Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Harlan Thompson was an American theatre director, lyricist, film director, film and television producer. He wrote the Broadway hit Little Jessie James, several other Broadway musicals, he moved to Hollywood, where he was in turn a writer and producer. Harlan Thompson was born in Hannibal, Missouri, on 24 September 1890, he went to high school in Kansas City and attended the University of Kansas. He studied chemical engineering. Thompson became a editor for The Kansas City Star and Kansas City Post. During World War I he was in the 167th Aero Squadron of the American Expeditionary Forces. After the war he worked for the New York World. In 1923 Harlan Thompson wrote the book and lyrics for the musical comedy Little Jessie James, with music by Harry Archer, it was produced by L. Lawrence Weber; the musical played at the Longacre Theatre on Broadway from 15 August 1923 to 27 January 1924 moved to the Little Theatre where it played until 19 July 1924. The show played for a total of 385 performances on Broadway.
Nan Halperin played Jessie Jamieson, in pursuit of Jay Velie as Paul Revere. Supporting roles were played by Allen Kearns; the show was low-cost, with only eight chorus girls. Halperin and Jay Velie introduced the song I Love You by Archer. Little Jessie James was the biggest hit of the season and I Love You was the biggest hit of all the songs from that season's musicals. After their success with Little Jessie James and Archer created the musical farce My Girl that opened at the Vanderbilt Theatre on 24 November 1924 and starring Jane Taylor and Russell Mack; the show included catchy numbers like You And I, ran for six months. Thompson and Archer collaborated again on Merry, which opened on 24 September 1925 at the Vanderbilt; the musical starred Harry Puck. Although not exceptional, it ran for five months. In 1926 Thompson and Harry Archer launched the musical comedy Twinkle Twinkle, which opened at the Liberty Theatre on 16 November 1926. Thompson wrote the libretto while Archer wrote the score, with help from Harry Ruby.
The stars were Alan Edwards, while Joe E. Brown played a comic detective. Twinkle Twinkle ran for twenty one weeks. Thompson began to work for Fox as a writer, he combined and adapted the operettas Married in Hollywood and Ein Waltzertraum to create the dialog for the film Married in Hollywood directed by Marcel Silver. The stars were Norma Terris; the New York Times said the film was "adroitly interspersed with joviality and clever photographic embellishments". However, it was a box office failure. Only twelve minutes from the last reel have survived. In 1929 the German director F. W. Murnau began filming Our Daily Bread for Fox, one of studio's the last silent movies, he aimed for great realism in depicting the transition from the fields where wheat was harvested to the dark rooms in Chicago where the bread was consumed. Filming started late, on 2 August Murnau came down with appendicitis. With a deadline set by the harvest season, filming on location in Oregon began without him; the rushes looked unpromising.
Thompson was sent to Oregon early in September to try to add some comedy to the scenario. A mutilated version of the film was released as City Girl. Thompson wrote the scenario and dialog for the romantic drama Women Everywhere starring J. Harold Murray and directed by Alexander Korda. According to Variety it was "one of those gems found in the herd of program pictures"; the film was forgotten. Thompson wrote the dialog for the musical Are You There? Directed by Hamilton MacFadden and starring Beatrice Lillie; the film was unusual as a musical about a female detective. Release was delayed from the end of 1930 to early summer of 1931; the film received mixed reviews. Variety panned it, but Exhibitors Herald-World described Lillie as "smart-looking and mirth-provoking... Her personality and grace are registered superbly upon the screen." Thompson wrote the screenplay for Girls Demand Excitement directed by Seymour Felix and starring Virginia Cherrill, John Wayne and Marguerite Churchill. After moving to Paramount, Thompson collaborated with Walter de Leon on the screenplay for the musical The Phantom President directed by Norman Taurog.
In 1933, David O. Selznick, a producer at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, was negotiating with Walt Disney for co-production of a cartoon version of Baron Munchausen starring Mickey Mouse. Thompson and Victor Heerman prepared a script for the film, to be called Vas You Dere, but the project was abandoned. Thompson was assigned as "continuity writer" to the Mae West vehicle, she had fired two writers, assigned by Paramount, but accepted help from Thompson, who wrote a lot of the script and some of Mae West's dialog. According to Thompson's wife, "How much she contributed I don't know, but she moved in, as she always moved in on anything, got credit for the story, the screenplay and the dialogue." Thompson was the main scriptwriter for Here is My Heart, adapted from Alfred Savoir's play The Grand Duchess and the Waiter and starring Bing Crosby and Kitty Carlisle. The film was praised by the critics, who noted Crosby's performance as a talented comedian, not just a crooner. Harlan Thompson and George Marion, Jr. wrote the scenario for Make-Up.
Thompson directed the film, which starred Cary Grant, Helen Mack an
Harold Arlen was an American composer of popular music who composed over 500 songs, a number of which have become known worldwide. In addition to composing the songs for the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, including the classic "Over the Rainbow", Arlen is a regarded contributor to the Great American Songbook. "Over the Rainbow" was voted the 20th century's No. 1 song by the Recording Industry Association of America and the National Endowment for the Arts. Arlen was born in New York, United States, the child of a cantor, his twin brother died the next day. He learned to play the piano as a youth, formed a band as a young man, he achieved some local success as a pianist and singer before moving to New York City in his early twenties, where he worked as an accompanist in vaudeville and changed his name to Harold Arlen. Between 1926 and about 1934, Arlen appeared as a band vocalist on records by The Buffalodians, Red Nichols, Joe Venuti, Leo Reisman, Eddie Duchin singing his own compositions. In 1929, Arlen composed his first well-known song: "Get Happy".
Throughout the early and mid-1930s, Arlen and Koehler wrote shows for the Cotton Club, a popular Harlem night club, as well as for Broadway musicals and Hollywood films. Arlen and Koehler's partnership resulted in a number of hit songs, including the familiar standards "Let's Fall in Love" and "Stormy Weather". Arlen continued to perform as a pianist and vocalist with some success, most notably on records with Leo Reisman's society dance orchestra. Arlen's compositions have always been popular with jazz musicians because of his facility at incorporating a blues feeling into the idiom of the American popular song. In the mid-1930s, Arlen married, spent increasing time in California, writing for movie musicals, it was at this time that he began working with lyricist E. Y. "Yip" Harburg. In 1938, the team was hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz, the most famous of, "Over the Rainbow", for which they won the Academy Award for Best Music, Original Song, they wrote "Down with Love", "Lydia the Tattooed Lady", for Groucho Marx in At the Circus in 1939, "Happiness is a Thing Called Joe", for Ethel Waters in the 1943 movie Cabin in the Sky.
Arlen was a longtime friend and onetime roommate of actor Ray Bolger, who starred in The Wizard of Oz. In the 1940s, he teamed up with lyricist Johnny Mercer, continued to write hit songs like "Blues in the Night", "Out of this World", "That Old Black Magic", "Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive", "Any Place I Hang My Hat Is Home", "Come Rain or Come Shine" and "One for My Baby". Arlen composed two defining tunes which bookend Judy Garland's musical persona: as a yearning, innocent girl in "Over the Rainbow" and a world-weary, "chic chanteuse" with "The Man That Got Away", the last written for the 1954 version of the film A Star Is Born. Arlen died of cancer at his Manhattan apartment at the age of eighty-one. 1905 Arlen born in Buffalo, New York 1920 He formed his first professional band, Hyman Arluck's Snappy Trio. 1921 Against his parents' wishes. 1923 With his new band – The Southbound Shufflers, performed on the Crystal Beach lake boat "Canadiana" during the summer of 1923. 1924 Performed at Lake Shore Manor during the summer of 1924.
1924 Wrote his first song, collaborating with friend Hyman Cheiffetz to write "My Gal, My Pal". Copyrighting the song as "My Gal, Won't You Please Come Back to Me?" and listed lyrics by Cheiffetz and music by Harold Arluck. 1925 Makes his way to New York City with The Buffalodians, with Arlen playing piano. 1926 Had first published song, collaborating with Dick George to compose "Minor Gaff" under the name Harold Arluck. 1928 Chaim Arluck renames himself a name that combined his parents' surnames. 1929 Landed a singing and acting role as Cokey Joe in the musical The Great Day. 1929 Composed his first well known song – "Get Happy" – under the name Harold Arlen. 1929 Signed a yearlong song writing contract with the George and Arthur Piantadosi firm. 1930–1934 Wrote music for the Cotton Club. 1933 At a party, along with partner Ted Koehler, wrote the major hit song "Stormy Weather" 1933 Billboard heralded Shakespeare as the most prolific playwright in history, Arlen as the most prolific composer. 1934 Wrote "Ill Wind" with lyrics by Ted Koehler for their last show at the Cotton Club Parade, in 1934, sung by Adelaide Hall 1935 Went back to California after being signed by Samuel Goldwyn to write songs for the film Strike Me Pink.
