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Swing (politics)

An electoral swing analysis shows the extent of change in voter support from one election to another, expressed as a positive or negative percentage. A multi-party swing is an indicator of a change in the electorate's preference between candidates or parties between major parties in a two-party system. A swing can be calculated for the electorate as a whole, for a given electoral district or for a particular demographic. A swing is useful for analysing change in voter support over time, or as a tool for predicting the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems. Swing is usefully deployed when analysing the shift in voter intentions revealed by opinion polls or to compare polls concisely which may rely on differing samples and on markedly different swings and therefore predict extraneous results. A swing is calculated by comparing the percentage of the vote in a particular election to the percentage of the vote belonging to the same party or candidate at the previous election. One-party swing = Percentage of vote − percentage of vote.

Labor Party 51 % less Labor Party 41 % means. Examples include the comparison between the 2007 Ukrainian Parliamentary elections; the above charts show the change in voter support for each of the six major political parties by electoral district and nationwide vote results. In many nation states' media, including in Australia and the United Kingdom, swing is expressed in terms of two parties; this practice is most useful where most governments tend to be from an existing two-party system but other candidates do sometimes run, is used to predict the outcome of elections in constituency-based systems where different seats are held with different previous levels of support. An assumption underlies extrapolated national calculations: that all districts will experience the same swing as shown in a poll or in a place's results; the advantage of this swing is the fact that the loss of support for one party will in most cases be accompanied by smaller or bigger gain in support for the other, but both figures are averaged into one.

Employing the two assumptions allows the analyst to compute an electoral pendulum, predicting how many seats will change hands given a particular swing, what size uniform swing would therefore bring about a change of government. In Australia, the term "swing" refers to the change in the performance of a political party or candidate in an election or opinion poll; as Australia uses the preferential voting system, swing can be expressed in terms of the primary vote, or in terms of the two-party-preferred or two-candidate-preferred result, which may represent different values due to preference flows. In the UK a two-party swing is used, which adds one party's increase in share of the vote to the percentage-point fall of another party and dividing the total by two. So if Party One's vote rises by 4 points and Party Two's vote falls 5 points, the swing is 4.5 points. For disambiguation suffixes such as: must be added where three parties stand. Otherwise a problem when deciding which swing is meant and which swing is best to publish arises where a lower party takes first or second.

Originating as a mathematical calculation for comparing the results of two constituencies, any of these figures can be used as an indication of the scale of voter change between any two political parties, as shown below for the 2010 United Kingdom general election: Swing in the United States can refer to swing state, those states that are known to shift an outcome between Democrats and Republican Parties, equivalent on a local level to marginal seats. By contrast, a non-swing state is the direct equivalent of a safe seat, as it changes in outcome; the extent of change in political outcome is influenced by the voting system in use. Some websites provide a pie chart based or column-based multi party swingometer where ± x%, ± x%, ± x% and so on is displayed or can be input for three parties; this tool or illustration provides outcomes wherever more than two political parties have a significant influence on which politicians are elected. Swing vote Swingometer Notes References

Yasuda zaibatsu

Yasuda zaibatsu was a financial conglomerate owned and managed by the Yasuda clan. One of the four major zaibatsu of Imperial Japan, it was founded by the entrepreneur Yasuda Zenjirō, it was dissolved at the end of World War II. Yasuda Zenjirō began working in a money changing house. In 1863, he started providing tax-farming services, magnified his wealth by buying up depreciated Meiji paper money that the government subsequently exchanged for gold, he began to amass newly available capital, establishing the Third National Bank in 1876 and forming the Yasuda Bank in 1880, the center of the Yasuda zaibatsu. Yasuda consolidated his empire in banking and finance, specializing in backing small and medium-sized traders and industrialists. In 1880, Yasuda founded the Yasuda Mutual Life Insurance Company. In 1893, the Yasuda zaibatsu absorbed the Tokyo Fire Insurance Company renamed the Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Company; the Yasuda focus on banking was narrowed by the merger of eleven Yasuda-controlled banks into the Yasuda Bank in 1913.

