Brill is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands. With offices in Leiden, Boston and Singapore, Brill today publishes 275 journals and around 1200 new books and reference works each year. In addition, Brill is a provider of primary source materials online and on microform for researchers in the humanities and social sciences. Brill publishes in the following subject areas: The roots of Brill go back to May 17, 1683, when a certain Jordaan Luchtmans was registered as a bookseller by the Leiden booksellers' guild; as was customary at the time, Luchtmans combined his bookselling business with publishing activities. These were in the fields of biblical studies, Oriental languages, ethnography. Luchtmans established close ties with the University of Leiden, one of the major centers of study in these areas. In 1848, the business passed from the Luchtmans family to that of a former employee. In order to cover the financial obligations that he inherited, E. J. Brill decided to liquidate the entire Luchtmans book stock in a series of auctions that took place between 1848 and 1850.
Brill continued to publish in the traditional core areas of the company, with occasional excursions into other fields. Thus, in 1882, the firm brought out a two-volume Leerboek der Stoomwerktuigkunde. More programmatically, however, in 1855 Het Gebed des Heeren in veertien talen was meant to publicize Brill's ability to typeset non-Latin alphabets, such as Hebrew, Samaritan, Coptic, Arabic, among several others. In 1896, Brill became a public limited company, when E. J. Brill's successors, A. P. M. van Oordt and Frans de Stoppelaar, both businessmen with some academic background and interest, died. A series of directors followed, his directorship marked a period of unprecedented growth in the history of the company, due to a large extent to Folkers' cooperation with the German occupying forces during World War II. For the Germans, Brill printed foreign-language textbooks so that they could manage the territories they occupied, but military manuals, such as "a manual which trained German officers to distinguish the insignias of the Russian army".
In 1934, the company had a turnover of 132,000 guilders. After the war, the Dutch denazification committee determined the presence of "enemy money" in Brill's accounts. Folkers was arrested in September 1946, deprived of the right to hold a managerial post; the company itself, escaped the aftermath of the war unscathed. Brill's path in the post-war years was again marked by ups and downs, though the company remained faithful in its commitment to scholarly publishing; the late 1980s brought an acute crisis due to over-expansion, poor management, as well as general changes in the publishing industry. Thus, in 1988–91 under new management the company underwent a major restructuring, in the course of which it closed some of its foreign offices, including Cologne, its London branch was closed by then. Brill, sold its printing business, which amounted "to amputat its own limb"; this was considered necessary to save the company as a whole. No jobs were lost in the process; the reorganization managed to save the company, which has since undergone an expansion that as as 1990 had been inconceivable.
As of 2008, Brill was publishing around 600 books and 100 journals each year, with a turnover of 26 million euros. Brill publishes several open access journals and is one of thirteen publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot. In 2013, Brill created the IFLA/Brill Open Access Award for initiatives in the area of open access monograph publishing together with the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Brill is a member of the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association. List of Brill academic journals Books in the Netherlands The most up-to-date history of the company is Sytze van der Veen, Brill: 325 Years of Scholarly Publishing, ISBN 978-90-04-17032-2 Tom Verde, "Brill's Bridge to Arabic", Aramco World, 66, nr. 3, pp. 30–39 online edition. Brill Annual Report 2012 Official website A list of books published by E. J. Brill Leiden
Isles of Scilly
The Isles of Scilly is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall. One of the islands, St Agnes, is the most southerly point in England, being over 4 miles further south than the most southerly point of the British mainland at Lizard Point; the population of all the islands at the 2011 census was 2,203. Scilly forms part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall, some services are combined with those of Cornwall. However, since 1890, the islands have had a separate local authority. Since the passing of the Isles of Scilly Order 1930, this authority has had the status of a county council and today is known as the Council of the Isles of Scilly; the adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for things related to the archipelago. The Duchy of Cornwall owns most of the freehold land on the islands. Tourism is a major part of the local economy, along with agriculture—particularly the production of cut flowers; the islands may correspond to the Cassiterides believed by some to have been visited by the Phoenicians, mentioned by the Greeks.
However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin. The isles were off the coast of the Brittonic Celtic kingdom of Dumnonia and its offshoot and may have been a part of these polities until their conquest by the English in the 10th century AD, it is that until recent times the islands were much larger and joined together into one island named Ennor. Rising sea levels flooded the central plain around 400–500 AD, forming the current 55 islands and islets, if an island is defined as "land surrounded by water at high tide and supporting land vegetation"; the word Ennor is a contraction of the Old Cornish En Noer, meaning'the land' or the'great island'. Evidence for the older large island includes: A description written during Roman times designates Scilly "Scillonia insula" in the singular, indicating either a single island or an island much bigger than any of the others. Remains of a prehistoric farm have been found on Nornour, now a small rocky skerry far too small for farming. There once was an Iron Age British community here.
This community was formed by immigrants from Brittany the Veneti who were active in the tin trade that originated in mining activity in Cornwall and Devon. At certain low tides the sea becomes shallow enough for people to walk between some of the islands; this is one of the sources for stories of drowned lands, e.g. Lyonesse. Ancient field walls are visible below the high tide line off some of the islands; some of the Cornish language place names appear to reflect past shorelines, former land areas. The whole of southern England has been sinking in opposition to post-glacial rebound in Scotland: this has caused the rias on the southern Cornish coast, e.g. River Fal and the Tamar Estuary. Offshore, midway between Land's End and the Isles of Scilly, is the supposed location of the mythical lost land of Lyonesse, referred to in Arthurian literature, of which Tristan is said to have been a prince; this may be a folk memory of inundated lands, but this legend is common among the Brythonic peoples.
Scilly has been identified as the place of exile of two heretical 4th century bishops and Tiberianus, who were followers of Priscillian. In 995, Olaf Tryggvason became King Olaf I of Norway. Born c. 960, Olaf had fought in several wars. In 986 he met a Christian seer on the Isles of Scilly, he was a follower of Priscillian and part of the tiny Christian community, exiled here from Spain by Emperor Maximus for Priscillianism. In Snorri Sturluson's Royal Sagas of Norway, it is stated that this seer told him: Thou wilt become a renowned king, do celebrated deeds. Many men wilt thou bring to faith and baptism, both to thy own and others' good; when thou comest to thy ships many of thy people will conspire against thee, a battle will follow in which many of thy men will fall, thou wilt be wounded to death, carried upon a shield to thy ship. The legend continues that, as the seer foretold, Olaf was attacked by a group of mutineers upon returning to his ships; as soon as he had recovered from his wounds, he let himself be baptised.
He stopped raiding Christian cities, lived in England and Ireland. In 995, he used an opportunity to return to Norway; when he arrived, the Haakon Jarl was facing a revolt. Olaf Tryggvason persuaded the rebels to accept him as their king, Jarl Haakon was murdered by his own slave, while he was hiding from the rebels in a pig sty. With the Norman Conquest, the Isles of Scilly came more under centralised control. About 20 years the Domesday survey was conducted; the islands would have formed part of the "Exeter Domesday" circuit, which included Cornwall, Dorset and Wiltshire. In the mid-12th century, there was a Viking attack on the Isles of Scilly, called Syllingar by the Norse, recorded in the Orkneyinga saga— Sweyn Asleifsson "went south, under Ireland, seized a barge belonging to some monks in Syllingar and plundered it."...the three chiefs—Swein, Þorbjörn and Eirik—went out on a plundering expedition. They went first to the Suðreyar, all along the west to the Syllingar, where they gained a great victory in Maríuhöfn on Columba's-mass, took much booty.
Gerald of Wales
Gerald of Wales was a Cambro-Norman archdeacon of Brecon and historian. As a royal clerk to the king and two archbishops, he travelled and wrote extensively, he visited Rome several times, meeting the Pope. He was nominated for several bishoprics but turned them down in the hope of becoming bishop of St Davids, but was unsuccessful despite considerable support, his final post was as archdeacon of Brecon, from which he retired to academic study for the remainder of his life. Much of his writing survives. Born c. 1146 at Manorbier Castle in Pembrokeshire, Gerald was of mixed Norman and Welsh descent. Gerald was the youngest son of William FitzOdo de Barry or Barri, the common ancestor of the Barry family in Ireland, a retainer of Arnulf de Montgomery and Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman barons in Wales, his mother was Angharad FitzGerald, a daughter of Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor, Constable of Pembroke Castle, his wife Nest ferch Rhys, daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, the last King of South Wales.
Through his mother Angharad, Gerald was a nephew of David fitzGerald, Bishop of St David's, as well as a great-nephew of Gruffydd ap Rhys, the son and heir of Rhys ap Tewdwr, a cousin of Rhys ap Gruffydd, the famous Arglwydd Rhys and his family. Gerald received his initial education at the Benedictine house of Gloucester, followed by a period of study in Paris from c. 1165–74, where he studied the trivium. He was employed by Richard of Dover, the Archbishop of Canterbury, on various ecclesiastical missions in Wales, wherein he distinguished himself for his efforts to remove supposed abuses of consanguinity and tax laws flourishing in the Welsh church at the time, he was appointed in 1174 archdeacon of Brecon, to, attached a residence at Llanddew. He obtained this position by reporting the existence of the previous archdeacon's mistress. While administrating this post, Gerald collected tithes of cheese from the populace. Upon the death of his uncle, the Bishop of St David's, in 1176, the chapter nominated Gerald as his successor.
St David's had the long-term aim of becoming independent of Canterbury, the chapter may have thought that Gerald was the man to take up its cause. Henry II of England, fresh from his struggle with Thomas Becket, promptly rejected Gerald because his Welsh blood and ties to the ruling family of Deheubarth made him seem like a troublesome prospect, in favour of one of his Norman retainers Peter de Leia. According to Gerald, the king said at the time: "It is neither necessary or expedient for king or archbishop that a man of great honesty or vigour should become Bishop of St. David's, for fear that the Crown and Canterbury should suffer thereby; such an appointment would only give strength to the Welsh and increase their pride". The chapter acquiesced in the decision. From c. 1179-8, he taught canon law and theology. He spent an additional five years studying theology. In 1180, he received a minor appointment from the Bishop of St. David's. Gerald became a royal clerk and chaplain to King Henry II of England in 1184, first acting mediator between the crown and Prince Rhys ap Gruffydd.
He was chosen to accompany one of the king's sons, John, in 1185 on John's first expedition to Ireland. This was the catalyst for his literary career, he followed it up, shortly afterward, with an account of Henry's conquest of Ireland, the Expugnatio Hibernica. Both works were revised and added to several times before his death, display a notable degree of Latin learning, as well as a great deal of prejudice against a foreign people. Gerald was proud to be related to some of the Norman invaders of Ireland, such as his maternal uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen and Raymond FitzGerald, his influential account, which portrays the Irish as barbaric savages, gives important insight into Anglo-Norman views of Ireland and the history of the invasion. Having thus demonstrated his usefulness, Gerald was selected to accompany the Archbishop of Canterbury, Baldwin of Forde, on a tour of Wales in 1188, the object being a recruitment campaign for the Third Crusade, his account of that journey, the Itinerarium Cambriae was followed by the Descriptio Cambriae in 1194.
His two works on Wales remain valuable historical documents, useful for their descriptions – however untrustworthy and inflected by ideology and his unique style – of Welsh and Norman culture. It is uncertain; as a royal clerk, Gerald observed significant political events at first hand, was offered appointments as bishoprics of Wexford and Leighlin, at a little time the bishopric of Ossory and the archbishopric of Cashel, the Welsh Bishopric of Bangor and, in 1191, that of Llandaff. He turned them all down in the hopes of landing a more prominent bishopric in the future, he was acquainted with Walter Map. Retiring from royal service, he lived in Lincoln from c. 1196 to 1198 where his friend William de Montibus was now chancellor of the Cathedral. It was in this perio
Ingeborg of Norway
Ingeborg of Norway, was a Norwegian princess and by marriage a Swedish royal duchess with a position in the regency governments in Norway and Sweden during the minority of her son, King Magnus of Norway and Sweden. In 1318–1319, she was Sweden's de facto ruler, from 1319 until 1326, she was Sweden's first de jure female regent. Ingeborg was born as the only legitimate daughter of King Håkon V of Norway from his marriage with Euphemia of Rügen; as a child, she was first betrothed to Magnus Birgerson, the son and designated heir of Birger, King of Sweden. Soon afterwards the engagement was however broken for altered political reasons, in 1305 she was betrothed to Eric, Duke of Södermanland, a younger brother of King Birger, thus uncle of her first betrothed. In 1312, Ingeborg and Eric were formally married in a double wedding in Oslo. At her wedding, her mother Queen Euphemia had published the translated famous poems, the Euphemia songs; the couple had two children. Upon the imprisonment of her spouse and her brother-in-law and her cousin and sister-in-law, Ingeborg Eriksdottir, became the leaders of their spouses' followers.
On 16 April 1318, the two duchesses Ingeborg made a treaty in Kalmar with the Danish duke Christoffer of Halland-Samsö and archbishop Esgar of Lund to free their husbands and not to make peace with the kings of Sweden and Denmark before they agreed to this, the two duchesses promised to honor the promises they gave in return in the names of their husbands. The same year, their husbands were confirmed to have died, her son Magnus VII of Norway, at the age of 3, was proclaimed king of Norway upon her father's death, in rights devolved from her. Ingeborg was recognized as formal regent of her son in Norway. Soon, the Swedish nobility elected young Magnus king of Sweden after deposing Birger, Ingeborg was made nominal regent of Sweden and given a seat and vote in the Swedish government and the title: Ingeborg, by the Grace of God, daughter of Haakon, duchess in the Kingdom of Sweden. Duchess Ingeborg held her own court at her residence in Varberg. Letters 1318-1321 reveal that powerful Swedish men took advantage of the young dowager duchess by having her issue and over her own seal, documents to their advantage as compensation for their support of the murdered dukes Eric and Waldemar and of little Magnus's right to the throne.
The exact position of Ingeborg in the regency council is hard to define properly due to the documentation. Mats Kettilumndsson, her ally, presided over the Swedish regency council "alongside" the two "duchesses Ingeborg". Magnus King of Norway, was elected King of Sweden with the approval of the Norwegian council in her presence. Ingeborg was the only one with a seat in both the Swedish and the Norwegian minor regency and council of state, she was duchess of her own fiefs, which were autonomous under her rule, a large number of castles which controlled big areas thanks to their strategic positions. "Ingeborg's position at court was not well-defined: she was the king's mother, but without being a dowager queen." She was criticized for her way of conducting her own politics without the counsel of the Swedish and Norwegian councils, for using the royal seal of her son for her own wishes. 1 October 1320, she liberated Riga from its debts in her name on behalf of her son. She was known to make large donations to her supporters.
Canute Porse was appointed governor of Varberg. Ingeborg surrounded herself with young foreign men, thought to affect her politics, of which Canute was the most known. 12 April 1321, the Swedish council, after receiving complaints from the Norwegian council regarding a rumour of crimes and disturbances in Ingeborg's lands made by foreigners, told the Norwegian council to advise Ingeborg to listen more to the advice of the old experienced men in the councils rather than to young unexperienced foreign men. Ingeborg and Canute had the ambition to make the Danish Scania a part of her possessions. In 1321, Ingeborg arranged a marriage with Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg; the marriage was arranged with the terms that Mecklenburg, Holstein and Schleswig would assist Ingeborg in the conquest of Scania. This was approved by the council of Norway but not Sweden. To finance the invasion, Ingeborg took a loan from Stralsund with free trade in Sweden and Norway as security; when Ingeborg's forces under command of Canute invaded Scania in 1322-23, Mecklenburg betrayed her to Denmark and the alliance was broken.
In 1322, open conflict broke out between the Swedish regency council. In 1323, Ingeborg was forced to accept the terms and give up several of her strategical castles and fiefs. 20 February 1323 the Norwegian regency council rebelled against Ingeborg. She was accused of misusing the royal seal, to have broken the peace with Denmark and for greater costs, was replaced as head of the regency. After 1323, Ingeborgs power was limited to what was approved by votes in the councils, which in practice had deposed her. 14 February 1326, in exchange for having her debts paid, Ingeborg gave up several fiefs and wa
Helga Moddansdóttir was the mistress of Haakon Paulsson, Earl of Orkney from 1105–1123. The Orkneyinga saga states that she was the daughter of Moddan - described as a rich and well-born farmer - and that she and the earl had three children, she was a member of a powerful dynasty in northern Scotland, sometimes referred to as "Clan Moddan" by modern historians, whose power base was "Dale" near the modern-day Helmsdale in Sutherland. Although little is known about her own activities save a fabulous story about a poisoned shirt that killed her son Harald it is clear that she, her sister Frakkök and her children had a significant impact on the politics of early 12th century Orkney and Sutherland. After the death of earl Magnus Erlendsson c. 1115 at the hands of his cousin Haakon Paulsson, the family of Moddan of Dale played a significant part in the affairs of the Earldom of Orkney. However, their origins are obscure. For a date in the mid-11th century the Orkneyinga saga mentions that "Muddan", a nephew of a King of Scots the saga calls Karl Hundason, became jarl of Caithness.
