4 ft 6 in gauge railway
The 4 ft 6 in track gauge called the Scotch gauge, was adopted by early 19th century railways in the Lanarkshire area of Scotland. It differed from the gauge of 4 ft 8 in, used on some early lines in England. Early railways chose their own gauge, but in the century interchange of equipment was facilitated by establishing a uniform rail gauge across railways: a so-called'standard gauge' of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. In the early 1840s standard gauge lines began to be constructed in Scotland, all the Scotch gauge lines were converted to standard gauge; the gauge was outlawed in Great Britain in 1846. From 1903, tram lines of Tokyo adopted this gauge. A small number of early to mid-19th century passenger railways were built to 4 ft 6 in Scotch gauge including: Ardrossan and Johnstone Railway. Length: 10 miles. Authorised on 20 July 1806 and opened on 6 November 1810. Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway. Length: 10 miles. Authorised on 17 May 1824 and opened on 1 October 1826; the engineer was Thomas Grainger. Ballochney Railway.
Length: 6.5 miles. Incorporated on 19 May 1826 and opened on 8 August 1828. Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway. Authorised on 26 May 1826 and opened in part on 4 July 1831. Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway. Length: 8.25 miles. Incorporated on 26 May 1826 and ceremonially opened on 27 September 1831 for both passengers and goods; the engineers were Thomas John Miller from Edinburgh. Wishaw and Coltness Railway. Length: 11 miles. Incorporated on 21 June 1829 and opened on 21 March 1834; the engineers were Thomas John Miller from Edinburgh. Slamannan Railway. Length: 12.5 miles. Incorporated on 3 July 1835 and opened on 31 August 1840. Paisley and Renfrew Railway. Length: 3 miles. Authorised on 21 July 1835 and opened on 3 April 1837 for both passengers and goods; the engineer was Thomas Grainger. Converted to Standard Gauge 1866. Robert Stephenson and Company built a Scotch gauge locomotive, the St. Rollox, for the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway. All the lines were relaid in standard gauge. In addition to the above lines, there were three railways, authorised between 1822 and 1835, that were built in the Dundee area, to a gauge of 4 ft 6 1⁄2 in.
They were: Newtyle Railway. Length: 10.5 miles. The Newtyle and Coupar Angus Railway. Length: 6.5 miles. The Newtyle and Glammis Railway. Length: 10 miles. Grainger and Miller built another two railway lines in the same area to a gauge of 5 ft 6 in. Thomas Grainger is said to have chosen this gauge, since he regarded 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge as being too narrow and Isambard Kingdom Brunel's 7 ft 1⁄4 in Brunel gauge as being too wide, they were: Arbroath Railway. Length: 14.5 miles. Incorporated on 19 May 1836 and opened in part in October 1838; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway. Length: 15 miles. Incorporated on 19 May 1836 and opened in part on 24 November 1838; the Glasgow, Paisley and Ayr Railway and the Glasgow and Greenock Railway, which both obtained Parliamentary Approval on 15 July 1837 and were to become part of the Glasgow and South Western Railway and the Caledonian Railway were built to standard gauge from the start. The standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in known as the Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, was adopted in Great Britain after 1846 after the passing of the Regulating the Gauge of Railways Act 1846.
A few remnants of old lines remain, but are non functional with the exception of one example of the St Michael's Mount Tramway at St Michael's Mount in Cornwall. It is a partial underground railway, it operates, but only for demonstration reasons and is not open to the general public, although a small stretch is visible at the harbour. It is therefore believed to be Britain's last functionally operational Scotch gauge railway. After the end of Scotch gauge in Britain, the gauge was revived in Japan. Since 1903, most of tram network in Tokyo was built with 4 ft 6 in rail gauge, called "coach gauge"; the use of this gauge extended to other suburban lines that projected through services to the city tram. Although Tokyo has abolished its major tram network, as of 2009, the following lines still use this gauge: The Keiō Line and its branches. Reason to use 1372 mm in 1926 was to provide through service with the now-abolished Tokyo city tram. Length: 72.0 km. Commuter railways connecting Tokyo and its suburb operated by Keio Corporation.
The Toei Shinjuku Line. Length: 23.5 km. One of rapid transit lines in Tokyo built to provide through service with the Keiō Line; the Ministry of Transport intended Keiō Line convert to 1435 mm, but the service area as of late 20th century was too densely populated to risk a massive disruption of Keiō service, the Shinjuku Line was constructed 1372 mm instead. The Toden Arakawa Line. Length: 12.2 km. Only surviving line of Tokyo municipal tram; the Tōkyū Setagaya Line. Length: 5.0 km. Another tram line in Tokyo operated by Tokyu Corporation; the Hakodate City Tram. Length: 10.9 km. Only user of the gauge out of Greater Tokyo Area. Narrow gauge railway Standard gauge Tram track gauge John. A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain. Volume 6 Scotland: The Lowlands and the Borders. Newton Abbott: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-5408-6
"Railbus" may refer to Rail replacement bus service. A railbus is a lightweight passenger rail vehicle that shares many aspects of its construction with a bus having a bus body and four wheels on a fixed base, instead of on bogies. Designed and developed during the 1930s, railbuses have evolved into larger dimensions, with characteristics similar in appearance to a light railcar, with the terms railcar and railbus used interchangeably. Railbuses designed for use on little-used railway lines were employed in countries such as Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Sweden. Today, railbuses are being replaced by modern light DMU railcar designs. Locally manufactured TecnoTren railbuses are in use around Argentina, most notably on the University train of La Plata, they are used in rural parts of the country where the tracks have not yet been repaired and so can't handle the weight of regular trains. In 1937, the NSW Department of Railways added six four-wheel streamlined rail buses to serve on small branch lines in Cowra and Harden that did not have enough passengers to justify a rail motor.
Powered by a Ford V8 engine, they were given the designation FP1 to FP6. When the railbus service wasn't popular, several of the buses became mobile pay cars used to pay railway employees at stations and working on tracks. In December 1941, one of these railbuses was destroyed when dynamite was placed on railway tracks near Yanderra; the three-man crew of the railbus were killed in the explosion. Though £2000 of loose cash was taken, the safe in the railcar could not be opened by the robbers. No one was prosecuted for the offence; the first railbus, FP1, has been restored where it is on display at New South Wales Rail Transport Museum in Thirlmere, New South Wales. In Queensland, Australia, "RailBus service" refers to the bus service running parallel to portions of some railway lines, substituting for commuter train. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, railbuses are used on less frequented rural lines. Most railbuses are based on a former ČSD M 152.0 diesel multiple unit known as ČD/ŽSR Class 810.
The Kaoham Shuttle utilizes DMU railbuses for its daily service between D'Arcy. In Germany, the Schienenbus was developed in the 1930s to fulfill the need for an inexpensive rail vehicle, it was built to standard specifications on Germany’s Reichsbahn to meet the demand for cost-effective services on light railways or Kleinbahnen After the Second World War, the ubiquitous Uerdingen railbuses were developed by Deutsche Bundesbahn in single-engined and double-engined versions. The latter were powerful enough to haul through coaches and freight cars. Matching trailers and driving trailers were developed as well; these railbuses were a predecessor of the modern diesel multiple units. In the late 1950s, Deutsche Reichsbahn in the GDR developed the single-engined class VT 2.09 with matching trailers and driving trailers, built by Waggonbau Bautzen. A number of serious accidents in Germany in the late 1970s involving railbuses resulted in the specification and development of larger, more robustly designed diesel railcars.
Although these cars were more similar in size to the U. S. produced diesel railcars, they would not have complied with current FRA requirements, like their North American cousin rail diesel cars, are railroad-derivative designs. The DB Class 628 exemplifies the contemporary German diesel railcar; this type of car replaced the Schienenbus and locomotive-hauled train consists where possible on branch-line and main-line assignments during the 1980s and 1990s. Both the Uerdingen Schienenbus and the Bautzen railbuses have disappeared from regular revenue service, but its diesel rail car successors are still used. DMUs of a third generation in succession after the Schienenbus are now being ordered by the hundreds in a variety of modular design combinations. Indian Railways operates many railbuses on its branch lines, they are electric. These railbuses are being replaced by EMUs due to increase in passengers. On August 5, 2012, the first Batara Kresna Railbus service in Indonesia is launched to accommodate a part of commuter Prameks Train passengers from Solo to Yogyakarta City v.v through Sukoharjo.
