Commonplace books are a way to compile knowledge by writing information into books. Such books are scrapbooks filled with items of every kind: recipes, letters, tables of weights and measures, prayers, legal formulas. Commonplaces are used by readers, writers and scholars as an aid for remembering useful concepts or facts they have learned; each commonplace book is unique to its creator's particular interests. They became significant in Early Modern Europe. "Commonplace" is a translation of the Latin term locus communis which means "a theme or argument of general application", such as a statement of proverbial wisdom. In this original sense, commonplace books were collections of such sayings, such as John Milton's commonplace book. Scholars have expanded this usage to include any manuscript that collects material along a common theme by an individual. Commonplace books are not diaries or travelogues, with which they can be contrasted: English Enlightenment philosopher John Locke wrote the 1706 book A New Method of Making Common-Place-Books, "in which techniques for entering proverbs, ideas, speeches were formulated.
Locke gave specific advice on how to arrange material by subject and category, using such key topics as love, politics, or religion. Commonplace books, it must be stressed, are not journals, which are chronological and introspective."By the early eighteenth century they had become an information management device in which a note-taker stored quotations and definitions. They were used by influential scientists. Carl Linnaeus, for instance, used commonplacing techniques to invent and arrange the nomenclature of his Systema Naturae. During the course of the fifteenth century, the Italian peninsula was the site of a development of two new forms of book production: the deluxe registry book and the zibaldone. What differentiated. Giovanni Rucellai, the compiler of one of the most sophisticated examples of the genre, defined it as a "salad of many herbs."Zibaldone were always paper codices of small or medium format – never the large desk copies of registry books or other display texts. They lacked the lining and extensive ornamentation of other deluxe copies.
Rather than miniatures, zibaldone incorporate the author's sketches. Zibaldone were in cursive scripts and contained what palaeographer Armando Petrucci describes as "an astonishing variety of poetic and prose texts." Devotional, technical and literary texts appear side-by-side in no discernible order. The juxtaposition of gabelle taxes paid, currency exchange rates, medicinal remedies and favourite quotations from Augustine and Virgil portrays a developing secular, literate culture. By far the most popular of literary selections were the works of Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio: the "Three Crowns" of the Florentine vernacular traditions; these collections have been used by modern scholars as a source for interpreting how merchants and artisans interacted with the literature and visual arts of the Florentine Renaissance. The best-known zibaldone is Giacomo Leopardi's nineteenth-century Zibaldone di pensieri. By the seventeenth century, commonplacing had become a recognised practice, formally taught to college students in such institutions as Oxford.
John Locke appended his indexing scheme for commonplace books to a printing of his An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. The commonplace tradition in which Francis Bacon and John Milton were educated had its roots in the pedagogy of classical rhetoric, “commonplacing” persisted as a popular study technique until the early twentieth century. Commonplace books were used by many key thinkers of the Enlightenment, with authors like the philosopher and theologian William Paley using them to write books. Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau were taught to keep commonplace books at Harvard University. Commonplacing was attractive to authors. Some, such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Mark Twain kept messy reading notes that were intermixed with other quite various material; the older, "clearinghouse" function of the commonplace book, to condense and centralise useful and "model" ideas and expressions, became less popular over time. Many of these works are not seen to have literary value to modern editors.
The value of such collections is the insights they offer into the tastes, interests and concerns of their individual compilers. Keeping notebooks is a kind of tradition among authors. Therefore, a commonplace book of literary memoranda may serve as a symbol to the keeper, of the keeper's literary identity, quite apart from its obvious value as a written record. Authors treat their notebooks as quasi-works, giving them elaborate titles, compiling them neatly from rough notes, recompiling still neater revisions of them and preserving them with a special devotion and care that seems out of proportion to their apparent function as working materials. Zibaldone da Canal merchant's commonplace book Robert Reynes of Acle, Norfolk ]. Richard Hill, a London grocer. Glastonbury Miscellany.. Originally
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo