Swiss Post is the national postal service of Switzerland. A public company owned by the Swiss Confederation, it is the country's second largest employer; the group is based in Bern. In June 2018, Susanne Ruoff resigned as chief executive officer after its PostBus Switzerland subsidiary was accused of "manipulating its accounting and systematically concealing profits in order to collect excess subsidies." Deputy CEO Ulrich Hurni will serve as CEO on an acting basis. Subsequently Roberto Cirrilo was appointed as new CEO on 21 Nov 2018. E-mail letter PostFinance, independent unit of Swiss Post in financial services PostBus Switzerland, a bus transport service operated by Swiss Post SuisseID, an electronic identity system developed by Swiss Post SwissID, a different electronic identity system developed by Swiss Post and Swiss Federal Railways e-voting solution Swiss Post Solutions, a Digital Transformation company Postal codes in Switzerland and Liechtenstein Asendia, a joint venture in international deliveries launched by Swiss Post and La Poste Official website Post in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
Post and Telegraph in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Canton of Vaud
The canton of Vaud is the third largest of the Swiss cantons by population and fourth by size. It is located in the French-speaking western part of the country; the capital and biggest city is Lausanne designated "Olympic Capital" by the International Olympic Committee and hosts many international sports organizations. Other main cities are Montreux; as of 2017 the canton has a population of 793,129. Along the lakes, Vaud was inhabited in prehistoric times; the Celtic tribe of the Helvetii inhabited the area. The tribe was defeated by Caesar's troops in 58 BC and as a consequence the Romans settled the area; the towns of Vevey and Lausanne are two of the many towns established by the Romans. In 27 BC the state of Civitas Helvetiorum was established around the capital of Avenches. There are still many. Between the 2nd and the 4th century the area was invaded by Alemannic tribes, in the 5th century the Burgundians occupied the area; the Merovingian Franks replaced the Burgundians. Their occupancy did not last long either, in 888 the area of the canton of Vaud was made part of the Carolingian Empire.
In 1032 the Zähringens of Germany defeated the Burgundians. The Zähringens themselves were succeeded in 1218 by the counts of Savoy, it was only under the counts of Savoy that the area was given political unity, establishing the Barony of Vaud. A part stretching from Attalens to the River Sarine, in the north, was absorbed by the canton of Fribourg; as the power of the Savoys declined at the beginning of the 15th century the land was occupied by troops from Bern. By 1536 the area was annexed. Reformation was started by co-workers of John Calvin like Pierre Viret, including a famous debate at the cathedral of Lausanne; the Bernese occupiers were not popular amongst the population. In 1723, Major Abraham Davel led a revolt against Bern, in protest at what he saw as the denial of political rights of the French-speaking Vaudois by the German-speaking Bernese, was subsequently beheaded. Inspired by the French Revolution, the Vaudois drove out the Bernese governor in 1798 and declared the Lemanic Republic.
Vaud nationalists like Frédéric-César de La Harpe had called for French intervention in liberating the area and French Revolutionary troops moved in, taking over the whole of Switzerland itself in the process and setting up the Helvetic Republic. Under Napoleon I, it became the canton of Léman. Unrest about the abolition of feudal rights and taxes led to increased discontent, which culminated in the revolt of the Bourla-papey in Spring 1802 followed by the Stecklikrieg that brought the end of the entire Helvetic Republic. In 1803, Vaud joined the re-installed Swiss confederation. In spite of Bernese attempts to reclaim Vaud, it has remained a sovereign canton since. In the 19th century, the canton of Vaud was an outspoken opponent of the Sonderbund Catholic separatist movement, which led to intervention in 1847 by 99,000 Swiss Federal troops under General Henri Dufour against 79,000 separatists, in what is called the Sonderbund War. Separation was prevented at the cost of few lives; the current constitution dates from 14 April 2003, replacing the one from 1885.
The canton stretches from Lake Neuchâtel in the north, where it borders the canton of Neuchâtel, to Lake Geneva in the south, where it borders the canton of Geneva, the French department of Haute-Savoie and the canton of Valais. In the Jura mountains in the west, the canton borders the French departments of Ain and Doubs. In the east, it borders the cantons of Bern; the total area is 3,212 square kilometres. Along with the canton of Berne, Vaud is one of the two cantons whose territory extends from the Jura to the Alps, through the three distinct geographic regions of Switzerland; the areas in the south east are mountainous. This region is named the Vaud Alps; the Diablerets massif, peaking at 3,210 metres, is the highest mountain of the canton. Other summits such as the Grand Muveran and the Tour d'Aï are visible from most of the canton; the area hosts several popular skiing destinations such as Villars, Les Diablerets and Leysin. The central area of the canton, in contrast, is hilly. There are plains along the lakes.
In the north, Avenches is in an exclave of the canton surrounded by the canton of Fribourg and Lake Neuchâtel. On the other hand, there are three enclaves of the canton of Fribourg, as well as two enclaves of the canton of Geneva, that are surrounded by the canton of Vaud; the north-western part of the canton is mountainous but in a more modest way with mountains not above 1,500 metres. The Vallée de Joux is one of the most popular destinations in the region and a centre of luxury mechanical Swiss watch manufacturing. Source: Source: ^a FDP before 2009, FDP; the Liberals after 2009 ^ b" *" indicates. ^c Part of the FDP for this election The canton of Vaud is divided into 10 districts: Aigle with capital Aigle Broye-Vully with capital Payerne Gros-de-Vaud with capital Échallens Jura-Nord vaudois with capital Yverdon
Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2018, about 2.1 million people, or 25.1% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of the romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva and the Lower Valais; the adjective romand is a regional dialectal variant of roman. Use of the adjective romand in reference to the Franco-Provençal dialects can be traced to the 15th century; the term Suisse romande has become used since World War I. Suisse romande is used in contrast to Suisse alémanique, "Alemannic Switzerland", the term for Alemannic German speaking Switzerland. Formed by analogy is Suisse italienne, composed of Ticino and of a part of Grisons. In Swiss German, French-speaking Switzerland is known as Welschland or Welschschweiz, the French-speaking Swiss as Welsche, using the old Germanic term for "Celts" used in English of Welsh; the terms Welschland and Welschschweiz are used in written Swiss Standard German but in more formal contexts they are sometimes exchanged for französischsprachige Schweiz or französische Schweiz.
Simple Westschweiz "western Switzerland" may be used as a loose synonym. French is the only official language in the following cantons: In addition, three regions of French-German bilingual cantons have a French-speaking majority: "Romandy" is not an official territorial division of Switzerland any more than there is a clear linguistic boundary. In four Swiss cantons, French is the sole official language: Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura. There are three cantons where French and German have co-official status: Bern and Valais; the linguistic boundary between French and German is known as Röstigraben. The term is humorous in origin and refers both to the geographic division and to perceived cultural differences between the Romandy and the German-speaking Swiss majority; the term can be traced to the WWI period, but it entered mainstream usage in the 1970s in the context of the Jurassic separatism virulent at the time. The linguistic boundary cuts across Switzerland north-to-south, forming the eastern boundary of the canton of Jura and encompassing the Bernese Jura, where the boundary frays to include a number of bilingual communities, the largest of, Biel/Bienne.
It follows the border between Neuchâtel and Bern and turns south towards Morat, again traversing an areal of traditional bilinguism including the communities of Morat and Fribourg. It divides the canton of Fribourg into a western French-speaking majority and an eastern German-speaking minority and follows the eastern boundary of Vaud with the upper Saane/Sarine valley of the Bernese Oberland. Cutting across the High Alps at Les Diablerets, the boundary separates the French-speaking Lower Valais from the Alemannic-speaking Upper Valais beyond Sierre, it cuts southwards into the High Alps again, separating the Val d'Anniviers from the Mattertal. The linguistic boundary in the Swiss Plateau would have more or less followed the Aare during the early medieval period, separating Burgundy from Alemannia; the Valais has a separate linguistic history. Traditionally speaking the Franco-Provençal or Patois dialects of Upper Burgundy, the romand population now speak a variety of Standard French. Today, the differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and lexical, although in rural speakers, remnants of dialectal lexicon or phonology may remain more pronounced.
In particular, some parts of the Swiss Jura participate in the Frainc-Comtou dialect spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France. Since the 1970s, there has been a limited amount of linguistic revivalism. In this context, the Franco-Provençal dialects are called their area Arpitania; the cultural identity of the Romandy is supported by Télévision Suisse Romande, Radio Suisse Romande and the universities of Geneva, Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Most of the Romandy has been
The Swiss are the citizens of Switzerland or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad. About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union; the largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, the Swiss are not considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy or Willensnation, a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term; the demonym Swiss and the name of Switzerland derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century. The ethno-linguistic composition of the territories of modern Switzerland includes the following components: The German-speaking Swiss, i.e. Alemannic German amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and the Alemanni.