In 2014, PT Kereta Api launched railbus between Kertapati Palembang to Indralaya Ogan Ilir v.v. to ease road traffic. In 2016, Mak Buih Railbus operated by PT Kereta Api in Padang ready to serve route from Padang to Minangkabau International Airport; the Great Northern Railway of Ireland produced railbuses at the Railway Works in Dundalk. The president of JNR was introduced to railbusses there. JNR subsequently drew up a plan for railbus introduction plan in JNR, a prototype was built in 1955. However, JNR found railbuses less reliable in daily operation as compared to standard rail equipment and discontinued their use in the 1960s. One railbus produced by Fuji Heavy Industries was operational on a minor line until the company withdrew the line from service. Motorization soared in Japan from the 1970s on, reducing consuming passenger numbers on local private railway. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd. in 1982 began development of an "LE-Car that incorporates the structure of the bus, deficit local lines of JNR has been adopted by many of the railway company that local governments and private companies are operated by joint investment.
In areas without significant demand for regular commuter trains, such as in the Eastern province, railbus connects towns and cities. These buses were built by converting two buses built for road transport. British Rail produced a variety of railbuses as a means both of building new rolling
Stockholm Arlanda Airport
Stockholm Arlanda Airport is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, 37 kilometres north of Stockholm and nearly 40 kilometres south-east of Uppsala. The airport is located within Stockholm County and the province of Uppland, it is the largest airport in Sweden and the third-largest airport in the Nordic countries. The airport is the major gateway to international air travel for large parts of Sweden. Arlanda Airport was used by close to 27 million passengers in 2017, with 21.2 million international passengers and 5.5 million domestic. Stockholm Arlanda Airport is the larger of Stockholm's two airports; the other, Stockholm–Bromma, is located north-west of the city's centre, but can only be used by a small number of smaller aircraft. The smaller airports in Nyköping and Västerås are both located around 100 kilometres away from the Swedish capital. Stockholm Arlanda serves as a major hub for Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle.
The airport was first used in 1959, but only for practice flights. It opened for limited civil traffic in 1960, in 1962 the official opening ceremony took place, it was used from the start for intercontinental traffic because the runway at Bromma was too short. Scandinavian Airlines started using Douglas DC-8s on North American routes; the airport was used early by Pan American World Airways. The name Arlanda was decided after a competition prior to the airport opening, it is derived from Arland, an old name for the parish Ärlinghundra where the airport is situated. The'-a' was added in analogy with other Swedish place names ending with -landa and plays on the Swedish verb "landa", which means "to land"; the 1960s and'70s saw increases in traffic with scheduled traffic and charter traffic. The Boeing 747 jumbojet started to be used in the 1970s, both on one-stop scheduled flights to New York and on weekend nonstop charters to the Canary Islands. Domestic flights to Gothenburg, Malmö, Luleå and Kiruna were operated by SAS DC-9s from Arlanda since they were considered too noisy to be used at downtown Bromma.
The rest of domestic traffic operated out of Bromma and all international traffic out of Arlanda. In 1983 the domestic traffic operated by Linjeflyg moved from Bromma to Arlanda, using the terminal now known as Terminal 4. In 1990 two new domestic terminals called "Domestic 2 and 3" were built south of the first domestic terminal. In 1992 the terminal 2 was abandoned because of traffic decrease, it started to be used for international traffic the year after, the main domestic and international terminals were renumbered into 4 and 5. The third runway was built between 1998 and 2002. However, a recession in 2002 delayed its opening until 2003. At that time protests were raised by people living under its flight path in the municipality of Upplands Väsby. Traffic has recovered since and is now showing healthy increases but the third runway is only used during peak hours for environmental reasons. In September 2010 the first Airbus A380 superjumbo landed at the airport. In early 2014 Swedavia announced plans for further expansions of the airport terminal complex, including the construction of an additional pier for Terminal 5 in order to better accommodate larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8 and address forecasts of rising passenger numbers.