1937 Composed the score for the Broadway musical Hooray for What!. Married 22-year-old Anya Taranda, a celebrated Powers Agency model and former Earl Carroll and Busby Berkeley showgirl and one of the Original "Breck Girls". 1938 Hired by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to compose songs for The Wizard of Oz. 1938 While driving along Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood and stopping in front of Schwab's Drug Store, seeing a rainbow appear over Hollywood, came up with the song "Over the Rainbow". 1941 Wrote "Blues in the Night" 1942 Along with Johnny Mercer, he wrote one of his most famous songs, "That Old Black Magic". 1943 Wrote "My Shining Hour" 1944 While driving with songwriter partner Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Accentuate the Positive". 1945 In a single evening's work in October with Johnny Mercer came up with the song "Come Rain or Come Shine". 1949 Collaborated with Ralph Blane
Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Born to a wealthy family in Indiana, he defied the wishes of his domineering grandfather and took up music as a profession. Classically trained, he was drawn to musical theatre. After a slow start, he began to achieve success in the 1920s, by the 1930s he was one of the major songwriters for the Broadway musical stage. Unlike many successful Broadway composers, Porter wrote the lyrics as well as the music for his songs. After a serious horseback riding accident in 1937, Porter was left disabled and in constant pain, but he continued to work, his shows of the early 1940s did not contain the lasting hits of his best work of the 1920s and'30s, but in 1948 he made a triumphant comeback with his most successful musical, Kiss Me, Kate. It won the first Tony Award for Best Musical. Porter's other musicals include Fifty Million Frenchmen, DuBarry Was a Lady, Anything Goes, Can-Can and Silk Stockings, his numerous hit songs include "Night and Day", "Begin the Beguine", "I Get a Kick Out of You", "Well, Did You Evah!", "I've Got You Under My Skin", "My Heart Belongs to Daddy" and "You're the Top".
He composed scores for films from the 1930s to the 1950s, including Born to Dance, which featured the song "You'd Be So Easy to Love". Porter was born in Peru, the only surviving child of a wealthy family, his father, Samuel Fenwick Porter, was a druggist by trade. His mother, was the indulged daughter of James Omar "J. O." Cole, "the richest man in Indiana", a coal and timber speculator who dominated the family. J. O. Cole built the couple a house on his Peru-area property. After high school, Porter returned to his childhood home only for occasional visits. Porter's strong-willed mother began his musical training at an early age, he learned the violin at age six, the piano at eight, wrote his first operetta at ten. She falsified his recorded birth year, changing it from 1891 to 1893 to make him appear more precocious, his father, a shy and unassertive man, played a lesser role in Porter's upbringing, although as an amateur poet, he may have influenced his son's gifts for rhyme and meter. Porter's father was a talented singer and pianist, but the father-son relationship was not close.
J. O. Cole wanted his grandson to become a lawyer, with that in mind, sent him to Worcester Academy in Massachusetts in 1905. Porter brought an upright piano with him to school and found that music, his ability to entertain, made it easy for him to make friends. Porter did well in school and came home to visit, he became class valedictorian and was rewarded by his grandfather with a tour of France and Germany. Entering Yale University in 1909, Porter majored in English, minored in music, studied French, he was a member of Scroll and Key and Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, contributed to campus humor magazine The Yale Record. He was an early member of the Whiffenpoofs a cappella singing group and participated in several other music clubs. Porter wrote 300 songs while at Yale, including student songs such as the football fight songs "Bulldog" and "Bingo Eli Yale" that are still played at Yale today. During college, Porter became acquainted with New York City's vibrant nightlife, taking the train there for dinner and nights on the town with his classmates, before returning to New Haven, early in the morning.