Related German-speaking peoples are the Alsatians, the Swabians and the Vorarlbergians. German speakers accounted for 63% of population as of 2015. Speakers of High Alemannic divided into an Eastern and a Western subgroup, with most dialects of Aargau and Lucerne transitional between the groups. Speakers of Low Alemannic in Basel and the Lake Constance area Speakers of Highest Alemannic in the Bernese Oberland, Upper Valais and the Walser settlements in Central Switzerland and Ticino The French-speaking Swiss, traditionally speaking Franco-Provençal dialects, today assimilated to the standard French language, amalgamated from the Gallo-Roman population and Burgundians. Romands are considered a distinct Romance people, they are related to the French. They are referred to as Welsche in Swiss German. French speakers accounted for 23% of population as of 2015; the Italian-speaking Swiss, traditionally speakers of Lombard language today assimilated to the standard Italian language, amalgamated from Raetians and Lombards.
They are related to the Italians. Italian-speakers accounted for 8.4% of population as of 2015. The Romansh, speakers of the Romansh language, settling in parts of the Grisons of Raetic stock. Romansh speakers accounted for 0.6% of population as of 2015. The core Eight Cantons of the Swiss Confederacy were Alemannic-speaking, German speakers remain the majority. However, from as early as the 15th century, parts of French-speaking Vaud and Italian-speaking Ticino were acquired as subject territories by Berne and Uri, respectively; the Swiss Romandie was formed by the accession of French-speaking Geneva and Neuchâtel and the francophone Valais and Bernese Jura to the Restored Swiss Confederacy in 1815. Romansh was considered a group of Italian dialects, but Switzerland declared Romansh a national language in 1938 in reaction to the fascist Italian irredentism at the time; as elsewhere in Western Europe, immigration to Switzerland has increased since the 1960s, so that a large proportion of the resident population of Switzerland are now not descended or only descended from the core ethno-linguistic groups listed above.
As of 2011, 37% of total resident population of Switzerland had immigrant background. As of 2016, the most used foreign languages were English, Albanian, Serbo-Croat and Spanish, all named as a "main language" by more than 2% of total population; the Swiss populace derives from an amalgamation of Gallic or Gallo-Roman and Rhaetic stock. Their cultural history is dominated by the Alps, the alpine environment is cited as an important factor in the formation of the Swiss national character. For example, the "Swiss illness", the condition of Swiss mercenaries pining for their mountainous native home, became prototypical of the medical condition of nostalgia described in the 17th century. In early modern Switzerland, the Swiss Confederacy was a pact between independent states within the Holy Roman Empire; the populations of the states of Central Switzerland considered themselves ethnically or racially separate: Martin Zeiller in Topographia Germaniae reports a racial division within the canton of Unterwalden, the population of Obwalden being identified as "Romans", that of Nidwalden as "Cimbri", while the people of Schwyz were identified as of Swedish ancestry, the people of Uri were identified as "Huns or Goths".
Modern Switzerland is atypical in its successful political integration of a multiethnic and multilingual populace, is cited as a model for new efforts at creating unification, as in the European Union's frequent invocation of the Swiss Confederate model. Because the various populations of Switzerland share language and religion not with each other bu
La Poste (France)
La Poste is a postal service company in France, operating in Metropolitan France as well as in the five French overseas departments and the overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Because of bilateral agreements, La Poste has the responsibility of mail services in Monaco through La Poste Monaco and in Andorra alongside the Spanish company Correos; the company was created in 1991 following the split of the French PTT, a government department responsible for mail and telephone services in France. The PTT, founded in 1879, was divided between La Poste, which became responsible for postal service, France Télécom for the telecommunication services. France Télécom was privatised but La Poste has remained a public company. However, in 1997 EU directive 97/67/EC required member states to "fully open the postal sector to competition", with the result that the French government allowed private postal service companies in 2005 and transformed La Poste into a public-owned company limited by shares in 2010.
La Poste is a parent company of the Groupe La Poste, which comprises a bank and insurance company, a logistics service company and a mobile network operator. Although its postal activities are declining because of the development of the Internet, they still represented half of the company's income. Other activities, such as parcel delivery and banking, are on the rise; the two represented a quarter of the company's income in 2017. During the Middle Ages, postal delivery in France was not organised by the state and was provided by private enterprise. University envoys dominated the market from the 13th century onwards. In 1477, King Louis XI created coaching inns to deliver his own letters; these inns were for temporary use and led to battlefields. In 1576, royal mail delivery was further improved with the creation of the office of royal envoy. Royal envoys were allowed to provide services to private individuals, they prefigured modern postal services and their existence led to the appearance of the first post offices at the end of the 16th century.
