Joyeuse, is the name traditionally attributed to Charlemagne's personal sword. The name translates as "joyous"; some legends claim. The 11th century Song of Roland describes the sword: Si ad vestut sun blanc osberc sasfret,Laciet sun elme, ki est a or gemmet, Ceinte Joiuse, unches ne fut sa per, Ki cascun jur muet. XXX. Clartez." was wearing his fine white coat of mail and his helmet with gold-studded stones. Some seven hundred years Bulfinch's Mythology described Charlemagne using Joyeuse to behead the Saracen commander Corsuble as well as to knight his comrade Ogier the Dane; the town of Joyeuse, in Ardèche, is named after the sword: Joyeuse was lost in a battle and retrieved by one of the knights of Charlemagne. Baligant, a general of the Saracens in The Song of Roland, named his sword Précieuse, in order not to seem inferior to Charlemagne. A sword identified with Charlemagne's Joyeuse was carried in front of the Coronation processionals for French kings, for the first time in 1270, for the last time in 1824.
The sword was kept in the Saint Denis Basilica since at least 1505, it was moved to the Louvre in 1793. This Joyeuse as preserved today is a composite of various parts added over the centuries of use as coronation sword, but at the core, it consists of a medieval blade of Oakeshott type XII dated to about the 10th century. Martin Conway argued the blade might date to the early 9th century, opening the possibility that it was indeed the sword of Charlemagne, while Guy Laking dated it to the early 13th century; some authors have argued that the medieval blade may have been replaced by a modern replica in 1804 when the sword was prepared for the coronation of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Louvre's official website dates the pommel to the 10th to 11th centuries, the crossguard to the 12th and the scabbard to the 13th century; the overall height of the sword is 105 cm with the blade portion making up 82.8 cm of that. It is 4.5 cm wide at the base, 2.2 cm thick. Total weight is 1630 g. Before the Miholjanec legend had been regarded, the so-called sword of Attila in Vienna was known as the sword of Charlemagne
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district, it had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg. The University of Merseburg is located within the town. Merseburg has around 33,000 inhabitants. Merseburg is part of the Central German Metropolitan Region. Czech: Merseburk, Meziboř French: Mersebourg German: Merseburg Latin: Merseburga Polish: Międzybórz Sorbian languages: Mjezybor Venenien was incorporated into Merseburg on 1 January 1949; the parish Kötzschen followed on 1 July 1950. Since 30 May 1994, Meuschau is part of Merseburg. Trebnitz followed later. Beuna was annexed on 1 January 2009. Geusa is a part of Merseburg since 1 January 2010. Merseburg was first mentioned in 850. King Henry the Fowler built a royal palace at Merseburg. Thietmar, appointed in 973, became the first bishop of the newly created bishopric of Prague in Bohemia. Prague had been part of the archbishopric of Mainz for a hundred years before that.
From 968 until the Protestant Reformation, Merseburg was the seat of the Bishop of Merseburg, in addition to being for a time the residence of the margraves of Meissen, it was a favorite residence of the German kings during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. Fifteen diets were held here during the Middle Ages, during which time its fairs enjoyed the importance, afterwards transferred to those of Leipzig. Merseburg was the site of a failed assassination attempt on Polish ruler Bolesław I Chrobry in 1002; the town suffered during the German Peasants' War and during the Thirty Years' War. From 1657 to 1738 Merseburg was the residence of the Dukes of Saxe-Merseburg, after which it fell to the Electorate of Saxony. In 1815 following the Napoleonic Wars, the town became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony. Merseburg is where the Merseburg Incantations were rediscovered in 1841. Written down in Old High German, they are hitherto the only preserved German documents with a heathen theme. One of them is a charm to release warriors caught during battle, the other is a charm to heal a horse's sprained foot.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Merseburg was transformed into an industrial town due to the pioneering work done by Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius, who laid down the scientific fundamentals of the catalytic high-pressure ammonia synthesis from 1909 to 1913. Enterprises, blazed a trail in the course of the transformational process. A chemical park emerged at nearby Leuna, one of the most modern sites of its kind in Europe with high ecological standards. Merseburg was badly damaged in World War II. In 23 air raids 6,200 dwellings were or destroyed; the historic town centre was completely destroyed. Part of Saxony-Anhalt after the war, it was administered within the Bezirk Halle in East Germany, it became part of Saxony-Anhalt again after reunification of Germany. Like many towns in the former East Germany, Merseburg has had a general decline in population since German Reunification despite annexing and merging with a number of smaller nearby villages. Population of Merseburg: Data source from 1990: Statistical Office of Saxony Anhalt 1 29 October 2 31 August 3 3 October 4 14 July 2008 Among the notable buildings of Merseburg are the Merseburg Cathedral of St John the Baptist and the episcopal palace.
The cathedral-and-palace ensemble features a palace garden. Other attractions include the Merseburg House of Trades with a cultural stage and the German Museum of Chemistry, Merseburg; the Merseburg Palace Festival with the Historical Pageant, the International Palace-Moat Concerts, Merseburg Organ Days and the Puppet Show Festival Week are events celebrated every year. Merseburg station is located on the Halle–Bebra railway. Leipzig/Halle Airport is just 25 kilometers away. Merseburg is connected with the Halle tramway network. A tram ride from Halle's city centre to Merseburg takes about 50 minutes. Merseburg is twinned with: Châtillon, France Genzano di Roma, Italy Bottrop, Germany Thietmar of Merseburg and chronist Johannes Knolleisen, theological professor Ernst Haeckel, philosopher, physician Lucian Müller, classical scholar Klaus Tennstedt, conductor Elisabeth Schumann, singer Karl Adolph von Basedow, physician Jawed Karim, YouTube co-founder Szymon Bogumił Zug and designer of gardens Uwe Nolte, artist This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Merseburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 173–174. Official website
Lambert of Hersfeld
Lambert of Hersfeld was a medieval chronicler. His work represents a major source for the history of the German kingdom of Henry IV and the incipient Investiture Controversy in the eleventh century. What little is known of his life is revealed in scattered details from his own historical writings. A Franconian by birth, of good family, he prepared for an ecclesiastical career at the cathedral school in Bamberg, where he received tuition by Anno of Steusslingen, the Archbishop of Cologne. On 15 March 1058 Lambert entered the Benedictine abbey of Hersfeld as a monk. On September 16, he was ordained as a priest in Aschaffenburg and therefore sometimes called Lampert of Aschaffenburg. After his elevation to the priesthood, he made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Back in Hersfeld in October 1059, Lambert worked in the cloister library and taught at the monastery school. In 1071 he visited the Benedictine abbeys of Siegburg and Saalfeld to study the Cluniac Reforms, promoted by his mentor Archbishop Anno II of Cologne.
However, Lambert adhered to traditional Benedictine rules and remained reserved towards monastic reforms. Lambert was a convinced opponent of the German king Henry IV. In 1077, during the rising conflict with Pope Gregory VII, he moved from Hersfeld to the canon monastery of Hasungen at the instigation of Henry's enemy Archbishop Siegfried I of Mainz, he turned Hasungen into a Benedictine abbey, settled with monks descending from Hirsau. A variety of circumstantial evidence suggests that from 1081, Lambert served as the first abbot, he died shortly afterwards, no than in 1085. Lambert is most famous as the author of an extensive historical chronicle known as the Annales, first published in 1525 by Kaspar Currer in Tübingen, they were edited in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica, along with Lampert's other known works, by Oswald Holder-Egger in 1894. Holder-Egger, in his edition of Lampert's work demonstrated that Lampert was the author of at least two other significant works: the Vita Lulli archiepiscopi Mogontiacensis, a hagiography of the founder of Hersfeld Abbey, Saint Lullus, Archbishop of Mainz, a shorter, polemic history of the Hersfeld monastery, which survives only fragmentarily in excerpts made by medieval German writers.
Lambert's history of the Germans, De rebus gestis Germanorum was printed in the compilation of chronicles edited by Johann Pistorius. The Annals begin with a universal history from the creation of the world until about 1040; this portion of the work is drawn from other, earlier annalistic works those of Saint Bede, Isidore of Seville, from German traditions like the Annals of Quedlinburg and Weissenburg. From about the date of 1042 onwards, the account is Lampert's own and he carries the history from there up to the year 1077, when the Swabian duke Rudolf of Rheinfelden was crowned anti-king by the dissident princes. Lambert's Annales are among the most important sources available for the reign of King Henry IV, the Investiture Controversy, the Saxon Rebellion in 1073–75. Among the significant events detailed in Lampert's history are the infamous Coup of Kaiserswerth in 1062, Henry's famous Walk to Canossa where he submitted to Pope Gregory VII, the 1075 Battle of Langensalza where Henry's forces defeated the Saxon and Thuringian rebels.
