A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. Robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed on the lines of human form, but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade, with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers; the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing is robotics.
These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics; these robots have created a newer branch of robotics: soft robotics. From the time of ancient civilization there have been many accounts of user-configurable automated devices and automata resembling animals and humans, designed as entertainment; as mechanical techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The term comes from a Czech word, meaning "forced labor". U. R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek, the word's true inventor. Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by William Grey Walter in Bristol, England in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control machine tools in the late 1940s by John T. Parsons and Frank L. Stulen.
The first commercial and programmable robot was built by George Devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to General Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher Guide Plant in the West Trenton section of Ewing Township, New Jersey. Robots have replaced humans in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea. There are concerns about the increasing use of their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions; the use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future; the word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are referred to as bots.
There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate autonomously to some degree, move around, operate physical parts of itself or physical processes and manipulate their environment, exhibit intelligent behavior behavior which mimics humans or other animals. Related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic Biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines; the idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, the artificial birds of Mozi and Lu Ban, a "speaking" automaton by Hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of Byzantium, a human automaton described in the Lie Zi.
Many ancient mythologies, most modern religions include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus, the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. Since circa 400 BC, myths of Crete include Talos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures." In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria, a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, described machines powered by air pressure and water; the 11th century Lokapannatti tells of how the Buddha's relics were protected by mechanical robots, from the kingdom of Roma visaya. In ancient China, the
Stiquito is a small, inexpensive hexapod robot used by universities, high schools, hobbyists, since 1992. Stiquito's "muscles" are made of nitinol, a shape memory alloy that expands and contracts emulating the operation of a muscle; the application of heat causes a crystalline structure change in the wire. Nitinol contracts when heated and returns to its original size and shape when cooled. Stiquito was developed by Jonathan W. Mills of Indiana University as an inexpensive vehicle for his research, he soon found. It has been used to introduce students to the concepts of analogue electronics, digital electronics, computer control, robotics, it has been used for advanced topics such as subsumption architectures, artificial intelligence, advanced computer architecture. These books contain instructions for building the Stiquito robot, instructions for designing and building control circuits, examples of student projects that use Stiquito. Most the books contain all the supplies needed to build the robot.
James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito: Advanced Experiments with a Simple and Inexpensive Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7408-3; this first book contains chapters written by the co-author, their students, other roboticists. These chapters describe the Stiquito Robots, their applications, examples of Stiquito's robot cousins. Of note is a chapter by well known robot inventor Mark Tilden; the kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad and Jonathan W. Mills. Stiquito for Beginners: An Introduction to Robotics. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press. ISBN 0-8186-7514-4; this second book has more of an educational bent. It includes experiments with electricity and nitinol, it has several examples of computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot. The kit included inside the book is the original Stiquito robot. James M. Conrad. Stiquito Controlled! Making a Truly Autonomous Robot. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press.
ISBN 0-471-48882-8. This third book includes more educational material on Stiquito Computer/microcontroller control of the Stiquito Robot; the kit included inside the book is the TI MSP430-based controller board and the Stiquito robot, “Stiquito Controlled”. The first book was compiled from material written between 1991 and 1996; the chapter has more of a "research" feel since it shows the base robot and slight variations and applications of it. The second book was compiled from materials written for education, it includes instructions of control using supplemental kits. The third book is educationally-based, it is a slight departure from the first two books because the third book are centered around a microcontroller board and its leg actuation electronics. Stiquito home page Audio interview with James Conrad about the history of Stiquito Robots Podcast 8 August 2014
Mark W. Tilden is a robotics physicist who produces complex robotic movements from simple analog logic circuits with discrete electronic components, without a microprocessor, he is controversial because of his libertarian Tilden's Laws of Robotics, is known for his invention of BEAM robotics and the WowWee Robosapien humanoid robot. Born in the UK in 1961, raised in Canada, Tilden started at the University of Waterloo moved on to the Los Alamos National Laboratory where he developed simple robots such as the SATbot which instinctively aligned itself to the magnetic field of the earth, de-mining insectoids, "Nervous Network" theory and applications, interplanetary explorers, behavioral research into many solar-powered "Living Machines" of his own design. Tilden referred to his early robots as "wimpy" for the results of their programming using Isaac Asimov's Three Rules of Robotics, he accordingly promulgated another set of three rules for what he called "wild" robots survivalists. Having left government service and moved to Hong Kong, Tilden works as a freelance robotics designer and lecturer.