The plans were approved by the Environmental Court of Appeals in December 2014, construction was scheduled to commence in the spring of 2015. Arlanda has three runways: Runway 1, Runway 2 and Runway 3. Runway 1 is 3,301 m long and can handle take-offs and landings of the heaviest aircraft in use today. Runways 2 and 3 are 2,500 m long; as indicated, runways 1 and 3 are parallel runways that can be operated independently of one another. Runways 1 and 3 are equipped with CAT III systems for instrument landings; the airport can handle simultaneous take offs and landings using runways 1 and 3 at the same time. Simultaneous aircraft takeoffs and landings can be performed in instrument meteorological conditions. Runway 3 is reached from the main terminal area via taxiway bridges constructed to be able to handle the heaviest and largest airplanes in traffic. Since runway 3 is located at a distance from the terminals a deicing area is placed close to the runway to avoid too long time between deicing and take off in winter conditions.
Another deicing area is located in connection with the southern ramp area close to take off positions at runway 01L. There are high speed taxiway exits from all runways, except runway 08, to enable aircraft to exit the runways after landing; this increases runway capacity during rush hours. Use of parallel taxiways around the terminal area separates arriving and departing traffic. Arlanda can handle all aircraft types in service including the Airbus A380; the airport has four terminals. Terminals 2 and 5 are used for international flights. Domestic flights are in Terminals 3 and 4; the new central building, Arlanda North, opened in late 2003, connecting terminal 5 with the newly built Pier F. All international flights handled by SAS and its Star Alliance partners use the new central building. An Arlanda South building, connecting terminals 2, 3 and 4 was planned, but construction is suspended due to lack of funds. In the terminal areas and the shopping area "Sky City" there are restaurants, shopping facilities, bars etc. to cater to the needs for passengers and visitors to the airport.
There are hotels both at the airport in connection with the terminals and in its surroundings. There are conference facilities at the airport. Terminal 2 – International Terminal 2 was initia
2 ft and 600 mm gauge railways
Two foot and 600 mm gauge railways are narrow gauge railways with track gauges of 2 ft and 600 mm, respectively. Railways with similar, less common track gauges, such as 1 ft 11 3⁄4 in and 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in, are grouped with 2 ft and 600 mm gauge railways. Most of these lines are tourist lines, which are heritage railways or industrial lines, such as the Festiniog Railway in Wales and the Cripple Creek and Victor Narrow Gauge Railroad in Colorado. World War I trench railways produced the greatest concentration of 600 mm gauge railways to date. In preparation for World War II, the French Maginot Line and Alpine Line used 600 mm gauge railways for supply routes to the fixed border defenses. Australia has over 4,000 kilometres of 2 ft gauge sugar cane railway networks in the coastal areas of Queensland, which carry more than 30 million tonnes of sugarcane a year. Many 2 ft gauge and 600 mm gauge railways are used in amusement parks and theme parks worldwide; the interchange of rolling stock between these similar track gauges occurred.
The Otavi Mining and Railway Company in South-West Africa were transferred to the 2 ft gauge railways in South Africa and some surviving locomotives reside in Wales on the 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge Welsh Highland Railway and the 1 ft 11 3⁄4 in gauge Brecon Mountain Railway. Decauville Heritage railway List of track gauges
Vadstena is a locality and the seat of Vadstena Municipality, Östergötland County, with 5,613 inhabitants in 2010. From 1974 to 1979 Vadstena was administered as part of Motala Municipality. Despite its small population, Vadstena is, for historical reasons, still referred to as a city: though it received its city privileges in 1400), Statistics Sweden only counts as cities Swedish urban localities with more than 10,000 inhabitants. Above all, the city of Vadstena is noted for two important facts of Swedish history, it was in Vadstena, in 1350, that Saint Bridget of Sweden founded the first monastery of her Bridgettine Order, Vadstena Castle is one of Sweden’s best-preserved castles from the era of Gustav Vasa in the 16th century, when Sweden became Protestant. Today the surviving buildings of the monastery are occupied by a hotel, the castle houses the provincial archives and a museum of 16th and 17th century furniture and paintings. Since the 16th century, Vadstena has been the location of a hospital.
Earlier in history, it housed mental patients. Today, some of the oldest buildings present the Vadstena Hospital Museum; the buildings in the city centre date from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. The old town is well preserved and the streets have not changed much over the centuries; the Town Hall is Sweden's oldest, dating back to the early 15th century. Notable is the main street where all the shops are gathered, as they would have been during the Middle Ages. Vadstena preserves elements of more recent history in the museum of the Vadstena-Fågelsta narrow gauge railway; this 891 mm railway was once part of a large network of narrow-gauge railways in Östergötland constructed in the latter part of the 19th century. Tourism website of Vadstena
A dual gauge railway is a track that allows the passage of trains of two different track gauges. It is sometimes called a "mixed gauge" track. A dual gauge track consists of three rails. There will be two vital rails, one for each gauge close together and a third rail, a "common" rail further away. Sometimes, four rails are required using two outer and two inner rails to create the dual gauge. Dual gauge is not to be confused with a "third rail" or "check or guard rails". Rail gauge, the distance between the inner surfaces of the heads of travel rails, is an important specification of a railway. Rail tracks and wheel bogies must be built to the same gauge within an engineering tolerance of 13 mm. If the correct gauge is not achieved, the train will fall off the track and not be able to pass switches and crossovers. Dual gauge trains can use low level platforms. In the case of three rails and high platforms, one gauge may be too close or too far away, depending on the position of the common rail.
Another option at platforms is to construct one for each gauge. If the difference between two rail gauges is small enough, i.e. within each others tolerances it is possible for them to operate the same rolling stock. At the Finland–Russian border the Finnish railway gauge is 1524 mm and the Russian gauge is 1520 mm; when the Soviet Union changed the gauge of its railways in Russia in the 1970s to 1520 mm, this did not result in a break of gauge and no track conversion work was done. The change in gauge was a redefinition of the way. Both railways can run the same rolling stock. However, being within a tolerance in gauge does not always mean that two different system can operate the same rolling stock. For example, the MTR in Hong Kong 1,432 mm Electric multiple units may run on Kowloon-Canton Railway 1,435 mm rails but will need a locomotive or a KCR EMU pulling due to the difference in electrification voltages. "Break of gauge" occurs. Passengers and freight must transfer between trains, or rolling stock must be lifted and the bogies refitted for the new gauge.
Avoiding break of gauge reduces costs and allows infrastructure such as platforms and tunnels to be shared. Railway operators may change from one gauge to another via a period of dual gauge operations. For example, the Great Western Railway made a conversion from a 7-foot broad gauge to the standard gauge via a period of dual gauge operations across its network. New GWR rolling stock and locomotives of that time were built to accommodate the change. Where rails are too light for the loads of broader-gauge railcars, dual gauge rails may not be feasible. In this case, heavier rails are installed. One common running rail and two other outer rails provide a dual gauge. In dual gauge lines, railroad switches are more complex. Trains must be safely signalled on both of the gauges. Track circuits and mechanical interlocking must operate on both gauges. Another feature is that the wear and tear of the common rail is greater than the two other outer rails. Dual gauge track with three rails must provide a difference between the gauges at least as wide as the foot of the rail.
This is to ensure there is room for rail fastening hardware such as clips. Functional pairing of gauges include: standard gauge and 1,676 mm. Standard gauge and 1,600 mm can be dual gauged, albeit with lighter, narrow footed rails. An example of this type of pairing is seen in Australia. Gauges which are too close to function in a three rail arrangement include 1,000 mm metre gauge and 3 ft 6 in; the last combination is common in Afghanistan, Central Asia, northern and eastern Europe, North America and China. In Europe, it was of strategic importance in World War II. In these cases, a gauntlet track which uses four rails is constructed. An example of this is seen at the Rail Baltica project which aims to connect central and northern Europe by rail. Four rails may be used where a co-location of track centres of the two gauges is needed; this might occur in past platforms. An example is seen at the Roma Street railway station in Brisbane, Australia. There, both three rail and four rail dual gauge systems are used between 1,435 mm and 1,067 mm gauges.
Break of gauge occurs at some triple gauge stations. In the examples below, the triple gauge was used in rail yards. Thus, if required, light rail could be used to space the rails together. Light rail was not used at the Niagara Falls Suspension Bridge and it would not be used for main line operation at high speeds. Within a works facility or maintenance yard, tracks consisting of four or more separate gauges may be used. At Alan Keef in Lea, Herefordshire a short section of line uses four rails to allow locomotives of 2 ft, 2 ft 6 in, 3 ft and 3 ft 6 in gauges to enter the works; the National Railway Museum, Port Adelaide in Adelaide, Australia has the three main-line gauges and a 18 in gauge Heritage railway line. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Electro-motive diesel plant in McCook, Ill
Break of gauge
With railways, a break of gauge occurs where a line of one gauge meets a line of a different gauge. Trains and rolling stock cannot run through without some form of conversion between gauges, freight and passengers must otherwise be transshipped. A break of gauge adds delays and inconvenience. Narrow gauges tend to be associated with smaller loading gauges and sharper curves, which tend to reduce initial capital costs; this offsets the costs of any traffic affected by the break of gauge. Narrow gauge railways were built on marginal lines through hilly and mountainous terrain to cut costs and enable any type of rail service at all. Associated disadvantages were not recognized as much as many rail lines were operated independent of connecting lines regardless of gauge as competing companies built and operated them. Only the building of union stations or the nationalization of railroads changed this. An advantage is that invading armies may be hampered. Another advantage might be that if the different gauges have different loading gauges, the break of gauge helps prevent the larger wagons straying onto lines with smaller tunnels.
If the larger and smaller gauges use different couplers or brakes, the break of gauge tends to keep the different couplers separate. For passenger trains the inconvenience is less at major stations where many passengers change trains or end their journeys anyway. Therefore, some passenger-only railways have been built with gauges otherwise not used in the concerned countries. For example, the high-speed railways in Japan and Spain use 1,435 mm while their respective mainline railroad systems use 1,067 mm and 1,668 mm. For night trains, which are common in places like Russia, train change is less desirable. For these the bogies are replaced if it takes much more time than having passengers change trains. If local government has influence over the construction of railways, some may see it as desirable for trains to stop in rather than pass through their town. For instance, prior to the US Civil War, many cities in the South had a break of gauge or two separate stations at different ends of town necessitating change of trains or time consuming transshipment which nonetheless brought commerce and profit to the towns.
Only during the Civil War did state and Confederate authorities notice the military and economic problems this brought but only the post-bellum Union government was able to solve those problems through conversion of all lines to standard gauge. Transshipping freight from cars of one gauge to cars of another is labour- and time-intensive, increases the risk of damage to goods. If the capacity of the freight cars on both systems does not match, additional inefficiencies can arise. If the frequency is low, trains might need to wait a long time for its counterpart to arrive before transshipping; this is avoided by storing the goods, but, an inconvenience. Technical solutions to avoid transshipping include variable gauge axles, replacing the bogies of cars, using transporter cars that can carry a car of a different gauge. Talgo and CAF have developed dual-gauge axles which permit through running between broad gauge and standard gauge. In Japan the Gauge Change Train, built on Talgo patents, runs on standard and narrow 1,067 mm gauge.
Breaks-of-gauge are avoided by installing dual gauge track, either permanently or as part of a project to replace one gauge with another. At most breaks-of-gauge passengers have to change trains, but there are a few trains that run through, for example, the Talgo, trains from Russia to China or Russia to Europe, although on the latter two the passengers have to leave the train for some time whilst the accommodation work is done. Railroads of unusual gauges or loading gauges have problems procuring trains or may be forced to choose between an oligopoly or monopoly of suppliers that cater to their specific needs; this may be deliberate on the part of suppliers as some streetcar lines were built to unique specifications to ensure buyer lock-in. However, in modern times rail gauge itself is not the most important factor but rather other aspects like electrification system or loading gauge. Trains crossing the Channel Tunnel for instance had to be custom made prior to the construction of High Speed 1 despite both Britain and France having standard gauge, because the British loading gauge is narrower and the legacy lines in the south of Britain were electrified through third rail rather than overhead wiring.
Where trains encounter a different gauge, such as at the Spanish–French border or the Russian–Chinese one, the traditional solution has always been transloading, that is, the transfer of passengers and freight to cars on the other system. When transloading from one gauge to another, chances are that the quantity of rolling stock on each gauge is unbalanced, leading to more idle rolling stock on one gauge than the other; this is far from optimal, a number of more efficient schemes have been devised. Although various ways of mitigating the problem without resorting to transloading were conceivable in the early era of railways, they were not implemented during the nastiest flare-up of the Gauge War in the 1840s, which resulted in horrendous spectacles of confused and wasteful transloading. L. T. C. Rolt's biography of Isambard Kingdom Brunel (mastermind of the bro