The first set fees appeared in 1627 for letters sent to Bordeaux, Lyon and Dijon. As with the rest of Europe, stamps did not exist in France at that time and mail was paid for by the recipient; the first map of post roads was published in 1632 and a book compiling lists of roads and inns including distances and fees to be paid was released in 1707. A new edition was released every two years until 1859; the country had 623 coaching inns in 1632 and the figure reached 800 at the beginning of the 18th century. A ferme générale was created for mail services in 1672, which meant that postal services started to be subject to taxation. Tax officers progressively bought private postal companies and university envoys became subjects to the ferme générale in 1719. International treaties regarding postal services were signed with neighbouring countries under Louis XIV. During the French Revolution, which started in 1789, French postal services progressively became a public service. Directors of post offices lost their privileges in 1789 and their position became subject to universal suffrage.
The ferme générale was abolished two years and post offices started to be directly administered by the state. As a reaction to commonplace opening of letters by the royal authorities, an oath of confidentiality became compulsory for post employees in 1790; the first French mail coach appeared in 1793 and the first telegram in the world was delivered in 1794 with the Chappe optical transmitter on the Paris-Lille line. After the Revolution, French postal services continued their modernisation. An 1801 decree reasserted the state monopoly on mail delivery, postal orders were created in 1817 and postage stamps were introduced in 1849, nine years after they were invented in the United Kingdom. A rural service was implemented in 1830 with a mail delivery in rural areas every two days; the delivery became daily from 1832. France was a founding member of the General Postal Union in 1874, it became the Universal Postal Union in 1879. Post and telegraphs were united in one administration by the French government in 1879, giving birth to the P&T which became the PTT.
A French ministry of post and telegraphs was created the same year. A national savings bank opened in 1881 and was added to the services provided by the P&T; the government took the monopoly on telephone in 1889 and placed the service under the P&T. The administration became PTT and kept this name until 1959 when it became "Postes et Télécommunications", although the acronym PTT was kept. Postal cheques were created in 1918; the first airmail flight operated in 1912 between Nancy and Lunéville and a regular airmail network was put in place in 1935 through the "Air Bleu" company. Night airmail services started in 1939 on two lines: Paris-Lyon-Marseille. Postcodes were introduced in France in 1964. In the 1980s, it became clear that the French PTT could not compete anymore in a country where communication was increasing; the administration suffered from a constant lack of innovation and was dependent on political will and decisions. A division between postal and telecommunication services was suggested as soon as 1974 in a report from the Parliament.
However, changes in the structure of the PTT were opposed by trade unions who feared that employees could lose their status of civil servants. In 1988, under the premiership of Socialist Michel Rocard, a law was prepared to split the PTT; the aim of the government was to get the services out of the public administration and to prepare competition from private firms. Such as move in encouraged by the Eu
A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee of a mountain range. It is a rain shadow wind that results from the subsequent adiabatic warming of air that has dropped most of its moisture on windward slopes; as a consequence of the different adiabatic lapse rates of moist and dry air, the air on the leeward slopes becomes warmer than equivalent elevations on the windward slopes. Föhn winds can raise temperatures by as much as 14 °C in just a matter of minutes. Central Europe enjoys a warmer climate due to the Föhn, as moist winds off the Mediterranean Sea blow over the Alps. In some regions, föhn winds are associated with causing "circulatory problems", headaches, or similar ailments. Researchers have found, the foehn wind's warm temperature to be beneficial to humans in most situations, have theorised that the reported negative effects may be a result of secondary factors, such as changes in the electrical field or in the ion state of the atmosphere, the wind's low humidity, or the unpleasant sensation of being in an environment with strong and gusty winds.
Explanations of the foehn warming and drying effect in popular literature or on the web single out just one causal mechanism, but there are in fact four known causes. These mechanisms act together, with their contributions varying depending on the size and shape of the mountain barrier and on the meteorological conditions, for example the upstream wind speed and humidity. 1) Condensation and precipitation: When air is forced upwards over elevated terrain, it expands and cools due to the decrease in pressure with height. Since colder air can hold less water vapour, moisture condenses to form clouds and precipitates as rain or snow above the mountain's upwind slopes; the change of state from vapour to liquid water is accompanied by heating, the subsequent removal of moisture as precipitation renders this heat gain irreversible, leading to the warm, dry foehn conditions in the mountain's lee. This mechanism has become a popular textbook example of atmospheric thermodynamics and it lends itself to attractive diagrams.
