Gottlieb Samuel Studer
Gottlieb Samuel Studer was a Swiss mountaineer, notary public and draughtsman. Studer was the son of Sigmund Gottlieb Studer, after the death of his father, the Studer family moved to Bern, where Studer was secretary to the cantonal justice and police department, becoming prefect of the city of Bern. In September 1843 he made the first ascent of the Wildhorn in the Bernese Alps, together with the geologist Theodor Simler and Dr Melchior Ulrich, Studer was inspired by the establishment of the British Alpine Club in 1857 to form a Swiss counterpart. This led to the founding on 19 April 1863 of the Swiss Alpine Club at a meeting in the Bahnhofbuffet Olten, the club was a broader and more democratic association than the Alpine Club. Studer was president of the Bern section of the SAC from 1863–1873, in 1866 Studer left the service of the state and dedicated himself to the history of Alpine exploration. The years 1869–1871 were spent writing Über Eis und Schnee, a history of the climbing of the Swiss Alps.
Over the course of 60 years Studer climbed 650 summits, in the Bernese Alps, the Pennine Alps, the Dauphiné, the Tyrol, the Pyrenees and Norway. At the age of 68 he climbed Mont Blanc, when he was 79 he climbed Pic dArzinol in the Valais, and at 81 the Niederhorn
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
The Konkordia Hut is a mountain hut of the Swiss Alpine Club, located north of Fieschertal in the canton of Valais. The hut lies above Konkordiaplatz, the point of convergence of several glaciers in the great Aletsch Glacier system of the Bernese Alps and it is located at a height of 2,850 metres above sea level, at the foot of the Fülbärg. Because of its location, the hut is long way from villages, the shortest way starts at the Jungfraujoch railway station. All access routes are via glacier, the hut lies approximately 150 metres above the level of the ice. Swisstopo topographic maps Official website The Konkordia Hut on Mount Wiki
Monte Rosa Hut
It is owned by the Swiss Alpine Club SAC. The hut is the start of the route to the summit. The first hut was built in 1894–1895 just next to the much higher Border Glacier at an altitude of 2,795 metres. A completely new building was inaugurated in 2009, a hi-tech, energy-wise almost self-sufficient, the Monte Rosa Hut lies on the western side of Monte Rosa massif, on the place named Untere Plattje. The hut can be reached using the Gornergratbahn, from the station Rotenboden a trail leads to the Gorner Glacier. Then the Gornergletscher has to be crossed, over the end of the Grenzgletscher. The first hut, known under the name Betemps hut, was built between 1894 and 1895 and it had 25 beds and was owned by the Swiss Alpine Club central committee. The hut was enlarged in 1918 to host 20 more people, the Betemps hut was offered to the Monte Rosa section in 1929 transformed and renamed Monte Rosa hut. Between 1939-1940 a new hut with 86 beds was built, the capacity was raised up to 146 in 1972 and 160 in 1984.
A new hi-tech environmentally friendly mountain hut was designed by architect Andrea Deplazes of ETH Zurich, the project of the Swiss Alpine Club, to mark the 150th anniversary of ETH Zurich, was launched in 2003. The construction materials prefabricated elements were transported by train to Zermatt and 3,000 helicopter trips were needed to take 35 workers, the five-story polygonal building was built on stainless steel foundations with a spiral interior made out of wood, the exterior being covered with an aluminum shell. The building is designed to obtain 90 percent of its needs from the sun. Excess energy is stored in valve-regulated lead-acid accumulators, which supply power when it is overcast, water is collected from melting glaciers and stored in a large reservoir 40 meters above the hut. Bands of windows allow the sun to heat air inside the building with the redistribution of thermal energy produced by visitors. Over the next few years the hut will become a station for the students from the ETH Zurich.
They will use it to investigate how to use energy and resources efficiently, self-Sufficient Building in the High Alps Zurich, gta,2010. ISBN 978-3-85676-274-2 Futuristic eco-hut opens doors above Zermatt, swissinfo Official website Monte Rosa Hut on SummitPost. org
Olten is a town in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland and capital of the district of the same name. Oltens railway station is within 30 minutes of Zürich, Bern and Lucerne by train, significant amounts of artefacts of the Magdalenian have been excavated near Olten. There are dated to the Mesolithic and Neolithic, but there is no trace of a settlement. There was a vicus at the site during the Roman era, the name of the settlement is not known, but it seems to have been of a certain importance, presumably reflecting the presence of a bridge across the Aar River. The Roman settlement was destroyed in the 3rd century. At the end of the 3rd century, a fortification was built at the bridge-head and this fortress was abandoned in the 4th century, and replaced by a larger castle, comparable to late Roman fortresses protecting crossings of the Aar at Solothurn and Brugg. The medieval settlement was built on the foundations of the Roman castle and it is first mentioned in 1201, as Oltun. It was in possession of the counts of Frohburg in the 13th century, passing to Kyburg in 1377, Olten passed under the administration of Basel in 1407, which invested in infrastructure, which was however destroyed in fires in 1411 and 1422.
Basel lost interest in rebuilding the town again after the 1422 fire, throughout the medieval period, Olten was little more than a fortified bridge-head with some services, its total population is estimated to about 500 people for the year 1600. Olten lost its city rights in 1653 as punishment for its support of the rebels in the Swiss Peasant War and this resulted in a lasting tradition of resistance against authority in Olten, and the town welcomed as liberators the French troops in the 1798 invasion. In 1814, Solothurn suppressed another rebellion of Olten patriots against the Swiss Restauration, Olten first reached a population of 1,000 in the 18th century. More rapid growth set in after the introduction of the railway in 1856, by the 1880s, Olten had developed into a second urban center in the canton, and attracted more infrastructure such as the cantonal hospital, a business school, a cantonal gymnasium. Population tripled again during the 20th century, reaching 21,000 in 1970, Olten has an area, as of 2009, of 11.49 square kilometres.
Of this area,1.46 square kilometres or 12. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 4.81 square kilometres or 41. 9% is forested. Of the rest of the land,4.65 km2 or 40. 5% is settled,0.53 km2 or 4. 6% is either rivers or lakes and 0.06 km2 or 0. 5% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 6. 0% of the area while housing and buildings made up 15. 6%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other developed areas made up 4. 2% of the area while parks. Out of the land,40. 7% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
Alpine Club (UK)
The Alpine Club was founded in London in 1857 and is the worlds first mountaineering club. It is UK mountaineerings acknowledged senior club, on 22 December 1857 a group of British mountaineers met at Ashleys Hotel in London. All were active in the Alps and instrumental in the development of alpine mountaineering during the age of alpinism. It was at this meeting that the Alpine Club, under the chairmanship of E. S. Kennedy, was born, John Ball was the first president and Kennedy, the first vice-president, succeeded him as president of the club from 1860 to 1863. It moved its headquarters to the Metropole Hotel, for climbing, a rope was required which would be both strong and light so that lengths of it could be carried easily. A committee of the club tested samples from suppliers and prepared a specification, the official Alpine Club Rope was made by John Buckingham of Bloomsbury. It was made from three strands of manila hemp, treated to be rot proof and marked with a red thread of worsted yarn.
One hundred and fifty years later, the Alpine Club continues, and its members remain active in the Alps. For many years it had the characteristics of a London-based Gentlemens club, however, it still requires prospective members to be proposed and seconded by existing members. These higher technical standards were often to be found in such as the Alpine Climbing Group. The club has produced a suite of guidebooks which cover some of the more popular Alpine mountaineering regions and it holds extensive book and photo libraries as well as an archive of historical artifacts which are regularly lent out to exhibitions. The clubs history has recently been documented by George Band in his book Summit,150 Years of the Alpine Club and its members activities are recounted annually in the clubs publication the Alpine Journal. As of 2009, the subscription costs between £39 and £60 per year, with a £27 rate for younger members. In 1895 the club moved to 23 Savile Row, and in June 1907, from 1937 to 1990 the club was based at 74, South Audley Street, in Mayfair, London.
In 1936–1937 the surveying firm of Pilditch and Company had converted the ground floor of the building into premises for the club. The clubs library was at the back of the building, in what was once the picture gallery of Sir William Cuthbert Quilter. In 1990 the club sold its lease of 74, South Audley Street and briefly shared quarters with the Ski Club of Great Britain at 118, Eaton Square. In 1991 the Alpine Club acquired the freehold of a five-storey Victorian warehouse at 55, Charlotte Road, on the edge of the City of London, the clubs lecture room, bunk-house and archives are all housed there
The Dammastock is the highest mountain in the Urner Alps in Switzerland and is part of the Winterberg massif. Its summit ridge forms the border between the cantons of Uri and the Valais and it is the highest summit in the canton of Uri. The tripoint between the cantons of Berne and Uri lies near the Eggstock, north of the Dammastock, the Dammastcok is split between the municipalities of Göschenen and Obergoms. The massif is almost completely covered by ice, the large Rhone Glacier on the west side, the smaller Damma Glacier on the east side and it was first climbed by Albert Hoffmann-Burkhardt with guides Johann Fischer and Andreas von Weissenfluh on 28 July 1864. Dammastock Hut Hotel Tiefenbach List of mountains of Uri List of mountains of Switzerland List of most isolated mountains of Switzerland The Dammastock on SummitPost
A mountain hut is a building located high in the mountains, generally accessible only by foot, intended to provide food and shelter to mountaineers and hikers. Mountain huts are usually operated by an Alpine Club or some organisation dedicated to hiking or mountain recreation, Mountain huts can provide a range of services, starting with shelter and simple sleeping berths. Mountain huts usually allow anybody to access their facilities, although some require reservations, the Swiss Alpine Club has built huts since 1863. In the United States, the Appalachian Mountain Club built its first hut at Madison Spring in New Hampshire in 1888-89, the construction of refuges and shelters in the Alps date back to ancient times, when Roman roads led across the mountain passes. In the High Middle Ages, hospitales were erected along the routes, cottages. The long history of mountaineering from the 19th century onwards has led to a number of Alpine club huts as well as private huts along the mountaineering paths.
These huts are categorised according to their location and facilities and they may have beds or a mattress room for overnight stays. Many climbing clubs in the UK have such huts in Snowdonia or in the Lake District, a well-known example is the Charles Inglis Clark Memorial Hut under the northern crags of Ben Nevis in Scotland - this is a purpose-built hut, high up the mountain. In the Slovakia there is a network of mountain huts in most mountain and forest regions. In the past they were managed by the official tourist union, official mountain huts are similar to guest houses and are run by full-time managers. The Norwegian Trekking Association operates about 460 cabins mostly in the mountains and in forested areas, many cabins are unstaffed and open all year, while the staffed cabins often are just open during summer. In Poland most of mountains shelters and huts are run by PTTK - Polish Tourist Society, only few of shelters belong to private investors. Most of mountains shelters offer only common sleeping rooms and refreshments, Polish mountain huts are obliged by their own regulations to overnight each person who is not able to find any other place before sunset, though the conditions may be tough.
The hut shall provide each tourist or hiker with free boiling water for hot drinks, there are many huts in the United States, in the Rocky Mountains, the Appalachian Mountains and other ranges. There are many mountain huts throughout Maine, the Alpine Club of Canada operates what it calls the largest network of backcountry huts in North America. The New Zealand Department of Conservation manages a network of over 950 huts of all shapes and sizes, the mountains of Asia do not have a well-developed system of public mountain huts, although hiking and mountain climbing are common. In 2015, a competition was launched to design huts that could be located along trekking trails of Nepal
Swiss Alpine Museum
The Swiss Alpine Museum is a museum dedicated to the nature and culture of the Swiss Alps. It is located at Helvetiaplatz 4 in Bern, the Swiss Alpine Museum was founded in 1905 by the Bernese section of the Swiss Alpine Club in the Rathaus zum Äusseren Stand on Zeughausgasse. The museum moved into its current premises on Helvetiaplatz in 1933, built by architects Klauser and Streit in the Neues Bauen style, the building responds to the 1918 Kunsthalle Bern across the road. The museum underwent a renovation and restoration from 1990 to 1993 and its annual budget of some CHF1.8 million is funded to approximately 60 percent by public subsidies. Visitors can tour a permanent exhibition of selected objects labelled in German, French and English, as well as temporary exhibitions concerning specific aspects of the museums scope
Alpine club hut
Alpine club huts or simply club huts form the majority of the over 1,300 mountain huts in the Alps and are maintained by branches, or sections, of the various Alpine clubs. They provide hikers and climbers with accommodation and shelter, mainly in the Alpine region, the greater number of these huts are managed, several are only suitable for those able to be self-contained. Although fundamentally all those involved in mountain activities have access to the huts and these include, reduced accommodation rates, mountaineers meals, hot water for tea, the right to provide ones own food and alcohol-free drink. For unmanaged huts members can obtain a key for a deposit from the local alpine branch. Sleeping accommodation may consist of beds, a room and emergency beds or shakedowns. The larger alpine clubs in Europe have an agreement to treat members of other clubs as their own members at their clubs huts. Some are tiny shelters near the summit of a mountain, in larger huts food and beverages may be served.
Members have priority only in allocation of accommodation and claim a minimum discount of 50%, category II, located in popular areas, and usually accessible by road or cableway, these huts are often open throughout the year. With better facilities and more varied catering than category I huts, category III, primarily used by day visitors and accessible by car or cableway. These huts are almost akin to hotels, offering a minimum discount of 10% to alpine club members. In addition to the alpine club huts there is a number of alpine accommodation huts run by private individuals. These are listed in the List of mountain huts in the Alps, the Alpine Club of Canada is Canadas national mountain club, based in Canmore, the ACC has been a focal point for Canadian mountaineers since 1906. The Alpine Club of Canada operates the largest network of accommodation in North America. Its network of 25 alpine club huts are scattered across Canada, predominantly throughout the Canadian Rockies