Winfield is an incorporated village located in Milton and Winfield Townships, DuPage County, United States. The population was 8,718 at the 2000 census and as of 2016 the population was 9,492. Winfield is home to one of the largest hospitals in the Chicago suburbs. Winfield has a Metra station on the Union Pacific/West Line, which provides regular commuter rail service to Chicago. Attractions adjacent to Winfield include the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County's Kline Creek Farm, a living history farm located on the west side of County Farm Road between Geneva and St. Charles Roads. Cantigny is located on the east side of Winfield Road, just south of Illinois Route 38 known as Roosevelt Road. Winfield enjoys parks and recreational services provided by the Winfield Park District; the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County owns and operates several other open space areas surrounding Winfield. Winfield is considered to be one of the top ten safest towns in Illinois. Winfield tried to become an incorporated village in 1884 under the town name'Frederick Park.'
However, the motion was denied as the town did not have 300 residents as was required for incorporation. When the village was incorporated in 1921, the town had a population of 310 people; the earliest settlers and Jude P. Gary came to Winfield in 1832. Winfield was known as Gary's Mill after these early settlers, Fredricksburg, owing to a significant German-speaking population. In the late 1800s, the settlement’s name was changed again to Winfield after the war hero Winfield Scott. Winfield was home to one of the oldest taverns in the Chicago suburbs, John's Restaurant and Tavern, founded in 1921 by immigrant John T Karwoski, it closed its doors in December 2017. John Karwoski was instrumental in the political and economic development of Winfield, it was his guidance and leadership that took a fledgling prairie town clinging to existence after the railroad boom went bust, turned it into a viable and livable village. Mr Karwoski became the first Chief of the all-volunteer Winfield Volunteer Fire Company in 1935.
45 years his son John Karwoski II was made Chief of the expanded Winfield Fire Protection District in 1980. Winfield was served by The Winfield Glimpses newspaper from October 1947 to October 1976; the Glimpses changed its name to the Winfield Examiner in November 1976 and ran until February 1992. A full collection of these newspapers is available on microfilm at the Winfield Public Library. Winfield is home to another remnant of the past, called Schmidt's Pond. In the late 1800s, Peter Schmidt dug a pond to provide a place to harvest ice in the winter. Schmidt used the ice for his meat market, but provided ice to the village in general; the property, located between Park Street and Summit Avenue, just south of Town Center Winfield featured an ice house to store the harvested ice. While the ice house has since been turned into a private residence, the pond survives; the pond all but disappeared in the 1970s and 1980s due to lowering water tables, but has since returned, thanks in part to the village hooking up to Lake Michigan for its primary water use and a rising water table.
The pond is home to many ducks, muskrat, frogs and fish, while the pond is on private property, it can be seen from Park Street and Summit Avenues. Hedges station is the oldest train depot in Illinois, it was built in 1849 on the west side of Church Street, where the police station is standing. In 1977 Winfield Township bought the station, their plan to demolish the building to construct a parking lot and more village offices was opposed by citizens who wanted the oldest building standing in Winfield to be turned into a historical site instead. After many arguments, the Township decided to move into another location. In 1981 Hedges station was moved to Winfield road, where it is located, is now a museum. In 1897 a rest home was constructed in Winfield; this rest home was owned by Jessie P. Forsythe until she retired in 1908 and sold it to Emanuel Mandel. In 1909 the home was reconstructed into the Chicago-Winfield Tuberculosis Sanitarium; as tuberculosis became a curable disease, the Sanitarium saw a decrease in patients and all were transferred to Michael Reese in Chicago.
In 1962 the Sanitarium was purchased by the Central DuPage Hospital Association. The Samuel and Eleanor Himmelfarb Home and Studio was constructed in the wooded outskirts of western Winfield, IL in 1942 by the modernist artists; the design was influenced by the Usonian architectural styles of Frank Lloyd Wright. St. John the Baptist Catholic Church was approved to be built on February 21, 1867; the residents of Winfield gathered their efforts and the church was erected that year. The church had its first baptism in 1867. On August 17, 1906 the church burned down in a thunder storm. According to Louise Spank, "only the alters, pews. Stations of the cross, communion rail could be saved." The church was rebuilt within a year. Winfield is located at 41°51′57″N 88°09′25″W. Winfield is, by and large, surrounded by forests, including several DuPage County Forest Preserves on the north and south, it borders Wheaton to the West Chicago to the west. According to the 2010 census, Winfield has a total area of 3.03 square miles, of which 2.99 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water.
There are a total of 15 parks within the Village of Winfield offe
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
St. Charles, Illinois
St. Charles is a city in DuPage and Kane counties in the U. S. state of Illinois. It lies 40 miles west of Chicago on Illinois Route 64; as of the 2010 census the population was 32,974, as of 2017 the population had dropped to an estimated 32,714. The official city slogan is "Pride of the Fox", after the Fox River that runs through the center of town. St. Charles is part of a tri-city area along with Geneva and Batavia, all western suburbs of similar size and relative socioeconomic condition. St. Charles was the location of the Native American community for the chief of the Pottawatomie that inhabited the area. A city park overlooking the river was dedicated to this Native American past. After the Black Hawk War in 1832, the entire area of the Fox Valley was opened to American settlement. Evan Shelby and William Franklin staked the first claim in what is now St. Charles in 1833, they came back in 1834 with their families from Indiana, were joined by over a dozen other families that year. The township was known as Charleston, but this name was taken by the downstate city of Charleston, Illinois so the name of St. Charles was adopted in 1839.
St. Charles became incorporated as a city February 9, 1839 and reincorporated October 17, 1874. Several "stations" of the slavery-era Underground Railroad were in St. Charles homes, complete with tunnels and false doorways. Most accounts lead back to a local blacksmith who set up shop in a building now known as 305 W Main St; this was most "the hub," This address is the easiest to visit from the dozen "stations" known. As of 2015 a fine dining establishment holds residence at that address bearing a name in honor of that Blacksmith. St. Charles was a isolated place early on in its existence; the village was located three days away from Chicago, the Fox River was not navigable for large boats. By the 1850s, St. Charles had begun construction of a plank road to Sycamore but turned down an offer by the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad to construct a line through the town, built in nearby Elgin. Lack of regional connections in the early years kept the town small. St. Charles was without a railroad until 1871 when a branch line from Geneva was constructed, was without a direct connection to Chicago until the 1880s with the coming of the Chicago Great Western Railway.
Streetcar lines along the Fox River between Elgin and Aurora were built through the city in 1896, operated by the Aurora and Fox River Electric company. A direct automobile route to Chicago, which became Route 64, was constructed in 1920. Four Illinois state routes, including Routes 38, 25 and 31 now run through the city. Two major Kane County roads cut through the city. St. Charles was the place of settlement for diverse groups of European immigrants, including those from Ireland and Sweden during the 1840s and 1950s, groups from Belgium and Lithuania. According to the 2010 census, St. Charles has a total area of 14.934 square miles, of which 14.61 square miles is land and 0.324 square miles is water. The Fox River runs though downtown. Potawatomie Park, which sits on the river is the largest park in St. Charles and a popular destination for both tourists and citizens tri-city area. According to the 2000 census, population density is 1,993.9 inhabitants per square mile. There are 11,072 housing units at an average density of 791.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city is 93.81% White, 1.66% African American, 0.14% Native American, 1.79% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 5.50 % of the population are Latino of any race. There are 10,351 households out of which 36.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.1% are married couples living together, 8.0% have a female householder with no husband present, 28.3% are non-families. 23.5% of all households are made up of individuals and 8.0% have someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.62 and the average family size is 3.13. In the city the population is spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 29.6% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 10.2% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 37 years. For every 100 females, there are 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the city is $75,181, the median income for a family is $94,704.
Males have a median income of $55,864 versus $35,134 for females. The per capita income for the city is $33,969. 3.4% of the population and 2.1% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 3.4% of those under the age of 18 and 3.9% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line. The Illinois Youth Center St. Charles, a juvenile correctional facility of the Illinois Department of Juvenile Justice, is in St. Charles, it opened in December 1904. The public education system in St. Charles is operated by the Community Unit School District 303, which has thirteen elementary schools: Anderson, Bell-Graham, Davis, Ferson Creek, Fox Ridge, Munhall, Norton Creek and Wild Rose. Including Davis Primary, Richmond Intermediate split elementary schools. There are two middle schools: Wredling.
Carol Stream, Illinois
Carol Stream is a village in DuPage County, United States. Incorporated on January 5, 1959, named after the developer's daughter, Carol Stream had a population of 39,711 as of the 2010 United States Census. In 2011 CNN's Money Magazine ranked Carol Stream 49th on its list of 100 best places to live in the United States. In 1853, St. John Wahlund Catholic Church was built in Gretna; the church was closed in 1867. When St. Michael Church was opened in Wheaton in 1872, the St. Stephen parishioners were transferred to that parish; the church building was dismantled sometime in the late 19th century. St. Stephen Cemetery was located adjacent to the church building, it was last used for burial in 1910. The St. Stephen Cemetery was rededicated 100 years on September 12, 2010. In 1952, a farm from the area was featured on NBC. A common misconception is that the municipality of Carol Stream was named for a local minor waterway. In fact, Carol Stream is one of the few communities in America that took its name from the first and last names of a living person: Carol Stream, the daughter of its founder Jay Stream.
Jay W. Stream, a military veteran who had sold insurance and ready-mix concrete, was in the mid-1950s heading Durable Construction Company, he became frustrated with red tape while negotiating a planned 350–400 home subdivision in nearby Naperville, Illinois. A Naperville clerk advised Stream to "build your own town", in 1957, Stream began buying unincorporated farmland outside Wheaton, he hoped to allow people to work in the town, rather than have to commute to Chicago. On August 26, 1957, Carol and three friends were returning from Racine, Wisconsin in a 1949 Studebaker. While attempting to cross U. S. Route 45 in central Kenosha County, the car was struck in the right rear corner, killing 15-year-old Richard Christie of Chicago, the passenger seated there. Carol was ejected into a utility pole. Neurosurgeons at Kenosha Memorial Hospital said the comatose girl might never awaken or, if she did, would be handicapped. On advice of the doctors that her recovery might improve with good news, Jay decided to name the new community in her honor.
After four months in a coma, Carol regained consciousness. Learning the new village bore her full name, Carol said she thought it "silly" at first. Carol Stream was to be named Jacqueline Stream, but her parents changed her name to Carol when her due date fell near Christmas, she never lived in her namesake community, but moved from Wheaton, Illinois, to Arizona in 1957 following the end of her parents' marriage. She still participates in municipal celebrations and rides in parades during anniversary celebrations of the municipality's 1959 incorporation, is asked for autographs when she is in town. One of the town's two middle schools, Jay Stream Middle School is named after the founder, Jay Stream, who died on January 22, 2006. 1959: The village of Carol Stream is founded by Jay Stream, who envisions strong corporate growth in the area. First village board meeting on February 12. 1962: The Carol Stream Public Library opens at 397 Blackhawk Drive. 1965: The first Citizen of the Year Awards were given to Carl Bornholt and Elsie Johnson.
1966: The Carol Stream News is founded. 1966: Nina Jo Schmale of Carol Stream is one of the eight student nurses killed by Richard Speck. 1972: The Carol Stream Fire Protection District is formed 1975: Janice Gerzevske is first woman elected Village President. 1976: As part of the United States Bicentennial celebrations, Carol Stream opens Gretna Station Museum with a July 4 dedication. 1984: The Carol Stream Association of Business and Industry is formed. 1987: Ross Ferraro is elected Mayor of Carol Stream. 1991: Village is re-certified as an Illinois certified city. Mark Bodane Appointed Fire Chief of the Carol Stream Fire District. 1992: The Carol Stream Post Office opens a regional processing center at Schmale and Fullerton. Most of the unincorporated areas around Carol Stream assume the ZIP Code of the new post office, causing some consternation among those who are used to having an address associated with Wheaton. 1992: The Carol Stream Chamber of Commerce is incorporated. 1998: The Town Center is dedicated to be known as the Ross Ferraro Town Center.
2003: Richard Willing becomes new police chief. 2006: Founder of Carol Stream, Jay Stream, dies January 22 2007: Frank Saverino replaces Ross Ferraro as Mayor, ending Ferraro's 20-year tenure. Mark Bodane retires as Fire Chief of Carol Stream Fire District. 2009: Carol Stream celebrates its 50th anniversary. 2011: Carol Stream ranked #49 on CNN Money Magazine's top places to live in the US and #1 in the state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, Carol Stream has a total area of 9.416 square miles, of which 9.09 square miles is land and 0.326 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 40,438 people, 13,872 households, 10,140 families residing in the village; the population density was 4,545.8 people per square mile. There were 14,200 housing units at an average density of 1,596.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 60.51% White, 11.20% Asian, 25.0% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.79% from other races, 2.06% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.03% of the population. Of the 13,872 households, 45.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.7% were married couples li
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
Downers Grove, Illinois
Downers Grove is a village in DuPage County, United States. It was founded in 1832 by Pierce Downer, it is a south-western suburb of Chicago in the I-55 Corridor Downers Grove was founded in 1832 by Pierce Downer, a farmer who traveled to Illinois from Rutland, New York, but was from Vermont. Its other early settlers included the Blodgett, Blanchard, Stanley and Carpenter families; the original settlers were migrants from the Northeastern United States and Northern Europe. The first schoolhouse was built in 1844; the Chicago and Quincy Railroad was extended from Aurora to Chicago through Downers Grove in 1864, boosting its population. The town was incorporated in March 1873, its somewhat unusual spelling remains a minor historical mystery. In April 1947 the wreck of a Burlington Railroad Twin Cities Zephyr passenger train killed three people, including the engineer; the streamliner struck a large tractor which had fallen from a freight train and two passenger cars crashed through a wall of the Main Street Station.
The construction of two major toll roads along the village's northern and western boundaries, I-355 in 1989 and what is now referred to as I-88 in 1958, facilitated its access to the rest of Chicago metropolitan area. Downers Grove has developed into a bustling Chicago suburb with many diverse businesses, including the headquarters for Devry University, FTD, Ambitech Engineering Corp, Heartland Food Corporation, HAVI Global Solutions. Downers Grove's 50-minute connection to the Loop via three BNSF Railway stations provides many working residents with a convenient commute to the city. Downers Grove itself serves as headquarters for a multitude of locally and nationally renowned businesses. Respective examples include Every Day's a Sundae,The Savory Gourmet, Advocate Health Care, Fortune 500 member Dover Corporation; the village is home to regional satellite offices of numerous national corporations, including Microsoft, MetLife, State Farm. Downers Grove's retail economy is supported by the local section of Ogden Avenue.
Part of U. S. Route 66, the stretch of Ogden Avenue that weaves through Chicago's western suburbs is known for its extensive range of automobile dealerships, classic car dealerships, service centers. Brands represented by Downers Grove auto groups include Aston Martin, Chrysler-Dodge-Jeep-Ram, Lamborghini, Mitsubishi and Volkswagen. Ogden—a colloquial shortening of the road's name—is framed by a variety of grocery and convenience stores such as CVS, Fresh Thyme Farmers Market, Trader Joe's, Walgreens. While the road serves as a route to destinations and corporate parks that host the aforementioned headquarters can be found on Ogden's tributaries adjacent to major tollways such as I-355 or I-88. According to the Village's 2017 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Downers Grove is located at 41.7948036°N 88.0169400°W / 41.7948036. According to the 2010 census, Downers Grove has a total area of 14.457 square miles, of which 14.31 square miles is land and 0.147 square miles is water.
Only the DuPage County communities of Bartlett, Aurora and Bolingbrook have larger land areas. Within the town are two forest preserves: Lyman Woods and Maple Grove Forest Preserve. A small creek runs through Maple Grove forest preserve. Downers Grove has been designated a Tree City USA 28 times by the National Arbor Day Foundation. Downers Grove borders the communities of Oak Brook, Darien, Lombard and Lisle. Downers Grove is in a humid continental climate zone. On average, January is the coldest month. August has the most precipitation, February the least; the record high for Downers Grove was 105 °F in July 2005, the record low of −26 °F was set in January 1985. The housing stock in Downers Grove comprises a mixture. Downers Grove has witnessed one of the highest teardown rates in the Chicago area. Teardowns have been the source of much controversy within the village. Since they occupy much more land than the original houses, rainwater, absorbed by their yards is directed into neighboring yards and streets, resulting in flooding.
Concerns have been expressed. Downers Grove prides itself on the presence of about 25 Sears-Roebuck Catalog Homes, built using purchased kits between 1908 and 1940. During 2006 and 2007, a movement arose to establish the 1846 Blodgett House as a museum of the Underground Railroad; the house has now been moved onto the Downers Grove Museum Campus. In 2012, the mean value of all owner-occupied housing units was $150,050 and the median value was $100,000. In 2018, the median sales price of a single-family home in Downers Grove was $382,500; this is a 1% increase from 2017 and the highest median sales price for Downers Grove since 2008. The main line of the BNSF Railway Line, the line is used by Metra commuter rail. Metra's BNSF Railway Line has three stops in Downers Grove at Belmont Road, Main Street, Fairview Avenue. Interstate Highways 355 and 88 pass through the community, as well as the major surface street US 34-Ogden Avenue. Downers Grove is served by a system of suburban public transportation.