He wrote musical comedy scores for his fraternity, the Yale Dramatic Association, as a student at Harvard – Cora, And the Villain Still Pursued Her, The Pot of Gold, The Kaleidoscope and Paranoia – which helped prepare him for a career as a Broadway and Hollywood composer and lyricist. After graduating from Yale, Porter enrolled in Harvard Law School in 1913, he soon felt that he was not destined to be a lawyer, and, at the suggestion of the dean of the law school, switched to Harvard's music department, where he studied harmony and counterpoint with Pietro Yon. Kate Porter did not object to this move. In 1915, Porter's first song on Broadway, "Esmeralda", appeared in the revue Hands Up; the quick success was followed by failure: his first Broadway production, in 1916, See America First, a "patriotic comic opera" modeled on Gilbert and Sullivan, with a book by T. Lawrason Riggs, was a flop, closing after two weeks. Porter spent the next year in New York City before going overseas during World War I.
In 1917, when the United States entered World War I, Porter moved to Paris to work with the Duryea Relief organization. Some writers have been skeptical about Porter's claim to have served in the French Foreign Legion, but the Legion lists Porter as one of its soldiers and displays his portrait at its museum in Aubagne. By some accounts, he served in North Africa and was transferred to the French Officers School at Fontainebleau, teaching gunnery to American soldiers. An obituary notice in The New York Times said that, while in the Legion, "he had a specially constructed portable piano made for him so that he could carry it on his back and entertain the troops in their bivouacs." Another account, given by Porter, is that he joined the recruiting department of the American Aviation Headquarters, according to his biographer Stephen Citron, there is no record of his joining this or any other branch of the forces. Porter maintained a luxury apartment in Paris, his parties were extrava
Harry Warren was an American composer and lyricist. Warren was the first major American songwriter to write for film, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Song eleven times and won three Oscars for composing "Lullaby of Broadway", "You'll Never Know" and "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe". He wrote the music for the first blockbuster film musical, 42nd Street, choreographed by Busby Berkeley, with whom he would collaborate on many musical films. Over a career spanning four decades, Warren wrote more than 800 songs. Other well known Warren hits included "I Only Have Eyes for You", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby", "Jeepers Creepers", "The Gold Diggers' Song", "That's Amore", "There Will Never Be Another You", "The More I See You", "At Last" and "Chattanooga Choo Choo". Warren was one of America's most prolific film composers, his songs have been featured in over 300 films. Warren was born Salvatore Antonio Guaragna, one of eleven children of Italian immigrants Antonio and Rachel De Luca Guaragna, grew up in Brooklyn, New York.
His father changed the family name to Warren. Although his parents could not afford music lessons, Warren had an early interest in music and taught himself to play his father's accordion, he sang in the church choir and learned to play the drums. He began to play the drums professionally by age 14 and dropped out of high school at 16 to play with his godfather's band in a traveling carnival. Soon he taught himself to play the piano and by 1915, he was working at the Vitagraph Motion Picture Studios, where he did a variety of administrative jobs, such as props man, played mood music on the piano for the actors, acted in bit parts and was an assistant director, he played the piano in cafés and silent-movie houses. In 1918 he joined the U. S. Navy, where he began writing songs. Warren wrote over 800 songs between 1981, publishing over 500 of them, they were written for 56 feature films or were used in other films that used Warren's newly written or existing songs. His songs appeared in over 300 films and 112 of Warner Bros.
Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons. 42 of his songs were on the top ten list of the radio program "Your Hit Parade", a measure of a song's popularity. 21 of these reached #1 on Your Hit Parade. "You'll Never Know" appeared 24 times. His song "I Only Have Eyes for You" is listed in the list of the 25 most-performed songs of the 20th Century, as compiled by the American Society of Composers and Publishers. Warren was the director of ASCAP from 1929 to 1932, he collaborated on some of his most famous songs with lyricists Al Dubin, Billy Rose, Mack Gordon, Leo Robin, Ira Gershwin and Johnny Mercer. In 1942 the Gordon-Warren song "Chattanooga Choo-Choo", as performed by the Glenn Miller Orchestra, became the first gold record in history, it was No.1 for nine weeks on the Billboard pop singles chart in 1941–1942, selling 1.2 million copies. Among his biggest hits were "There Will Never Be Another You", "I Only Have Eyes for You", "Forty-Second Street", "The Gold Diggers' Song", "Lullaby of Broadway", "Serenade In Blue", "At Last", "Jeepers Creepers", "You're Getting to Be a Habit with Me", "That's Amore", "Young and Healthy".