He had not held this position long when he was killed by Thorkel "the Fosterer" Sumarlidason, an ally of Earl of Orkney Thorfinn Sigurdsson. Thorkel was able to approach Muddan's base in Thurso because "all the people of Caithness were faithful and loyal to him", it is far from certain that Helga's father Moddan was a descendant of this earlier namesake, there is no suggestion that Moddan was a jarl, but his son Ótarr was. Furthermore, Ótarr had his base at Thurso. Whatever their origins, in addition to the titled Ótarr, Helga's siblings were, Angus "the Generous" and her sisters Frakkök and Þorleif; these children had both Norse and Gaelic names, whereas Orcadian families tended to have Norse names. It is thus that Helga's ancestors were of mixed heritage with her father being of Celtic origin and her mother having a Norse background and related to the jarl Óttar, killed in 1098 fighting in Man; the saga describes Helga as the mistress or concubine of Earl Haakon, but has nothing to say about the mother of Haakon's other named child, Páll.
Sellar suggests that a degree of polygamy appears to have been acceptable among high-status families in Norse Scotland and that the distinction between wives and concubines may not have been rigid. Helga and Harald's children had diverse fortunes. Harald "Smooth-tongue" became earl on the death of his father and ruled jointly with his half-brother Páll "the Silent" until his death in 1130, his demise came about because of a plot involving Helga and her sister Frakkök. Ingibjörg married Olaf Morsel, King of the Isles, their daughter Ragnhild married Somerled and from them descended the 13th-century Lords of Argyll, Clan MacDougall, the Lords of the Isles, Clan Donald, Clan MacRory, Clan MacAlister. Their third child Margaret married Matad, Earl of Atholl, whose son Harald Maddadsson was earl of Orkney from 1138 until 1206 and whom the Orkneyinga Saga describes one of the three most powerful Earls of Orkney along with Sigurd Eysteinsson and Thorfinn Sigurdsson. After the death of Earl Haakon c. 1123 Harald and Páll inherited their father's title "and the farmers had grave doubts about how the brothers... would get on together."When Frakkök's husband Ljot "the Renegade" died she journeyed from her home in Sutherland to Orkney in the company of Sigurd "Fake-Deacon" and other members of her clan.
Frakkök and Helga "had a lot to say in the government of Earl Harald" and soon two factions emerged, each supporting one of the joint earls. These political troubles involved Thorkel Fosterer, a close ally of Earl Magnus and who had suffered under the rule of Earl Haakon. Earl Harald and Sigurd Fake-Deacon attacked and killed the by now elderly Thorkel, which infuriated Earl Páll and led to a political crisis. Fearing war, the Orcadian farmers clamoured for a settlement and Sigurd was banished from the islands and Harald had to pay compensation for the death of Thorkel; as was the case with Icelandic language writing of this period, the aims of the Orkneyinga saga were to provide a sense of social continuity through the telling of history combined with an entertaining narrative drive. The tales are thought to have been compiled from a number of sources, combining family pedigrees, praise poetry and oral legends with historical facts. However, there are examples of fictional elements such as the effects of the poisoned shirt that killed jarl Harald Haakonsson.
The saga relates how at Christmas Frakökk and Helga were staying on Earl Harald's estate at Orphir prior to a Yule feast to which Harald had invited his half-brother Páll. The sisters were sewing a snow-white garment embroidered with gold; this garment was enchanted, the two sisters had intended it for Earl Páll. For the sisters, Earl Harald noticed the beautiful garment and, despite their protestations, put the garment on, his body gave a great shiver, followed by a burning pain and soon after he died. The saga states that Earl Páll took control of his deceased half-brother's possessions, that he was suspicious of the two sisters thereafter. After the death of Harald and Frakkök were banished from Orkney and returned to Dale, where Frakkök was killed by Sweyn Asleifsson after an ill-judged attack against Earl Páll using troops she and her grandson Olvir "Brawl" had gathered in the Hebrides. After the "sinister" Frakkök's death her holdings in Sutherland were inherited by Eirik Stay-Brails, grandson of Þorleif Moddansdottir.