The post-merger bank was by far the largest of all the zaibatsu banks. Zenjirō Yasuda was assassinated in 1921 when he refused to make a financial donation to an ultra-nationalist. Zenjirō's son, Zennosuke Yasuda, assumed leadership of the zaibatsu. By 1928, the Yasuda zaibatsu was ranked behind only the Mitsui and Mitsubishi groups in total capital. In that year, the Yasuda zaibatsu encompassed 66 companies and reported total capital of ¥308 million. During World War II, the Japanese government began forcing consolidation of major financial institutions. In January 1942, Hajime Yasuda, the head of the conglomerate, announced that all Yasuda family members would withdraw from related and subsidiary companies, assuming new leadership positions as board members over all zaibatsu concerns. Following Japan's defeat in August 1945, Hajime Yasuda and Yasuda executives assumed a leadership role in planning for the dissolution of their own group; the "Yasuda plan" was submitted in October 1945 and stipulated that the Yasuda zaibatsu would be dissolved and that Yasuda Bank would cease to control Yasuda subsidiaries.

In addition, family members and executives appointed by them would resign from all Yasuda companies. The Yasuda Plan, with some revisions, was accepted by the U. S. government in November of that year. After the restoration of the sovereignty of Japan, the Yasuda family was lifted from employment restrictions at Yasuda affiliates and formed the Fuyo Group with Fuji Bank, the successor to Yasuda Bank, at the core. Although the Yasuda Zaibatsu was revived as a corporate group, it was no longer controlled by Yasuda family management. Artist Yoko Ono, the wife of musician John Lennon, is a daughter of the Yasuda clan, she is the granddaughter of Yasuda Zenjiro. Fuyo Group Yoko Ono "The Yasuda Mutual Life Insurance Company - Company Profile, Business Description, Background Information on The Yasuda Mutual Life Insurance Company". Retrieved 2008-04-16

Bendigo State Park

Bendigo State Park is a 100.26-acre Pennsylvania state park in Jones Township, Elk County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The park is in a valley on the East Branch Clarion River. 20 acres of the park are developed. The other 80 acres are undeveloped woodlands of beech, birch and maple. Bendigo State Park is named for an Irish tavern keeper, who lived in England, named William Thompson. Thompson was a prizefighter of some renown. Boxing for money was illegal at the time in England and Thompson was arrested 28 times for breaking the law. Legend holds that Thompson fled to America, to avoid prosecution, when an opponent died in the ring due to injuries sustained in the fight, he adopted the name Bendigo, a corruption of the Old Testament name Abed-nego and moved to the frontier of northwestern Pennsylvania. The newly named, began serving as a Methodist evangelist while working on the railroads, he was a tall and strong man and soon became a favorite of his Italian co-workers. No records exist to support the claim that Thompson left the British Isles let alone lived in the area.

The lumber industry was beginning to boom in northwestern Pennsylvania as Bendigo was making his rounds as an evangelist and a mill town in Elk County was named Bendigo in his honor. The lumber era was not to last forever; the forests were chopped down by the early 20th century and many of the mill towns, like Bendigo, were abandoned. The borough of Johnsonburg acquired the land, Bendigo State Park in the 1920s and established a community park; the Works Progress Administration of U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt made many improvements to the park during the Great Depression. Flooding on the East Branch of the Clarion River destroyed most of the works of the WPA in the 1940s, but a stone wall and dam on the river are still standing. Ownership of the park was transferred to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in 1949 and over the course of ten years improvements were made. Bendigo State Park was formally opened to the public on August 15, 1959; the park is at an elevation of 1,493 feet. Bendigo State Park attracts families interested in picnicking facilities.

The pool is opened daily from 11:00 am until 7:00 pm beginning Memorial Day weekend and ending Labor Day weekend. There are over 150 picnic tables in several picnic areas; the picnic areas have drinking water, horseshoe pits and restrooms. The following state parks are within 30 miles of Bendigo State Park: Bucktail State Park Natural Area Clear Creek State Park Elk State Park Kinzua Bridge State Park Parker Dam State Park S. B. Elliott State Park Sinnemahoning State Park Sizerville State Park "Bendigo State Park official map"