His commercial products are marketed through WowWee Toys. Biomorphic robot-based items include B. I. O. Bugs, Constructobots, G. I Joe Hoverstrike, RoboSapien, Robosapien v2, Robopet, Roboreptile, RS Media, Roboboa, the humanform Femisapien and the Roomscooper floor-cleaning robot. Tilden and his robots have been featured on several television specials, such as "Robots Rising", "The Shape of Life", "TechnoSpy", "Extreme Machines - Incredible Robots", "The Science behind Star Wars", as well as many magazines, newspaper publications and books. A comprehensive article on Tilden by Thomas Marsh is viewable online through the "Robot" Magazine website. Tilden was a technical consultant for the robot scenes in the 2001 movie Lara Croft: Tomb Raider, his robots are continuous background props in the TV series The Big Bang Theory. Movies which feature his robots in prominent roles include The 40 Year Old Virgin, Paul Blart Mall Cop and X-Men: The Last Stand. Tilden appeared in the 2016 documentary film Machine of Human Dreams, which showed the work of several prominent technologists based in Hong Kong.
Behavior based robotics Robot EvoSapien - A website dedicated on Hacking the Robosapien Robot, lots of mods, useful information, codings, videos, including the new line of Mark Tilden Robots. EvoRaptor A Website dedicated to the Roboraptor, videos, videos and lots more. Created 2005 by M. W Tilden and Wow hacked by fans and the Maker community. RoboCommunity - The official WowWee Robotics user community detailing hacks and how-it-was-made pictorial articles on Mark's robots. Superstreng Podcast- A September 2006 podcast interview with Mark Tilden, conducted by Eirik Newth for Norwegian science radio show Superstreng. Robotsrule - Detailed information site on many commercially available entertainment robots. Solarbotics - On-line store for parts, plans and history of BEAM robotics. BEAM Discussion Group - Active on-line discussion group of BEAM robots, builders and history. "Robot" Magazine - Detailed article on Mark Tilden's history and robotics approach, with images. Discover Magazine - Article about Mark Tilden
Watercraft known as marine vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in water, including ships, boats and submarines. Watercraft have a propulsive capability and hence are distinct from a simple device that floats, such as a log raft. Most watercraft would be described as either a boat. However, there are numerous craft which many people would consider neither a ship nor a boat, such as: surfboards, underwater robots and torpedoes. Although ships are larger than boats, the distinction between those two categories is not one of size per se. Ships are large ocean-going vessels. A rule of thumb says "a boat can fit on a ship, but a ship can't fit on a boat", a ship has sufficient size to carry its own boats, such as lifeboats, dinghies, or runabouts. Local law and regulation may define the exact size. Traditionally, submarines were called "boats" reflecting their cramped conditions: small size reduces the need for power, thus the need to surface or snorkel for a supply of the air that running marine diesel engines requires.
A merchant ship is any floating craft. In this context, a passenger ship's "cargo" is its passengers; the term "watercraft" is used to describe any individual object: rather the term serves to unify the category that ranges from jet skis to aircraft carriers. Such a vessel may be used in freshwater; the purposes behind watercraft designs and skills are for seafaring education or leisure activities and resource extraction, transportation of cargo or passengers, for conducting combat or salvage operations. In general, the purpose of a water vehicle identifies its utility with a maritime industry sub-sector; the design from which a water vehicle is created seeks to achieve a balance between internal capacity and seaworthiness. Tonnage is predominantly a consideration in transport operations, speed is important for warships, safety is a primary consideration for less experienced or smaller and less stable training and leisure vehicles; this is due to the great level of regulatory compliance required by the larger watercraft, which ensures infrequent instances of foundering at sea through application of extensive computer modeling and ship model basin testing before shipyard construction begins.
Water vehicles have been propelled by people with poles, paddles, or oars, through manipulation of sails that propel by wind pressure and/or lift, a variety of engineered machinery that create subsurface thrust through the process of internal combustion or electricity. The technological history of watercraft in European history can be divided by reference to marine propulsion as simple paddle craft, oared galleys from the 8th century BCE until the 15th century, lateen sail during the Age of Discovery from the early 15th century and into the early 17th century, full rigged ships of the Age of Sail from the 16th to the mid 19th century, the Age of Steam reciprocating marine steam engine between 1770 and 1914, the steam turbine gas turbine, internal combustion engines using diesel fuel, petrol and LNG as fuels from the turn of the 20th century, which have been supplemented to a degree by nuclear marine propulsion since the 1950s in some naval watercraft. Current technological development seeks to identify cheaper and less polluting sources of propulsion for watercraft of all shapes and sizes.
Secondary applications of technology in watercraft have been those of used structural materials, navigation aids. The purpose of usage and the physical environment define the materials used in construction which had included grasses, timbers, metals combined with timber or without and plastic derivatives, others. Watercraft registration is the registration of a watercraft with a government authority. In the United States, it consists of an alphanumeric string called a vessel registration number, issued by the state's Department of Motor Vehicles. Navigation aids have varied over time: from astronomical observation, to mechanical mechanisms, more analogue and digital computer devices that now rely on GPS systems. Naval weapon systems have followed the development in land weapons, developing from: aircraft carriers breech-loading rifled guns direct enemy hull ramming to use of basic mechanical projectiles firing shells missiles and remotely piloted devices naval mine layers and minesweeper smooth-bore cannonball firing guns torpedo-armed submarines warships armed with fire control directed weaponsUntil development of steam propulsion was coupled with rapid-firing breech-loading guns, naval combat was concluded by a boarding combat between the opposing crews.
Since the early 20th century, there has been a substantial development in technologies which allow force projection from a naval task force to a land objective using marine infantry. Watercraft portal The Canadian Museum of Civilization - Native Watercraft in Canada A History of Recreational Small Watercraft Recreational Watercraft
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, others. Robotics deals with the design, construction and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, information processing; these technologies are used to develop machines that can substitute for humans and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in many situations and for lots of purposes, but today many are used in dangerous environments, manufacturing processes, or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance; this is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, speech and anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature; the concept of creating machines that can operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow until the 20th century.
Throughout history, it has been assumed by various scholars, inventors and technicians that robots will one day be able to mimic human behavior and manage tasks in a human-like fashion. Today, robotics is a growing field, as technological advances continue. Many robots are built to do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is used in STEM as a teaching aid; the advent of nanorobots, microscopic robots that can be injected into the human body, could revolutionize medicine and human health. Robotics is a branch of engineering that involves the conception, design and operation of robots; this field overlaps with electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, mechatronics and bioengineering. The word robotics was derived from the word robot, introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R. U. R., published in 1920. The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota; the play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots, creatures who can be mistaken for humans – similar to the modern ideas of androids.
Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround, where he introduced his concept of The Three Laws of Robotics. However, the original publication of "Liar!" Predates that of "Runaround" by ten months, so the former is cited as the word's origin. In 1948, Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of the basis of practical robotics. Autonomous only appeared in the second half of the 20th century; the first digitally operated and programmable robot, the Unimate, was installed in 1961 to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
Commercial and industrial robots are widespread today and used to perform jobs more cheaply and more reliably, than humans. They are employed in some jobs which are too dirty, dangerous, or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are used in manufacturing, assembly and packaging, transport and space exploration, weaponry, laboratory research and the mass production of consumer and industrial goods. There are many types of robots. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks; the mechanical aspect is the creator's solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it. Form follows function. Robots have electrical components. For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads; that power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit. Petrol powered machines that get their power from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process, why most petrol powered machines like cars, have batteries.
The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform b
Turtles are a class of educational robots designed in the late 1940s and used in computer science and mechanical engineering training. These devices are traditionally built low to the ground with a hemispheric shell and a power train capable of a small turning radius; the robots are equipped with sensor devices which aid in avoiding obstacles and, if the robot is sufficiently sophisticated, allow it some perception of its environment. Turtle robots are common projects for robotics hobbyists. Turtle robots are associated with the work of Seymour Papert and the common use of the Logo programming language in computer education of the 1980s. Turtles designed for use with Logo systems come with pen mechanisms allowing the programmer to create a design on a large sheet of paper; the original Logo turtle, built by Paul Wexelblat at BBN, was named "Irving" and was demonstrated at the former Muzzey Junior High in Lexington, Massachusetts. "Irving" could give audio feedback with a bell. The development of the robotic Logo turtle led to the use of the term to describe the cursor in video screen implementations of the language and its turtle graphics package.
Root Robotics, LOGO inspired turtle-like robot performing the original functionality of the "Irving" robot but a smaller scale that drives on the classroom whiteboard. BEAM robotics, the branch of robotics pioneered in part by William Grey Walter, specializing in autonomous devices using simple analog control systems iRobot Create and its predecessor Roomba, turtle-like robots designed for domestic use Player Project, a free robotics suite. Curses, an interactive fiction game by Graham Nelson that includes a voice-operated turtle in one of its more difficult puzzles Unicycle cart, for a mathematical model of the dynamics of a turtle robot Butiá robot, turns xo computer in a logo controlled robot Robot Turtles, the board game that teaches programming to 4 to 8 yr olds Littlecodr, a card game to help kids from 4 yrs on learn the building blocks of writing code, where players replace the turtle. LogoTurtle, a 3D breadboard electronics floor turtle for hobbyist construction; the Story of Turtle Robots in Pictures.
Articles about Turtle and Roamer robots. Photo gallery of Walter's original turtles and a Lego-based replica Pictures and information about early UK analog turtle designs from the Bristol Robotics Laboratory A Logo Primer or Whats with the Turtles Logo Foundation
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant