and Margaret of Antioch, forming with them a quartet of female saints called de fyra huvudjungfrurna or in Latin, "Quattor Virgines Capitales" meaning "The four Capital Virgins" She is regarded as the patroness of gardeners.
On her feast trees are blessed in some places. She is patroness of brewers, florists, midwives and Pescia, Italy Dorothea is represented with an angel and a wreath of flowers, she is depicted as a maiden carrying a basket of fruit and flowers roses. The order is named for Dorothea of Caesarea. Dorothy of Caesarea's life and martyrdom was the basis of Philip Massinger and Thomas Dekker's The Virgin Martyr. Sainte-Dorothée, Quebec, a borough in Laval, Canada Butler, Alban; the Lives of the Saints. Rockford, Illinois: Tan Books and Publishers, 1995. Nihil obstat and Imprimatur 1955. Englebert, Omer; the Lives of the Saints. Christopher and Anne Fremantle, trans. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1994. Nihil obstat and Imprimatur 1951. Harvey, Sir Paul, ed; the Oxford Companion to English Literature. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967. Peterson, Joseph Martin, The Dorothea Legend: Its Earliest Records, Middle English Versions, Influence of Massinger’s "Virgin Martyr"; the Swedish Nationalecyklopedin Volume 5 p. 102 Medeltidens ABC edited by The Swedish national museum of history p. 93, 276.
Santa Dorotea e Teofilo Martire di Cesarea di Cappadocia Representetions of Saint Dorothea of Caesarea Saint Dorothy at the Christian Iconography web site Here Followeth the Life of St. Dorothy in Caxton's translation of the Golden Legend
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland is the heir apparent to the Swedish throne, as the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Sweden's fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. Victoria was born on 14 July 1977 at 21:45 CET at the Karolinska Hospital in Solna, Stockholm County, is the oldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, she is a member of the House of Bernadotte. Born as a princess of Sweden, she was designated crown princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother, her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture. Her given names honour various relatives, her first name comes from her great-great-grandmother Victoria of Baden, queen consort of Sweden. Her other names honour her great-aunt Ingrid of Sweden, she was baptised at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977.
Her godparents were Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her maternal uncle, Ralf Sommerlath, Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, her aunt Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld. The Crown Princess was confirmed in the summer of 1992 at Räpplinge church on the island of Öland. Victoria studied for a year at the Catholic University of the West at Angers in France, in the fall term of 1997 participated in a special program following the work of the Riksdag. From 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, D. C. Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2003, Victoria's education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, a study and intern program in agriculture and forestry, as well as completion of the basic soldier training at SWEDINT. In 2006, Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007.
The program is a training program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministry's work, Swedish foreign and security policies and Sweden's relations with the rest of the world. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University, she speaks Swedish, English and German. She was made Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980 by the 1979 change to the Act of Succession of 1810; this constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarch's eldest child without regard to gender. King Carl XVI Gustaf objected to the reform after it occurred—not because he objected to women entering the line of succession, but because he was upset about his son being stripped of the Crown Prince status he had held since birth; when she became heir, she was made titular Duchess of Västergötland, one of the historical provinces of Sweden. Prior to this constitutional change, the heir apparent to the throne was her younger brother, the then-Crown Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland.
He is now fourth behind the Crown Princess's daughter and son. She is one of only three female heirs apparent in the world, the other two being her goddaughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Victoria's declaration of majority took place in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995; as of the day she turned 18, she became eligible to act as Head of State when the King is not in country. Victoria made her first public speech on this occasion. Located on the dais in the background was the same silver throne on which her father was seated at his enthronement, in actual use from 1650 and up until this ceremony; as heir apparent to the throne, Victoria is a working member of the Swedish Royal Family with her own agenda of official engagements. Victoria attends the regular Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs and the information councils with Government ministers headed by the King, steps in as a temporary regent when needed. Victoria has made many official trips abroad as a representative of Sweden.
Her first major official visit on her own was to Japan in 2001, where she promoted Swedish tourism, music and environmental sustainability during the "Swedish Style" event. That same year, Victoria travelled to the West Coast of the United States, where she participated in the celebrations of the Nobel centenary. In 2002, she paid official visits to United States, Uganda and Kosovo where she visited Camp Victoria. In 2003, she made official visits to the United States. In early 2004, she paid an official visit to Saudi Arabia, as a part of a large official business delegation from Sweden, in October 2004, she travelled to Hungary. Crown Princess Victoria was given her own household in October 2004, it is headed by the Marshal of the Court, serves to coordinate the official engagements of The Crown Princess. In January 2005, Victoria made a long official visit to Australia, promoting Swedish style and businesses, in April she visited Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to follow aid work and become informed about the work in the aftermath of the tsunami.
In April 2005, Victoria made an official visit to Japan where she visited the Expo 2005 in Aichi, laid the foundatio
Vincent of Saragossa
Saint Vincent of Saragossa, the Protomartyr of Spain, was a deacon of the Church of Saragossa. He is the patron saint of Valencia, his feast day is 22 January in the Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Communion and 11 November in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. He was born at Huesca and martyred under the Emperor Diocletian around the year 304; the earliest account of Vincent's martyrdom is in a carmen written by the poet Prudentius, who wrote a series of lyric poems, Peristephanon, on Hispanic and Roman martyrs. He was born at Huesca, near Saragossa, Spain sometime during the latter part of the 3rd century. Vincent spent most of his life in the city of Saragossa, where he was educated and ordained to the diaconate by Bishop Valerius of Saragossa, who commissioned Vincent to preach throughout the diocese; because Valerius suffered from a speech impediment, Vincent acted as his spokesman. When the Roman Emperor Diocletian began persecuting Christians in Spain, both were brought before the Roman governor, Dacian in Valencia.
Vincent and his bishop Valerius were confined to the prison of Valencia. Though he was offered release if he would consign Scripture to the fire, Vincent refused. Speaking on behalf of his bishop, he informed the judge that they were ready to suffer everything for their faith, that they could pay no heed either to threats or promises, his outspoken manner so angered the governor that Vincent was inflicted every sort of torture on him. He was stretched on his flesh torn with iron hooks, his wounds were rubbed with salt and he was burned alive upon a red-hot gridiron. He was cast into prison and laid on a floor scattered with broken pottery, where he died. During his martyrdom he preserved such peace and tranquillity that it astonished his jailer, who repented from his sins and was converted. Vincent's dead body was thrown into the sea in a sack, but was recovered by the Christians and his veneration spread throughout the Church; the aged bishop Valerius was exiled. The story that Vincent was tortured on a gridiron is adapted from the martyrdom of another son of Huesca, Saint Lawrence— Vincent, like many early martyrs in the early hagiographic literature, succeeded in converting his jailer.
According to legend, after being martyred, ravens protected St. Vincent's body from being devoured by vultures, until his followers could recover the body, his body was taken to. In the time of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi noted this constant guard by ravens, for which the place was named by him كنيسة الغراب "Kanīsah al-Ghurāb". King Afonso I of Portugal had the body of the saint exhumed in 1173 and brought it by ship to the Lisbon Cathedral; this transfer of the relics is depicted on the coat of arms of Lisbon. Three elaborated hagiographies, all based on a lost 5th-century Passion, circulated in the Middle Ages, his "Acts" have been "rather colored by the imagination of their compiler". Though Vincent's tomb in Valencia became the earliest center of his cult, he was honoured at his birthplace and his reputation spread from Saragossa; the city of Oviedo in Asturias grew about the church dedicated to Vincent. Beyond the Pyrenees, he was venerated first in the vicinity of Béziers, at Narbonne.
Castres became an important stop on the international pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostela when the relics of Vincent were transferred to its new abbey-church dedicated to Saint Benedict from Saragossa in 863, under the patronage of Salomon, count of Cerdanya. A church was built in honour of Vincent, by the Catholic bishops of Visigothic Iberia, when they succeeded in converting King Reccared and his nobles to Trinitarian Christianity; when the Moors came in 711, the church was razed, its materials incorporated in the Mezquita, the "Great Mosque" of Cordova. The Cape Verde island of São Vicente, a former Portuguese colony, was named in his honour because it was discovered on 22 January, St. Vincent's feast day, in 1462; the island of St. Vincent in the Caribbean, now a part of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, was named by Christopher Columbus after Vincent of Saragossa, as the island was discovered by Europeans on 22 January, St. Vincent's feast day; the 15th century Portuguese artist Nuno Gonçalves depicted him in his Saint Vincent Panels.
A small fresco cycle of stories of St. Vincent is in the apse of the Basilica di San Vincenzo near Cantù, in northern Italy. Saint Vincent's left arm is on display as a relic in Valencia Cathedral, located near the extensive Carrer de Sant Vicent Mártir. There is the small town of São Vicente on the Portuguese island of Madeira, the city of São Vicente, São Paulo in Brazil named after this saint. Saint Vincent is the patron of the Order of the Deacons of the Catholic Diocese of Bergamo, he is honoured as patron in Valencia, Portugal, etc. and is invoked by vintners, vinegar-makers and sailors. Vincent of Saragossa is represented wearing the dalmatic of a deacon. Aliette, Genviève, Vincent D'Agen et saint Vincent de Saragosse: Etude de la "Passio S. Vincentii Martyris". Melun: Libraire D'Argences. Saxer, Victor. Saint Vincent diacre et martyr: culte et légendes avant l'An Mil. Bruxelles: Société des Bollandistes. ISBN 978-2-87365-011-7. Colonnade Statue in St Peter's Square Butler, Alban. “Saint Vincent, Martyr”.
Lives of t