The saga is silent regarding Helga's fate although it does relate that in the complex battle fo
The Orkneyinga saga is a historical narrative of the history of the Orkney and Shetland islands and their relationship with other local polities Norway and Scotland. The saga has "no parallel in the social and literary record of Scotland" and is "the only medieval chronicle to have Orkney as the central place of action"; the main focus of the work is the line of jarls who ruled the Earldom of Orkney, which constituted the Norðreyjar or Northern Isles of both Orkney and Shetland and there are frequent references to both archipelagoes throughout. The narrative commences with a brief mythical ancestry tale and proceeds to outline the Norse take-over of the Norðreyjar by Harald Fairhair – the former event is not in doubt although the role of the latter King of Norway is no longer accepted by historians as a likelihood; the saga outlines, with varying degrees of detail, the lives and times of the many jarls who ruled the islands between the 9th and 13th centuries. The extent to which the earlier sections in particular can be considered genuine history rather than fiction have been much debated by scholars.
There are several recurring themes in the Orkneyinga saga, including strife between brothers, relationships between the jarls and the Norwegian crown, raiding in the Suðreyjar – the Hebrides. In part, the saga's purpose was to provide a history of the islands and enable its readers to "understand themselves through a knowledge of their origins" but where its historical veracity is lacking it provides modern scholars with insights into the motives of the writers and the politics of 13th century Orkney; this Norse saga was written around in the early thirteenth century by an unknown Icelandic author, associated with the cultural centre at Oddi. Orkneyinga saga belongs to the genre of "Kings’ Sagas" within Icelandic saga literature, a group of histories of the kings of Norway, the best known of, Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson. Indeed Sturluson used Orkneyinga saga as one of his sources for Heimskringla, compiled around 1230; as was the case with Icelandic language writing of this period, the aims of the saga were to provide a sense of social continuity through the telling of history combined with an entertaining narrative drive.
The tales are thought to have been compiled from a number of sources, combining family pedigrees, praise poetry and oral legends with historical facts. In the case of the Orkneyinga saga the document outlines the lives of the earls of Orkney and how they came about their earldom. Woolf suggests that the task that the Icelandic compiler was faced with was not dissimilar to trying to write a "history of the Second World War on the basis of Hollywood movies", he notes that a problem with medieval Icelandic historiography in general is the difficulty of fixing of a clear chronology based on stories created in a illiterate society in which "AD dating was unknown" at the time. As the narrative approaches the period closer to the time it was written down, historians have greater confidence in its accuracy. For example, there are significant family connections between Snorri Sturluson and Earl Harald Maddadsson and the original saga document was written down at about the time of Harald's death. Vigassun identifies several different components to the saga, which may have had different authors and date from different periods.
These are: Fundinn Noregr chapters 1–3 Iarla Sogur chapters 4–38 St Magnus saga chapters 39–55 Iarteina-bok chapter 60 The History of Earl Rognwald and Swain Asleifsson chapters 56–59 and 61–118. A Danish translation dating to 1570 indicates that the original version of the saga ended with the death of Sweyn Asleifsson, killed fighting in Dublin in 1171. Various additions were added circa 1234-5 when a grandson of Asleifsson and a lawmaker called Hrafn visited Iceland; the oldest complete text is found in the late 14th century Flateyjarbók but the first translation into English did not appear until 1873. The first three chapters of the saga are a brief folk legend that sets the scene for events, it commences with characters associated with the elements – Snaer, Logi and Frosti and gives a unique explanation for how Norway came to be named as such, involving Snaer's grandson Nór. There is a reference to claiming land by dragging a boat over a neck of land and the division of the land between Nór and his brother Gór, a recurring theme in the saga.