Warren's first hit song was "Rose of the Rio Grande", with lyrics by Edgar Leslie. He wrote a succession of hit songs in the 1920s, including "I Love My Baby" and "Seminola" in 1925, "Where Do You Work-a John?" and "In My Gondola" in 1926 and "Nagasaki" in 1928. In 1930, he composed the music for the song "Cheerful Little Earful" for the Billy Rose Broadway revue and Low, composed the music, with lyrics by Mort Dixon and Joe Young, for the Ed Wynn Broadway revue The Laugh Parade in 1931, he started working for Warner Brothers in 1932, paired with Dubin to write the score for the first blockbuster film musical, 42nd Street, continued to work there for six years, writing the scores for 32 more musicals. He worked for 20th Century Fox writing with Mack Gordon, he moved to MGM starting in 1944, writing for musical films such as The Harvey Girls and The Barkleys of Broadway, many starring Fred Astaire. He worked for Paramount, starting in the early 1950s, writing for the Bing Crosby movie Just for You and the Martin and Lewis movie The Caddy, the latter containing the hit song "That's Amore".
He continued to write songs for several more Jerry Lewis comedies. Warren is remembered for writing scores for the films of Busby Berkeley, his "uptempo songs are as memorable as Berkeley's choreography, as for the same reason: they capture, in a few snazzy notes, the vigorous frivolity of the Jazz Age."Warren won the Academy Award for Best Song three times, collaborating with three different lyricists: "Lullaby of Broadway" with Al Dubin in 1935, "You'll Never Know" with Mack Gordon in 1943, "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe" with Johnny Mercer in 1946. He was nominated for eleven Oscars. In 1955, Warren wrote "The Legend of Wyatt Earp", used in the ABC/Desilu Studios television series, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp, he wrote the opening theme, "Hey, Marty", for the film Marty, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1955. The last musical score that Warren composed for Broadway was Shangri-La, a disastrous 1956 adaptation of James Hilton's Lost Horizon, which ran for only 21 performances.
In 1957, he received his last Academy Award nomination for "An Affair To Remember". He continued to write songs for movies throughou
In the Wee Small Hours
In the Wee Small Hours is the ninth studio album by American vocalist Frank Sinatra. It was released in April 1955 by Capitol and produced by Voyle Gilmore with arrangements by Nelson Riddle. All the songs on the album deal with themes such as loneliness, lost love, failed relationships and night life. In the Wee Small Hours has been called one of the first concept albums; the cover artwork reflects these themes, portraying Sinatra on an eerie and deserted street awash in blue-tinged street lights. He had been developing this idea since 1946 with The Voice, he would continue this "concept" with albums such as Songs for Swingin' Lovers! and Only the Lonely. In the Wee Small Hours was issued as two 10-inch LP discs, as one 12-inch record LP, making it one of the first of its kind in the pop field, it was issued as four four–song 45-rpm EP discs sold in cardboard sleeves with the same cover as the LPs, not in paper covers like 45-rpm singles. The album was a commercial success, reaching number 2 on the Billboard album chart, where it stayed for 18 weeks, becoming Sinatra's highest charting album since Songs by Sinatra in 1947.
In 2012, Rolling Stone ranked it the 101st greatest album of all time. By the early 1950s, the singer saw his career in decline, his teen "bobby soxer" audience having lost interest in him as he entered his late 30s. In 1951, he went so far as according to one author; that year, a second season of The Frank Sinatra Show was aired on CBS, but failed to receive the same positive reception the first season had, with its host having lost his previous energy. Sinatra was dropped from Columbia. Against the wishes of his colleagues, on March 14, 1953 vice president of A&R at Capitol Alan Livingston signed Sinatra to a seven-year deal; the deal proved to be a success. The film was successful and his performance was acclaimed, winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. With this new popularity he recorded two albums, Songs for Young Lovers and Swing Easy!, which both peaked at number three on the Billboard album chart, with the latter reaching number five on the UK Album Charts.
His performance as the lead character in The Man with the Golden Arm earned him nominations for Best Actor at the Academy Awards and the BAFTA awards. By the time he recorded, he and his first wife, Nancy Barbato, separated on Valentine's Day 1950. While still married, he began a relationship with Ava Gardner. After he and Barbato divorced in October 1951, he married Gardner ten days later, but they were both jealous of the other's extramarital affairs. The relationship deteriorated during the recording of Songs for Young Lovers. Despite considerable influence in getting him a part in From Here to Eternity, Gardner left Sinatra two months after the release of the film, divorcing in 1957, she said, "We don't have the ability to live together like any normal married couple."It is assumed that this album's grouping of "love gone bad" songs, Sinatra's poignant renderings, were a direct result of Sinatra's failing relationship with Gardner, to the point that these are called "Ava Songs". Riddle credited Sinatra's loss of Gardner with his ability to sing the type of songs contained in this album.
The failure of this relationship did not shatter Sinatra but instead caused him to sing more emotionally. In the midst of these personal disturbances, Sinatra began selecting songs for a new album, he would rehearse each one of them reiteratively at home with his pianist. The album was designed as a concept album. Albums from the time period tended to be little more than collections of singles, but Sinatra developed a distinction between songs intended as singles for radio airplay and for jukeboxes, those songs he intended to package together in an album, his sessions intended for album release tend to be more serious, artistically. In the Wee Small Hours was recorded before stereophonic technology, but the fidelity of this monophonic album feels "warm" to modern ears; the album was recorded in five sessions at Hollywood. These sessions took place on February 8, 16, 17, April 1 and 4, would start at 8:00 P. M. continuing to past midnight. The sessions were recorded in Studio C, located downstairs, a smaller studio designed to record small ensembles.
The first four songs recorded for this album were not recorded with any brass or strings, but were sparsely arranged. Although the arrangements were Riddle's, there was no need for a conductor, so pianist Bill Miller managed from his instrument. Set against his then-current relationship troubles, Sinatra set out to record "angst-ridden" songs involving lost love. Sinatra was tense during the recording of the album breaking down and crying after the master take of "When Your Lover Has Gone". Rita Kirwan of Music magazine witnessed one of the sessions, her account goes thus: Sinatra takes a gulp of the lukewarm coffee remaining in the cup most handed to him, he lifts the inevitable hat from his head a little, plops it right back as if he wanted to relieve the pressure from the hat band; the studio empties fast. Sinatra flops onto one of the chairs, crosses his legs, hums a fragment of one of the songs he's been recording, he waves to the night janitor now straightening up the studio, says: "Jeez, what crazy working hours we got.
We both should've been plumbers, huh?" Nelson Riddle com
Tyree Glenn, born William Tyree Glenn, was an American trombone player. Tyree played trombone and vibraphone with local Texas bands before moving in the early 1930s to Washington, D. C. where he performed with several prominent bands of the Swing Era. He played with Bob Young he joined Tommy Myles's band. After he left Myles, he moved to the West Coast. Further, he played with Eddie Barefield, Eddie Mallory's band and Benny Carter and played with Cab Calloway from 1939 to 1946, he toured around Europe with Don Redman's big band. From 1947 to 1951 he played with Duke Ellington as a wah-wah trombonist in the Tricky Sam Nanton tradition and Ellington's only vibraphonist, being well-featured on the Liberian Suite. After, he played with Howard Biggs's Orchestra. During the 1950s, Glenn did studiowork, led his quartet at the Embers, did some television and acting work, freelanced in swing and Dixieland settings. In 1953 he joined Jack Sterling's New York daily radio show, with which he remained until 1963.
During 1965–68, he toured the world with Louis Armstrong's All-Stars and played until Armstrong died in 1971. Glenn led his own group during his last few years, he was a studio musician and actor. He wrote "Sultry Serenade", recorded by Duke Ellington and Erroll Garner. With a lyric added by Allan Roberts, this song became known as "How Could You Do a Thing Like That to Me?" and was recorded by Frank Sinatra. Glenn lived in New Jersey, where he died of cancer, he was survived by Tyree Jr. and Roger, both musicians. 1957: At the Embers 1958: Tyree Glenn at the Roundtable 1958: Tyree Glenn's at the London House 1959: Try A Little Tenderness – Tyree Glenn with Strings 1960: Let’s Have a Ball – The Tyree Glenn Quintet 1961: At the London House in Chicago 1962: Trombone ArtistryWith Louis Bellson and Gene Krupa The Mighty Two With Buck ClaytonAll the Cats Join In With Clark Terry Duke with a Difference Independent Music Awards 2013: Satchmo at the National Press Club: Red Beans and Rice-ly Yours - Best Reissue Album