An effects unit or effects pedal is an electronic or digital device that alters the sound of a musical instrument or other audio source. Common effects include distortion/overdrive used with electric guitar in electric blues and rock music. Most modern effects use solid-state electronics or computer chips; some effects older ones such as Leslie speakers and spring reverbs, use mechanical components or vacuum tubes. Effects are used as stompboxes, which are placed on the floor and controlled with footswitches, they are built into amplifiers, tabletop units designed for DJs and record producers, rackmounts, are used as software VSTs. Musicians, audio engineers and record producers use effects units during live performances or in the studio with electric guitar, bass guitar, electronic keyboard or electric piano. While guitar effects are most used with electric or electronic instruments, effects can be used with acoustic instruments and vocals. An effects unit is called an "effect box", "effects device", "effects processor" or "effects".
In audio engineer parlance, a signal without effects is "dry" and an effect-processed signal is "wet". The abbreviation "F/X" or "FX" is sometimes used. A pedal-style unit may be called a "stomp box", "stompbox", "effects pedal" or "pedal". A musician bringing many pedals to a live show or recording session mounts the pedals on a guitar pedalboard, to reduce set-up and tear-down time and, for pedalboards with lids, protect the pedals during transportation; when a musician has multiple effects in a rack mounted road case, this case may be called an "effects rack" or "rig". When rackmounted effects are mounted in a roadcase, this speeds up a musician's set-up and tear-down time, because all of the effects can be connected together inside the rack case and all of the units can be plugged into a powerbar. Effects units are available in a variety of formats or form factors. Stompboxes are used units in live performance and studio recordings. Rackmount devices saw a heavy usage during the 20th century, due to their advanced processing power and desirable tones.
However, by the 21st century, with the advant of digital Plug-Ins and more powerful Stompboxes for live usage, the need and practicality of rackmounted effects units went down, as such, prices of rack effects have diminished due to lower usage. An effects unit can consist of a combination of the two. During a live performance, the effect is plugged into the electrical "signal" path of the instrument. In the studio, the instrument or other sound-source's auxiliary output is patched into the effect. Form factors are part of musician's outboard gear. Stompboxes are small plastic or metal chassis which lie on the floor or in a pedalboard to be operated by the user's feet. Pedals are rectangle-shaped, but there are a range of other shapes. Typical simple stompboxes have a single footswitch, one to three potentiometers for controlling the effect, a single LED that indicates if the effect is on. A typical distortion or overdrive pedal's three potentiometers, for example, control the level or intensity of the distortion effect, the tone of the effected signal and the volume of the effected signal.
Depending on the type of pedal, the potentiometers may control different parameters of the effect. For a chorus effect, for example, the knobs may control the speed of the effect. Complex stompboxes may have multiple footswitches, many knobs, additional switches or buttons that are operated with the fingers, an alphanumeric LED display that indicates the status of the effect with short acronyms; some pedals have two knobs stacked on top of each other, enabling the unit to provide two knobs per single knob space. An "effects chain" or "signal chain" is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes. Effect chains are created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier and the power amp; when a pedal is off or inactive, the electric audio signal coming into the pedal diverts onto a bypass, an unaltered "dry" signal that continues on to other effects down the chain. In this way, a musician can combine effects within a chain in a variety of ways without having to reconnect boxes during a performance.
A "controller" or "effects management system" lets the musician create multiple effect chains, so they can select one or several chains by tapping a single switch. The switches are organized in a row or a simple grid. To preserve the clarity of the tone, it is most common to put compression and overdrive pedals at the start of the chain; when using many effects, unwanted noise and hum can be introduced into the sound. Some performers use a noise gate pedal at the end of a chain to reduce unwanted noise and hum introduced by overdrive units or vintage gear. Rackmounted effects are built in a thin metal chassis with metal "ears" designed to be screwed into a 19-inch rack, standard to the telecommunication and music technology industries. Rackmounted effects may be two or three rack spaces high; when purchased from the store, rack-mounted equipment is not equipped with the rugged chassis features used on
The twelve-inch single is a type of gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time compared to LPs. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, thus better sound quality; this record type is used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either 45 rpm. Twelve-inch singles have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, thus require fewer grooves per inch; this extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions can be much greater in amplitude in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies began producing 12-inch singles at 33 1⁄3 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response and was used on many twelve-inch singles in the UK; the gramophone records cut for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.
Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were released in 1959 – only to become major local hits pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits; the popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who singlehandedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances.
Those dubs included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica led American DJs to do the same. In the United States, the twelve-inch single gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after earlier market experiments. In early 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once in My Life"; the experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single.
Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores. Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label, with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation, it was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank; the first large-format single made for DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer in need of a Friday-night test copy for famed disco mixer Tom Moulton. The song was; as no 7-inch acetates could be found, a 10–inch blank was used. Upon completion, found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space, he asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him.
Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but a wider overall dynamic range as well. This was noticed to give a more favorable sound for discothèque play. Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would become industry practice; this would have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light. A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
The Stone Roses
The Stone Roses are an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1983. One of the pioneering groups of the Madchester movement in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the band's lineup consists of vocalist Ian Brown, guitarist John Squire, bassist Mani and drummer Reni; the band released their debut album, The Stone Roses, in 1989. The album was a breakthrough success for the band and garnered critical acclaim, with many critics regarding it as one of the greatest British albums recorded. At this time the group decided to capitalise on their success by signing to a major label, their record label at the time, would not let them out of their contract, which led to a long legal battle that culminated with the band signing with Geffen Records in 1991. The Stone Roses released their second album, Second Coming, met with mixed reviews in 1994; the group soon disbanded after several lineup changes throughout the supporting tour, which began with Reni first departing in early 1995, followed by Squire in April 1996.
Brown and Mani dissolved the remains of the group in October 1996 following their appearance at Reading Festival. Following much intensified media speculation, The Stone Roses called a press conference on 18 October 2011 to announce that the band had reunited and would perform a reunion world tour in 2012, including three homecoming shows in Heaton Park, Manchester. Plans to record a third album in the future were floated. In June 2012, Chris Coghill, the writer of the new film, set during the Stone Roses 1990 Spike Island show, revealed that the band "have at least three or four new tracks recorded". In June 2013, a documentary about the band's reformation directed by Shane Meadows and titled The Stone Roses: Made of Stone was released. In 2016 they released their first new material in two decades; the band members continued to tour until June 2017. Ian Brown and guitarist John Squire, who knew each other from Altrincham Grammar School for Boys, formed a short-lived Clash-inspired band called The Patrol in 1980 along with singer/guitarist Andy Couzens and drummer Simon Wolstencroft.
They played several gigs in 1980 and recorded a demo tape, but towards the end of that year decided on a change of direction. Brown had got a taste of being a frontman during the last Patrol show, singing Sweet's "Block Buster!" to close the set, with the band's friend/roadie Pete Garner standing in on bass, Couzens wanting to concentrate on guitar. The band members lost enthusiasm in 1981, Brown selling his bass guitar to buy a scooter, Wolstencroft joined Johnny Marr and Andy Rourke's pre-Smiths band Freak Party. Squire continued to practice guitar while working as an animator for Cosgrove Hall during the day, while Brown ran a Northern soul night in a Salford club. Squire and Couzens started a new band, The Fireside Chaps, with bassist Gary "Mani" Mounfield recruiting a singer named Kaiser and drummer Chris Goodwin, changing their name to The Waterfront, their sound influenced by 1960s groups and contemporary bands such as Orange Juice. Goodwin left before the band recorded their first demo and, shortly after the demo, Squire asked Brown to join as singer.
A meeting with Geno Washington at a party at Brown's flat in Hulme, in which Washington told Brown that he would be a star and should be a singer, convinced Brown to take Squire up on his offer. Brown joined The Waterfront in late 1983, for a time sharing vocals with Kaiser. Like the earlier attempts at bands, The Waterfront fizzled out, but in late 1983 Couzens decided to try again at starting a band, approached Brown, they decided on Wolstencroft as Pete Garner as bassist. They decided that they needed Squire in the band, when he agreed the band's line-up was cemented. Leaving their previous bands behind, they worked on new material. Brown's vocal limitations prompted him to take singing lessons for three weeks. After rehearsing for some time without a band name, Squire came up with "The Stone Roses". Several stories emerged suggesting that the band had been called "English Rose" or that the name was somehow linked to The Rolling Stones, but these were untrue, Brown explaining "No, I don't know where that English Rose story came from.
John thought up the name "Stone Roses" - something with a contrast, two words that went against each other". The band rehearsed for six months, during which time Wolstencroft had been auditioning for other bands, he left to join Terry Hall's band The Colourfield, they got Goodwin to rejoin, but he lasted for only one rehearsal, so they advertised for a replacement and began auditioning recruiting Alan "Reni" Wren in May 1984. After rehearsing and writing songs over the summer, they recorded their first demo in late August, making 100 cassettes, with artwork by Squire, set about trying to get gigs, they played their first gig as the Stone Roses on 23 October 1984, supporting Pete Townshend at an anti-heroin concert at the Moonlight Club in London, Brown having sent the demo with an accompanying letter stating "I'm surrounded by skagheads, I wanna smash'em. Can you give us a show?". The show was seen by journalists including Sounds' Garry Johnson, who arranged to interview the band a few weeks later.
The band received more gigs soon followed. Howard Jones, who had left his job as manager of The Haçienda, producer Martin Hannett, Tim Chambers agreed to work with the band on an album, setting up Thin Line Records to release it, with Jones taking on management of the band, although they had made a similar agreement with Caroline Reed in London; the band got their firs
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety". Arrangement and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre. In particular, music written for the piano has undergone this treatment. Pictures at an Exhibition, a suite of ten piano pieces by Modest Mussorgsky, has been arranged over twenty times, notably by Maurice Ravel. Due to his lack of expertise in orchestration, the American composer George Gershwin had his Rhapsody in Blue orchestrated and arranged by Ferde Grofé.
Popular music recordings include parts for brass and other instruments that were added by arrangers and not composed by the original songwriters. Popular music arrangements may be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment; these changes can include alterations to tempo, key and other musical elements. Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary"; the American group Vanilla Fudge and British group Yes based their early careers on radical re-arrangements of contemporary hits. Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You." Remixes, such as in dance music, can be considered arrangements. Though arrangers may contribute to finished musical products, they hold no legal claim to their work for the purpose of copyright and royalty payments. Arrangements for small jazz combos are informal and uncredited.
Larger ensembles have had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves and never written down. Most arrangements for big bands, were written down and credited to a specific arranger, as with arrangements by Sammy Nestico and Neal Hefti for Count Basie's big bands. Don Redman made innovations in jazz arranging as a part of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra in the 1920s. Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band. Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer. Beginning in 1938, Billy Strayhorn became an arranger of great renown for the Duke Ellington orchestra. Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger. While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions.
Big-band arrangements are informally called charts. In the swing era they were either arrangements of popular songs or they were new compositions. Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were new compositions, some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well, it became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era. After 1950, the big bands declined in number. However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements. Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only. Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, Claus Ogerman.
In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback. Gordon Goodwin, Roy Hargrove, Christian McBride have all rolled out new big bands with both original compositions and new arrangements of standard tunes; the string section is a body of instruments composed of various stringed instruments. By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins, violas and double basses; the string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is referred sometimes to as the "string choir."The harp is a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir. Samuel Adler classifies the harp as a plucked string instrument in the same category as the guitar, banjo, or zither. Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir. In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section.
The electric bass and upright string bass—depending on the circumstance—can be treated by the arranger as either string section or rhythm section instruments. A group of instruments in which each member plays a unique part—rather than playing in u
Bilinda Jayne Butcher is an English musician and singer-songwriter, best known as a vocalist and guitarist of the shoegaze band My Bloody Valentine. Butcher was born and raised in London and relocated with her parents and older sister Jo-Anne. Butcher and her family were relocated in Golden Valley, Derbyshire a small hamlet in the countryside, her forename was chosen by her grandfather. According to Butcher, "if I'd been a guy I would have been named Bill, but since I was a girl it became Bilinda". During one of his radio shows, BBC Radio 1 disc jockey John Peel once said Butcher was "being pretentious and tried to be special by spelling name differently". Butcher has said that growing up in Golden Valley was difficult as it was "very conservative", she has said that she was considered "a weirdo" as she wore clothes based on 1920s fashion and listened to records on a portable gramophone. Butcher stated: "My mother thought. I never read the papers. Everybody was into punk and I was living in the 20s and 30s."
At age sixteen, Butcher moved back to London and began studying dance at the Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, but dropped out after nine months due to developing a case of cystitis caused by a chronic urinary infection. She developed a serious liver disease as a result of mistreatment by doctors. After dropping out of Trinity Laban, Butcher worked as a nanny for a French family in London for six months and moved to Paris for another six months with her partner; the pair moved back to London, squatting in Brixton, had a child, Toby. Describing the experience, Butcher said: "it didn't feel that great to stay in the squat, there was a lot of heroin and it's not ideal that a drug user's needle could sting your baby. Toby's dad was flipping out because of all the acid he took and I just wanted to get away from all the madness. We tried to live together but he was in too bad a state so it didn't work". Butcher was recruited as a vocalist for My Bloody Valentine in April 1987, she replaced original vocalist David Conway and shared vocal duties with Joe Byfield.
Butcher, whose prior musical experience was playing classical guitar as a child and singing and playing tambourine "with some girlfriends for fun", learned that the group needed a backing vocalist from her boyfriend, who had met drummer Colm Ó Cíosóig on a ferry from the Netherlands. At her audition for the band, she sang "The Bargain Store", a song from Dolly Parton's 1975 album of the same name, she was chosen as a vocalist ahead of "this girl, Julie", in a relationship with Douglas Hart from The Jesus and Mary Chain. Butcher was featured as co-vocalist and co-guitarist on My Bloody Valentine's non-album single, "Strawberry Wine", the band's second mini album, both of which were released in 1987 on Lazy Records, she performed vocals and guitar on all further My Bloody Valentine releases, until the band's second studio album Loveless —on which her guitar duties were performed by co-vocalist and guitarist Kevin Shields. She contributed a third of the lyrics to Isn't Anything and Loveless, as well as other releases including You Made Me Realise and Tremolo.
My Bloody Valentine attempted to record a third studio album after signing with Island Records in October 1992 for a reported £250,000 contract. The band's advance went towards the construction of a home studio in Streatham, South London, completed in April 1993. Several technical problems with the studio sent the band into "semi-meltdown", according to Shields, Butcher left the band in 1997, leading to an indefinite hiatus. My Bloody Valentine reunited in 2007, released their third album, m b v, in 2013. During My Bloody Valentine's hiatus, Butcher collaborated with two major bands, she performed lead vocals on two tracks—"Ballad Night" and "Casino Kisschase"—on the hip hop band Collapsed Lung's album Cooler, performed backing vocals on the Dinosaur Jr song "I Don't Think" from Hand It Over. At Primavera Sound 2013, Butcher performed with The Jesus and Mary Chain, providing vocals on "Just Like Honey". Butcher's vocals have been referred to as a trademark of My Bloody Valentine's sound, alongside Kevin Shields' guitar techniques.
On a number of occasions during the recording of Isn't Anything, Butcher was awoken and recorded vocals, which she said "influenced sound" by making them "more dreamy and sleepy". A similar process was used during the recording of Loveless, on which her vocals have been described as "dreamy sensual". Explaining the situation, Butcher said: ``, it's 7:30 in the morning, her singing was influenced by Françoise Hardy and by Kim Gordon of Sonic Youth. Butcher wrote a third of the lyrics on both Isn't Anything and Loveless but has referred to a lot of the lyrics as "plain nonsense". According to Butcher, she "didn't have a plan and never thought about lyrics until it was time to write them. I just used whatever was in my head for the moment"; some of her lyrics were written as a result of attempting to understand rough versions of songs Shields had recorded. Butcher has said: "He never sang any words on the cassettes I got but I tried to make his sounds into words, it always became my own thing in the end though.
And, the only power I had in the band". Like Shields, Butcher uses a number of offset guitars, her most notable instruments include several Fender electric guitars, including Jaguars and Mustangs. On o
Alternative rock is a style of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became popular in the 1990s. In this instance, the word "alternative" refers to the genre's distinction from mainstream rock music; the term's original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their collective debt to either the musical style or the independent, DIY ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music. At times, "alternative" has been used as a catch-all description for music from underground rock artists that receives mainstream recognition, or for any music, whether rock or not, seen to be descended from punk rock. Alternative rock broadly consists of music that differs in terms of its sound, social context and regional roots. By the end of the 1980s, magazines and zines, college radio airplay, word of mouth had increased the prominence and highlighted the diversity of alternative rock, helping to define a number of distinct styles such as noise pop, indie rock and shoegaze.
Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü and R. E. M. had signed to major labels. But most alternative bands' commercial success was limited in comparison to other genres of rock and pop music at the time, most acts remained signed to independent labels and received little attention from mainstream radio, television, or newspapers. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. In the past, popular music tastes were dictated by music executives within large entertainment corporations. Record companies signed contracts with those entertainers who were thought to become the most popular, therefore who could generate the most sales; these bands were able to record their songs in expensive studios, their works sold through record store chains that were owned by the entertainment corporations.
The record companies worked with radio and television companies to get the most exposure for their artists. The people making the decisions were business people dealing with music as a product, those bands who were not making the expected sales figures were excluded from this system. Before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups. In 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled "Rock and Roll Alternative". "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture. According to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called "Alternative Charts".
The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980. At the time, the term indie was used to describe independently distributed records. By 1985, indie' had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than distribution status; the use of the term alternative to describe rock music originated around the mid-1980s. Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving DJs more freedom in song selection. According to one former DJ and promoter, "Somehow this term'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music". At first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".
Usage of the term would broaden to include new wave, punk rock, post-punk, "college"/"indie" rock, all found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM. Journalist Jim Gerr wrote that Alternative encompassed variants such as "rap, trash and industrial". In December 1991, Spin magazine noted: "this year, for the first time, it became resoundingly clear that what has been considered alternative rock – a college-centered marketing group with lucrative, if limited, potential- has in fact moved into the mainstream"; the bill of the first Lollapalooza, an itinerant festival in North America conceived by Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell, reunited "disparate elements of the alternative rock community" including Henry Rollins, Butthole Surfers, Ice-T, Nine Inch Nails and the Banshees and Jane's Addiction. That same year, Farrell coined the term Alternative Nation. In the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. In 1997, Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle,'70s-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".
Defining music as alt