However the common occurrence of'dry' foehn events, where there is no precipitation, implies there must be other mechanisms. 2) Isentropic draw-down: When the approaching winds are insufficiently strong to propel the low-level air up and over the mountain barrier, the airflow is said to be'blocked' by the mountain and only air higher up near mountain-top level is able to pass over and down the lee slopes as foehn winds. These higher source regions provide foehn air that becomes warmer and drier on the leeside after it is compressed with descent due to the increase in pressure towards the surface. 3) Mechanical mixing: When river water passes over rocks, turbulence is generated in the form of rapids, white water reveals the turbulent mixing of the water with the air above. As air passes over mountains, turbulence occurs and the atmosphere is mixed in the vertical; this mixing leads to a downward warming and upward moistening of the cross-mountain airflow, to warmer, drier foehn winds in the valleys downwind.
4) Radiative warming: Dry foehn conditions are responsible for the occurrence of rain shadows in the lee of mountains, where clear, sunny conditions prevail. This leads to greater daytime radiative warming under foehn conditions; this type of warming is important in cold regions where snow or ice melt is a concern and/or avalanches are a risk. Winds of this type are called "snow-eaters" for their ability to make snow and ice melt or sublimate rapidly; this is a result not only of the warmth of foehn air, but its low relative humidity. Accordingly, foehn winds are known to contribute to the disintegration of ice shelves in the polar regions. Foehn winds are notorious among mountaineers in the Alps those climbing the Eiger, for whom the winds add further difficulty in ascending an difficult peak, they are associated with the rapid spread of wildfires, making some regions which experience these winds fire-prone. Anecdotally, residents in areas of frequent foehn winds report a variety of illnesses ranging from migraines to psychosis.
The first clinical review of these effects was published by the Austrian physician Anton Czermak in the 19th century. A study by the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München found that suicide and accidents increased by 10 percent during foehn winds in Central Europe; the causation of Föhnkrankheit is yet unproven. Labeling for preparations of aspirin combined with caffeine and the like will sometimes include Föhnkrankheit amongst the indications. Evidence for effects from Chinook winds remain anecdotal; the name Foehn arose in the Alpine region. Originating from Latin favonius, a mild west wind of which Favonius was the Roman personification and transmitted by Romansh: favuogn or just fuogn, the term was adopted as Old High German: phōnno. In the Southern Alps, the phenomenon is known as föhn but Italian: favonio and fen in Croatian and Slovene; the German word "Fön", a genericized trademark means "hairdryer," and the form "phon" is used in French-speaking parts of Switzerland as well as in Italy.
The form "fen" is used in Slovenia. Regionally, these winds are known by many different names; these include: in AfricaBergwind in South Africain the AmericasThe Brookings Effect on the southwestern coast of Oregon know
Supper is the main evening meal. The term is derived from the French souper, used for this meal in Canadian French, Swiss French, sometimes in Belgian French, it is related to soup. It is related to the Scandinavian words for soup, soppa or suppe and the German word for soup, Suppe; the Oxford English Dictionary, suggests that the root, remains obscure in origin. "Supper" may refer to, on class-based distinctions, either a late-evening snack or else to make a distinction between "supper" as an informal family meal as opposed to "dinner", a grander affair, which would be eaten in the best dining room, could well have guests from outside the household, for which there might be a dress code. The distinction between dinner and supper was common in United States farming communities into the twentieth century in the Mid-West and the American South, though today, most Americans consider the two synonyms and prefer the term dinner for the evening meal. During World War II, rations in the U. S. military were still divided into breakfast and supper, using the traditional designations for meals.
In most parts of the United States and Canada today, "supper" and "dinner" are considered synonyms. In Saskatchewan, much of Atlantic Canada, "supper" means the main meal of the day served in the late afternoon, while "dinner" is served around noon. "Dinner" is used in some areas, such as Newfoundland and Labrador, to describe the noon meal as well as special meals, such as "Thanksgiving dinner", "flipper dinner" or "Christmas dinner", the evening meal being "supper". The word "supper" is regionally reserved for harvest meals put on by churches and other community organizations: "fowl suppers" or "fall suppers" are common in Canada. Dinner Supper club Wikibooks Cookbook