Swiss German

Swiss German is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland. The Alemannic dialects spoken in other countries are grouped together with Swiss German as well the dialects of Liechtenstein and Austrian Vorarlberg, which are associated to Switzerland's. Linguistically, Alemannic is divided into Low and Highest Alemannic, varieties all of which are spoken both inside and outside Switzerland; the only exception within German-speaking Switzerland is the municipality of Samnaun where a Bavarian dialect is spoken. The reason "Swiss German" dialects constitute a special group is their unrestricted use as a spoken language in all situations of daily life, whereas the use of the Alemannic dialects in other countries is restricted or endangered; the dialects of Swiss German must not be confused with Swiss Standard German, the variety of Standard German used in Switzerland. Most people in Germany do not understand Swiss German.

Therefore, when an interview with a Swiss German speaker is shown on German television, subtitles are required. Although Swiss German is the native language, from age 6, Swiss school students additionally learn Swiss Standard German at school and are thus capable of understanding and speaking Standard German with varying abilities based on the level of education. Unlike most regional languages in modern Europe, Swiss German is the spoken everyday language for the majority of all social levels in industrial cities, as well as in the countryside. Using the dialect conveys neither social nor educational inferiority and is done with pride. There are a few settings where speaking Standard German is demanded or polite, e.g. in education, in multilingual parliaments, in the main news broadcast or in the presence of non-Alemannic speakers. This situation has been called a "medial diglossia", since the spoken language is the dialect, whereas the written language is Standard German. In 2014, about 87% of the people living in German-speaking Switzerland were using Swiss German in their everyday lives.

Swiss German is intelligible to speakers of other Alemannic dialects, but unintelligible to speakers of Standard German without adequate prior exposure, including for French- or Italian-speaking Swiss who learn Standard German at school. Swiss German speakers on TV or in films are thus dubbed or subtitled if shown in Germany. Dialect rock is a music genre using the language; the Swiss Amish of Adams County and their daughter settlements use a form of Swiss German. Swiss German is a political umbrella term, not a linguistic unity. For all Swiss-German dialects, there are idioms spoken outside Switzerland that are more related to them than to some other Swiss-German dialects; the main linguistic divisions within Swiss German are those of Low and Highest Alemannic, mutual intelligibility across those groups is fully seamless, though with some minor exceptions regarding vocabulary. Low Alemannic is only spoken in the northernmost parts of Switzerland, in Basel and around Lake Constance. High Alemannic is spoken in most of the Swiss Plateau, is divided in an eastern and a western group.

Highest Alemannic is spoken in the Alps. Low Alemannic: Basel German in Basel-Stadt related to Alsatian High Alemannic: western: Bernese German, in the Swiss Plateau parts of Bern dialects of Basel-Landschaft dialects of Solothurn dialects of the western part of Aargau in a middle position between eastern and western: dialects in the eastern part of Aargau dialects of Lucerne dialects of Zug Zürich German, in Zürich eastern: dialects of St. Gallen dialects of Appenzell dialects of Thurgau dialects of Schaffhausen dialects in parts of Graubünden Highest Alemannic: dialects in parts of Canton of Fribourg dialects of the Bernese Oberland dialects of Unterwalden and Uri dialects of Schwyz dialects of Glarus Walliser German in parts of the Valais Walser German: due to the medieval migration of the Walser, Highest Alemannic spread to pockets of what are now parts of northern Italy, the north-west of Ticino, parts of Graubünden and Vorarlberg. One can separate each dialect into numerous local subdialects, sometimes down to a resolution of individual villages.

Speaking the dialect is an important part of regional and national identities. In the more urban areas of the Swiss plateau, regional differences are fading due to increasing mobility and to a growing population of non-Alemannic background. Despite the varied dialects, the Swiss can still understand one another, but may have trouble understanding Walliser dialects. Most Swiss German dialects, being High German dialects, have completed the High German consonant shift, that is, they have not only changed t to or and p to or, but k to or. There are, exceptions, namely the idioms of Chur and Basel. Basel German is a Low Alemannic dialect, Chur German is High Alemannic without initial or. Examples: The High German consonant shift happened between the fourth

Park DuValle, Louisville

Park DuValle is a neighborhood southwest of downtown Louisville, Kentucky. Its boundaries are I-264 to the west, the Norfolk Southern Railway tracks to the north, Cypress Street to the east, Bells Lane and Algonquin Parkway to the south; the neighborhood reflects the presence of several nearby parks, DuValle Junior High School, named after Lucie DuValle, the first female principal of a high school in Louisville. The area began residential development in the late 19th century but most subdivisions were built after the 1940s, it was a part of Parkland's "Little Africa" community, where thousands of blacks had moved following the Civil War. The shanty homes of Little Africa were replaced with Cotter and Lang housing projects by Urban renewal efforts; those now-dilapidated projects are being rebuilt with a HOPE VI revitalization effort, applying principles of New Urbanism into its design. The new Park DuValle neighborhood, a $200 million investment of public and private funds covering 125 acres, once dominated by 1100 public housing units, is being transformed into a mixed-income neighborhood in Louisville's west end.

The goal of the HOPE VI plan is to build a series of traditional neighborhoods with rental and home ownership opportunities for a wide range of income groups. The greatest challenge has been to provide public housing for those in need while attracting middle-income home buyers to the neighborhood. UDA prepared an area-wide Master Plan for the effort that ties in adjacent communities and creates a new commercial center with shops and services for the residential neighborhoods. In addition to the Master Plan, Urban Design Associates created a UDA Pattern Book to guide the design of the housing and to establish the character of each neighborhood. By using the images and forms identified with successful, traditional Louisville neighborhoods, it is hoped that Park DuValle will become attractive to a broad cross section of residents. "Park Duvalle". The Encyclopedia of Louisville. 2001. Street map of Park Duvalle First Choice Market, a 20,000-square-foot full-service grocery opens in Park DuValle neighborhood—Business First June 12, 2012 First Choice will serve as the anchor tenant for the new retail complex,Wilson Crossing— June 12, 2012 Images of Park DuValle in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections


Sphictostethus is a genus of pepsine spider wasps which has a dispersed southern Pacific distribution which encompasses Chile, eastern Australia and New Zealand, is similar to the distribution of the southern beeches of the genus Nothofagus. The type species is S. gravesii, but the genus's greatest diversity is in Australia in the more humid and temperate south east, with one species, S. insularis, endemic to Lord Howe Island. The species in the genus Sphictostethus include: Sphictostethus aliciae Sphictostethus calvus Harris 1987 Sphictostethus connectens Sphictostethus dorrigoensis Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus flaviceρs Sphictostethus fugax Sphictostethus gadali Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus geevestoni Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus gravesii Sphictostethus haoae Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus infandus Sphictostethus insularis Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus minus Sphictostethus montanus Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus nitidus Fabricius 1775 golden hunter wasp Sphictostethus obscurus Sphictostethus picadillycircus Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus thaumastarius Sphictostethus walteri Krogmann & Austin 2011 Sphictostethus xanthochrous Sphictostethus xanthopus Sphictostethus yidyam Krogmann & Austin 2011