This legend gives the Orkney jarls an origin involving a giant and king called Fornjót who lived in the far north. This distinguishes them from the Norwegian kings as described in the Ynglingatal and may have been intended to give the jarls a more senior and more Nordic ancestry. Having dealt with the mythical ancestry of the earls, the saga moves on to topics that are intended as genuine history; the next few chapters deal with the creation of the Earldom of Orkney. The saga states that Rognvald Eysteinsson was made the Earl of Møre by the King of Norway, Harald Fairhair. Rognvald accompanied the king on a great military expedition. First the islands of Shetland and Orkney were cleared of vikings, raiding Norway and they continued on to Scotland and the Isle of Man. During this campaig
Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas. Part of the county of Midlothian, it is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore. Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is the seat of the Scottish Government, the Scottish Parliament and the supreme courts of Scotland; the city's Palace of Holyroodhouse is the official residence of the monarch in Scotland. The city has long been a centre of education in the fields of medicine, Scots law, philosophy, the sciences and engineering, it is the second largest financial centre in the United Kingdom and the city's historical and cultural attractions have made it the United Kingdom's second most popular tourist destination, attracting over one million overseas visitors each year. Edinburgh is Scotland's second most populous city and the seventh most populous in the United Kingdom; the official population estimates are 488,050 for the Locality of Edinburgh, 513,210 for the City of Edinburgh, 1,339,380 for the city region.
Edinburgh lies at the heart of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region comprising East Lothian, Fife, Scottish Borders and West Lothian. The city is the annual venue of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, it is home to national institutions such as the National Museum of Scotland, the National Library of Scotland and the Scottish National Gallery. The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1582 and now one of four in the city, is placed 18th in the QS World University Rankings for 2019; the city is famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival. Historic sites in Edinburgh include Edinburgh Castle, the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the churches of St. Giles and the Canongate, the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th/19th centuries. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town together are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, managed by Edinburgh World Heritage since 1999. "Edin", the root of the city's name, derives from Eidyn, the name for this region in Cumbric, the Brittonic Celtic language spoken there.
The name's meaning is unknown. The district of Eidyn centred on the dun or hillfort of Eidyn; this stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle. Eidyn was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia in the 7th century and by the Scots in the 10th century; as the language shifted to Old English, subsequently to modern English and Scots, The Brittonic din in Din Eidyn was replaced by burh, producing Edinburgh. Din became dùn in Scottish Gaelic, producing Dùn Èideann; the city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, Scots for Old Smoky, for the views from the country of the smoke-covered Old Town. Allan Ramsay said. A name the country people give Edinburgh from the cloud of smoke or reek, always impending over it."Thomas Carlyle said, "Smoke cloud hangs over old Edinburgh,—for since Aeneas Silvius's time and earlier, the people have the art strange to Aeneas, of burning a certain sort of black stones, Edinburgh with its chimneys is called'Auld Reekie' by the country people."A character in Walter Scott's The Abbot says "... yonder stands Auld Reekie--you may see the smoke hover over her at twenty miles' distance."Robert Chambers who said that the sobriquet could not be traced before the reign of Charles II attributed the name to a Fife laird, Durham of Largo, who regulated the bedtime of his children by the smoke rising above Edinburgh from the fires of the tenements.
"It's time now bairns, to tak' the beuks, gang to our beds, for yonder's Auld Reekie, I see, putting on her nicht -cap!"Some have called Edinburgh the Athens of the North for a variety of reasons. The earliest comparison between the two cities showed that they had a similar topography, with the Castle Rock of Edinburgh performing a similar role to the Athenian Acropolis. Both of them had fertile agricultural land sloping down to a port several miles away. Although this arrangement is common in Southern Europe, it is rare in Northern Europe; the 18th-century intellectual life, referred to as the Scottish Enlightenment, was a key influence in gaining the name. Such luminaries as David Hume and Adam Smith shone during this period. Having lost most of its political importance after the Union, some hoped that Edinburgh could gain a similar influence on London as Athens had on Rome. A contributing factor was the neoclassical architecture that of William Henry Playfair, the National Monument. Tom Stoppard's character Archie, of Jumpers, said playing on Reykjavík meaning "smoky bay", that the "Reykjavík of the South" would be more appropriate.
The city has been known by several Latin names, such as Aneda or Edina. The adjectival form of the latter, can be seen inscribed on educational buildings; the Scots poets Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns used Edina in their poems. Ben Jonson described it as "Britaine's other eye", Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "yon Empress of the North". Robert Louis Stevenson a son of the city, wrote, "Edinburgh is what Paris ought to be"; the colloquial pronunciation "Embra" or "Embro" has been used, as in Robert Garioch's Embro to the Ploy. The earliest known human habitation in the Edinburgh area was at Cramond, where evidence was found of a Mesolithi