Lambert ended his work with the election of anti-king Rudolf of Swabia, stating that his own account had reached an appropriate conclusion and that another writer would be able to pick up from where he left off in chronicling this new era for the German kingdom. Lampert was superbly educated for his day and wrote in a fine, classicizing Latin peppered with references and allusions to Roman authors Livy and the playwright Terence. Like many of the classical authors he admired, Lampert fancied himself a cynical observer of elite society, casting a critical eye on the political melodramas and scandals of his day and chronicling the way in which power and pride corrupted rulers and perverted society, raising up the unworthy and punishing the good and decent. Throughout, Lambert demonstrates his hostility to'godless' King Henry IV and royal interests, not surprising given his sympathies for the independence of the regional aristocracy, he expresses a favorable opinion of Pope Gregory VII and the ecclesiastical reform movement, but evinces skepticism towards some contemporary monastic reforms in Germany.
He is quite uncharitable towards figures like Archbishop Siegfried I of Mainz, who encroached on the traditional rights and prerogatives of Hersfeld and other monasteries. Lambert's assessments of Henry's Walk to Canossa, dominated the German historical image up to the times of the Kulturkampf in the nineteenth century. On the other hand, German historians trained in the positivistic methods of comparative source criticism taught that Lampert was a biased, partisan writer who could not be trusted for an objective account of the reign of Henry IV. Oswald Holder-Egger himself called Lambert an outright fabulist in some instances. Scholars at this time held critical objectivity to be the highest value in a historical source and Lambert, along with many other medieval writers, failed to meet this standard. While they acknowledged Lambert provided important details for certain events and dates, his own view of history and opinions about some matters could not be accepted. Today, historians try to approach medieval historiography on its own terms and in its ow
Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus', known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George after Saint George. A son of Vladimir the Great, the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod at the time of his father's death in 1015. Subsequently, his eldest surviving brother, Sviatopolk I of Kiev, killed three of his other brothers and seized power in Kiev. Yaroslav, with the active support of the Novgorodians and the help of Varangian mercenaries, defeated Svyatopolk and became the Grand Prince of Kiev in 1019. Under Yaroslav the codification of legal customs and princely enactments had begun, this work served as the basis for a law code called the Russkaya Pravda. During his lengthy reign, Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural flowering and military power; the early years of Yaroslav's life are unknown. He was one of the numerous sons of Vladimir the Great his second by Rogneda of Polotsk, although his actual age would place him among the youngest children of Vladimir.
It has been suggested that he was a child begotten out of wedlock after Vladimir's divorce from Rogneda and marriage to Anna Porphyrogenita, or that he was a child of Anna Porphyrogenita herself. Yaroslav figures prominently in the Norse sagas under the name Jarisleif the Lame. In his youth, Yaroslav was sent by his father to rule the northern lands around Rostov but was transferred to Veliky Novgorod, as befitted a senior heir to the throne, in 1010. While living there, he founded the town of Yaroslavl on the Volga River, his relations with his father were strained, grew only worse on the news that Vladimir bequeathed the Kievan throne to his younger son, Boris. In 1014 Yaroslav refused to pay tribute to Kiev and only Vladimir's death, in July 1015, prevented a war. During the next four years Yaroslav waged a complicated and bloody war for Kiev against his half-brother Sviatopolk I of Kiev, supported by his father-in-law, Duke Bolesław I Chrobry. During the course of this struggle, several other brothers were brutally murdered.
The Primary Chronicle accused Svyatopolk of planning those murders, while the saga Eymundar þáttr hrings is interpreted as recounting the story of Boris' assassination by the Varangians in the service of Yaroslav. However, the victim's name is given there as Burizaf, a name of Boleslaus I in the Scandinavian sources, it is thus possible that the Saga tells the story of Yaroslav's struggle against Svyatopolk, not against Boris. Yaroslav defeated Svyatopolk in their first battle, in 1016, Svyatopolk fled to Poland, but Svyatopolk returned in 1018 with Polish troops furnished by his father-in-law, seized Kiev and pushed Yaroslav back into Novgorod. Yaroslav at last prevailed over Svyatopolk, in 1019 established his rule over Kiev. One of his first actions as a grand prince was to confer on the loyal Novgorodians, numerous freedoms and privileges. Thus, the foundation of the Novgorod Republic was laid. For their part, the Novgorodians respected Yaroslav more, it was during this period that Yaroslav promulgated the first code of laws in the lands of the East Slavs, the Russkaya Pravda.
Leaving aside the legitimacy of Yaroslav's claims to the Kievan throne and his postulated guilt in the murder of his brothers, Nestor the Chronicler and Russian historians presented him as a model of virtue, styling him "the Wise". A less appealing side of his personality is revealed by his having imprisoned his youngest brother Sudislav for life, yet another brother, Mstislav of Chernigov, whose distant realm bordered the North Caucasus and the Black Sea, hastened to Kiev and, despite reinforcements led by Yaroslav's brother-in-law King Anund Jacob of Sweden, inflicted a heavy defeat on Yaroslav in 1024. Yaroslav and Mstislav divided Kievan Rus' between them: the area stretching left from the Dnieper River, with the capital at Chernihiv, was ceded to Mstislav until his death in 1036. In his foreign policy, Yaroslav relied on the Scandinavian alliance and attempted to weaken the Byzantine influence on Kiev. In 1030, he reconquered Red Ruthenia from the Poles and concluded an alliance with King Casimir I the Restorer, sealed by the latter's marriage to Yaroslav's sister, Maria.
In another successful military raid the same year, he captured Tartu and renamed it Yuryev and forced the surrounding Ugandi County to pay annual tribute. In 1043, Yaroslav staged a naval raid against Constantinople led by his son Vladimir of Novgorod and general Vyshata. Although his navy was defeated in the Rus'–Byzantine War, Yaroslav managed to conclude the war with a favourable treaty and prestigious marriage of his son Vsevolod I of Kiev to a Byzantine princess, it has been suggested that the peace was so advantageous because the K
Miholjanec is a village in Croatia and one of the oldest settlements in the country. Miholjanec has been settled since at least the Iron Age. During the late Iron Age, the so-called bini populi lived in the area that would become Miholjanec. Historians are unclear on who the bini populi were; these people built a hill fort on a high plateau. The fort was surrounded by a moat. In the 10th century, a vineyard was planted on a hill near Miholjanec; the vineyard's name is translated as is "the seat of the master of the mountain". This vinyard still stands today. In 1160, a plot of land was donated to the Knights Templar; this was the earliest historical mention of the Templars in Hungary. There is a river near Zdelia, known by many names. In 1270, an unknown ancient castle was discovered on the land of Mikula. A parish church was built on the spot of the ancient castle in 1334 and called the church of Saint Michael. Miholjanec is named after the church. After the dissolving of the Templars, the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem came to Miholjanec, who in 1358 swapped their plot in Miholjanec for another plot in another village.
The parish church in that village, the Assumption of Mary, was given jus patronatus over a church of unknown location halfway between t village and to Milengrad, where prisoners of war, war wounded, war loot were sent. In 1673, when Miholjanec was part of the Military Frontier, there was a funfair and public bath house for border guard officers and other gentlemen. In 1676, a letter mentioned a contract between parishioners in their parish priest; this letter confirmed all liberties afforded to the parishioners, but whomever disturbed church on Sunday would be required to pay 10 denarius as punishment. In the same year 1676, a new wooden church was built in Miholjanec. In 1736, a great flood of the river Drava raised the waters for several months between Novigrad Podravski, Hlebine and Virje; the people of these towns fled to the hill villages of Miholjanec. This iinflux led to the rediscovery of Miholjanec's ancient vineyards. Soon after, 300 new vineyards were planted between Plavšinac and Miholjanec in Novigrad Podravski, which by that time had become the seat of a regiment.
In 1779, a new church was built. During construction, a human skeleton was discovered under the stairs of the old church. In addition, a cenotaph was discovered in the village, which in the 1960s was dated to the late Iron Age 1209. In 1780, it was agreed between the Franciscan monastery in Koprivnica and the General of the Military Frontier that begging in Miholjanec was the sole right of the Franciscans. In 1836, Maria Theresa made an unsuccessful attempt to restore the ruins of the Roman aqueduct in Miholjanec, which comes down the street from St. Michael; because most of it is in ruins, but those of St. John, 12 Roman miles long, was more than only successful; the regulation of the Drava river between 1830 and 1844 reduced the frequency of flooding. Settlements in the hills around Miholjanec increased in population, which brought logging and a reduced acreage of forests. In 1923, Miholjanec celebrated its 750th anniversary, with guests dancing on a natural dance floor with natural acoustics, similar to an amphitheatre.
In 1937, Le Monde Slave, published in Paris by Ernest Denis and Robert de Caix mentioned that the folks songs from Miholjanec had been examined in 1933, fifty of those songs had been reproduced and recorded. Media related to Miholjanec at Wikimedia Commons
Jordanes written Jordanis or, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history in life. Jordanes wrote Romana, about the history of Rome, but his best-known work is his Getica, written in Constantinople about AD 551, it is the only extant ancient work dealing with the early history of the Goths. Jordanes was asked by a friend to write Getica as a summary of a multi-volume history of the Goths by the statesman Cassiodorus that had existed but has since been lost. Jordanes was selected for his known interest in history, his ability to write succinctly and because of his own Gothic background, he had been a high-level notarius, or secretary, of a small client state on the Roman frontier in Scythia Minor, modern south-eastern Romania and north-eastern Bulgaria. Other writers, e.g. Procopius, wrote works which are extant on the history of the Goths; as the only surviving work on Gothic origins, the Getica has been the object of much critical review.
Jordanes wrote in Late Latin rather than the classical Ciceronian Latin. According to his own introduction, he had only three days to review what Cassiodorus had written, meaning that he must have relied on his own knowledge; some of his statements are laconic. Jordanes writes about himself in passing: The Sciri and the Sadagarii and certain of the Alani with their leader, Candac by name, received Scythia Minor and Lower Moesia. Paria, the father of my father Alanoviiamuth, was secretary to this Candac as long. To his sister's son Gunthigis called Baza, the Master of the Soldiery, the son of Andag the son of Andela, descended from the stock of the Amali, I Jordanes, although an unlearned man before my conversion, was secretary. In the Mommsen text edition of 1882, it was suggested that the long name of Jordanes' father should be split into two parts: Alanovii Amuthis, both genitive forms. Jordanes' father's name would be Amuth; the preceding word should belong to Candac, signifying that he was an Alan.
Mommsen, dismissed suggestions to emend a corrupt text. Paria was Jordanes' paternal grandfather. Jordanes writes that he was secretary to Candac, dux Alanorum, an otherwise unknown leader of the Alans. Jordanes was notarius, or secretary to Gunthigis Baza, a magister militum, nephew of Candac, of the leading Ostrogoth clan of the Amali; this was ante conversionem meam. The nature and details of the conversion remain obscure; the Goths had been converted with the assistance of Ulfilas, made bishop on that account. However, the Goths had adopted Arianism. Jordanes' conversion may have been a conversion to the trinitarian Nicene creed, which may be expressed in anti-Arianism in certain passages in Getica. In the letter to Vigilius he mentions that he was awakened vestris interrogationibus - "by your questioning". Alternatively, Jordanes' conversio may mean that he had become a monk, or a religiosus, or a member of the clergy; some manuscripts say that he was a bishop, some say bishop of Ravenna, but the name Jordanes is not known in the lists of bishops of Ravenna.
Jordanes wrote his Romana at the behest of a certain Vigilius. Although some scholars have identified this person with pope Vigilius, there is nothing else to support the identification besides the name; the form of address that Jordanes uses and his admonition that Vigilius "turn to God" would seem to rule out this identification. In the preface to his Getica, Jordanes writes that he is interrupting his work on the Romana at the behest of a brother Castalius, who knew that Jordanes had had the twelve volumes of the History of the Goths by Cassiodorus at home. Castalius would like a short book about the subject, Jordanes obliges with an excerpt based on memory supplemented with other material he had access to; the Getica sets off with a geography/ethnography of the North of Scandza. He lets the history of the Goths commence with the emigration of Berig with three ships from Scandza to Gothiscandza, in a distant past. In the pen of Jordanes, Herodotus' Getian demi-god Zalmoxis becomes a king of the Goths.
Jordanes tells how the Goths sacked "Troy and Ilium" just after they had recovered somewhat from the war with Agamemnon. They are said to have encountered the Egyptian pharaoh Vesosis; the less fictional part of Jordanes' work begins when the Goths encounter Roman military forces in the third century AD. The work concludes with the defeat of the Goths by the Byzantine general Belisarius. Jordanes concludes the work by stating that he writes to honour those who were victorious over the Goths after a history of 2030 years. Several Romanian and American historians wrote about Jordanes' error when considering that Getae were Goths. A lot of historical data of Dacians and Getae were wrongly attributed to Goths. Christensen A. S. Troya C. and Kulikowski M. demonstrated in their works that Jordanes developed in Getica the history of Getic and Dacian peoples mixed with a lot of fantastic deeds. Caracalla received "Geticus Maximus" and "Quasi Gothicus" titles following battles with Getae and Goths. History of the Roman Empire Mierow, Charles Christopher, The Gothic History of Jordanes: In English with an Introduction and a Commentary, 1915.
Reprinted 2006. Evolution Publishing, ISBN 978-1-889758-77-0. Carlo Troya. Storia d'Italia del medio-evo. Tip. del Tasso stamp. Reale. Pp. 1331–. Retrieved 5 April 2013. Kulikowski, Rome’s Gothic Wars, p. 130. Arne Søby Christensen, Cassiodorus and the History of the Goths. Studies in a Migration Myth, 2002, ISBN 978-87-7289-710-3 Kai Brodersen, Könige im Karpatenbogen: Z
Magnus Olafsson, better known as Magnus Barefoot, was King of Norway from 1093 until his death in 1103. His reign was marked by aggressive military campaigns and conquest in the Norse-dominated parts of the British Isles, where he extended his rule to the Kingdom of the Isles and Dublin; as the only son of King Olaf Kyrre, Magnus was proclaimed king in southeastern Norway shortly after his father's death in 1093. In the north his claim was contested by his cousin, Haakon Magnusson, the two co-ruled uneasily until Haakon's death in 1095. Disgruntled members of the nobility refused to recognise Magnus after his cousin's death, but the insurrection was short-lived. After securing his position domestically, Magnus campaigned around the Irish Sea from 1098 to 1099, he raided through Orkney, the Hebrides and Mann, ensured Norwegian control by a treaty with the Scottish king. Based on Mann during his time in the west, Magnus had a number of forts and houses built on the island and also obtained suzerainty of Galloway.
He sailed to Wales in his expedition, winning control of Anglesey after repelling the invading Norman forces from the island. Following his return to Norway Magnus led campaigns into Dalsland and Västergötland in Sweden, claiming an ancient border with the country. After two unsuccessful invasions and a number of skirmishes Danish king Eric Evergood initiated peace talks among the three Scandinavian monarchs, fearing that the conflict would get out of hand. Magnus concluded peace with the Swedes in 1101 by agreeing to marry Margaret, daughter of the Swedish king Inge Stenkilsson. In return, Magnus gained Dalsland as part of her dowry, he set out on his final western campaign in 1102, may have sought to conquer Ireland. Magnus entered into an alliance with Irish king Muirchertach Ua Briain of Munster, who recognised Magnus' control of Dublin. Under unclear circumstances, while obtaining food supplies for his return to Norway, Magnus was killed in an ambush by the Ulaid the next year. Into modern times, his legacy has remained more pronounced in Ireland and Scotland than in his native Norway.
Among the few domestic developments known during his reign, Norway developed a more centralised rule and moved closer to the European model of church organisation. Popularly portrayed as a Viking warrior rather than a medieval monarch, Magnus was the last Norwegian king to fall in battle abroad, he may in some respects be considered the final Viking king. Most information about Magnus is gleaned from Norse sagas and chronicles, which began appearing during the 12th century; the most important sources still available are the Norwegian chronicles Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk and the anonymous Ágrip af Noregskonungasögum from the 1180s and the Icelandic sagas Heimskringla and Fagrskinna, which date to about the 1220s. While the sagas are the most detailed accounts, they are generally considered the least reliable. Additional information about Magnus, in particular his campaigns, is found in sources from the British Isles, which included contemporary accounts.
Magnus was born around the end of 1073 as the only son of King Olaf Kyrre. His mother's identity is uncertain; the historical consensus has favoured Tora Arnesdatter, but the other claims have gained support. Anders Stølen has argued that she was a daughter of Ragnvald jarl, while historian Randi Helene Førsund has considered Tora Joansdatter more likely. Magnus grew up among the hird of his father in de facto capital of Norway at the time, his father's cousin, the chieftain Tore Ingeridsson, was foster-father to Magnus. In his youth, he was more similar to his warlike grandfather, King Harald Hardrada, than to his father. According to Snorri Sturluson, Magnus was considered gifted in learning. Magnus' more-common byname, "Barefoot" or "Barelegs", was—according to Snorri—due to his adopting the Gaelic dress of the Irish and Scots: a short tunic, which left the lower legs bare. Another version maintains that he acquired the nickname because he was forced to flee from a Swedish attack in his bare feet, while a third explains that he rode barefoot.
Due to Magnus' aggressive nature and his campaigns abroad, he had the nickname styrjaldar-Magnús. Norway had experienced a long period of peace during the reign of Olaf. Magnus may have been present when Olaf died in Rånrike, Båhuslen in September 1093 and was proclaimed king at the Borgarting, the thing of the adjacent region of Viken that month; when Magnus became king, he had a network of support among the Norwegian aristocracy. Although sources are unclear about the first year of his reign, it is appar