Platanus orientalis, the Old World sycamore, or Oriental plane, is a large, deciduous tree of the Platanaceae family, growing to 30 m or more, known for its longevity and spreading crown. The species' name means'eastern'.. The eastern plane's original distribution was eastward from the Balkans; the tree was called platane in ancient Greek history and literature and by related names in continental Europe. Well known in Asia and from Anatolia to India and called chinar or chenar. In the Kashmir Valley region, the native Kashmiri word for the tree is boonyi; the native range is Eurasia from the Balkans to at least as far east as Iran. Some accounts extend its native range to Iberia in the west, to the Himalayas in the east; as it has been known in cultivation from early times in much of this region it can be difficult to determine if it is indigenous in peripheral areas. The oriental plane is found in riverine settings, together with such trees as alder and poplar. However, it is quite capable of success in dry soils once it is established.
Like other plane trees, its leaves are borne alternately on the stem lobed, palmate or maple-like. It has flaking bark not flaking and becoming thick and rugged. Flowers and fruit are burr-like, borne in clusters of between 2 and 6 on a stem. Considerable variation exists among trees in the wild, this may be complicated by crossbreeding with planted London planes, the hybrid of P. orientalis with the American sycamore. The tree is capable of being grown in most temperate latitudes, though it benefits from warm summers; as a large and wide tree with broad, thick leaves that tend to orient horizontally, it is prized for the shade and coolness it provides during the hot season. The leaves and bark have been used medicinally. A fabric dye has been made from the roots; the timber called lacewood, is figured and valuable for indoor furniture. The leaves are often used by artists for leaf carving. From earliest days, P. orientalis has been an important tree in Persian gardens, which are built around water and shade.
There it is known as the chenar. The Tree of Hippocrates, under which Hippocrates — the "Father of Medicine" — taught at Kos, is reputed to have been an oriental plane. A 500-year-old tree presently there may be on the same site and may have been planted from a succession of cuttings from the original; the Athenian Academy, outside Athens, featured a sacred grove of planes where the students listened to the masters and where among others the Peripatetics practiced philosophy. Pliny's Natural History records the westward progress of the plane "introduced among us from a foreign clime for nothing but its shade", planted first at the tomb of Diomedes on the island of Tremiti imported to Greek Sicily by Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse, he had plane-trees conveyed to the city of Rhegium, where they were looked upon as the great marvel of his palace, according to Pliny's sources. From there it spread by the first century CE as far as the lands of the Morini in Belgic Gaul. Regardless of why it may have been introduced, the tree had medicinal uses from early times.
Pliny details 25 remedies using preparation from the bark and excrescences of plane. Pliny prescribes it for burns, stings and infections. Pliny goes on to describe some legendary plane-trees. There was one on the grounds of the Athenian Academy, he says. Licinius Mucianus held a banquet for 19 in a hollow plane-tree of Lycia, the emperor Caligula another for 15 plus servants in a tree house built in the branches of a plane-tree at Velletri. Most small villages in Greece have one or more old planes in their central square, where the village water spring used to be. Many of them are set in cavities, which are playing and meeting points for children and teenagers, or are cared for, sometimes illuminated, as tourist attractions. In historic Kashmir, the tree was planted near Hindu holy places under names derived from the goddess Bhavani. In Muslim times it continued to be a major garden and landscape tree and dominates many historic gardens, now called boonyi in local Kashmiri and chinar by Hindi/Urdu speakers.
For example, a famous landmark in Srinagar is an island on Dal Lake where four chinar trees stand, named Char Chinar. As another example, a 627-year-old chinar tree has been found at Chatargaam, Badgam district, Kashmir planted in 1374 AD by an Islamic mystic Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Chinar trees are being felled in Kashmir, although a recent ban has been enacted to curb cutting. Chinar trees are considered State Property. Registered Chinars are painted white at their base. Increased awareness means most old Chinars are looked after. Chinars are considered as the symbols of the Persian influence on the heritage of Kashmir. In 2011 a specimen planted by Capability Brown was identified as the tree with the greatest known spread in the United Kingdom. An example dating to at least 1762 is one of Kew Gardens' thirteen'Heritage Trees'. A plane tree is the main theme in the aria Ombra mai fu composed by George Frideric Handel, in which the main character, Xerxes I of Persia, admires the shade of a plane tree.
It is the State tree of Indian state Jammu and Kashmir. During the 2010 Commonwea
Polyscias elegans, known as the celery wood, is a rainforest tree of eastern Australia. It occurs in a variety of different rainforest types, from fertile basaltic soils, to sand dunes and less fertile sedimentary soils; the range of natural distribution is from Jervis Bay in southern New South Wales to Thursday Island, north of the Australian continent. Other common names include black pencil silver basswood. Polyscias elegans is useful to bush regenerators as a nursery tree, which provides shade for longer-lived young trees underneath. Polyscias elegans is known as Celery wood, Mowbulan whitewood, Silver basswood and White sycamore, it is a fast-growing medium-sized tree with an attractive umbrella-shaped crown. Up to 30 meters tall and a trunk diameter of 75 cm; the trunk is straight and cylindrical, smooth-barked on young trees but fissured and rough-barked on larger trees. Leaves are large, pinnate or bi-pinnate with opposite leaflets in threes. Leaflets ovate with a point, 5 to 13 cm long.
Leaf veins noticeable on net veins visible below. Purple flowers form on a terminal panicle, arranged in a series of racemes in the months of February to April. However, flowers can form at other times; the fruit is a drupe. Inside the drupe are two cells, containing one seed each, 5 mm long. Seed is fertile for regeneration from the droppings of the pied currawong; the fruit is eaten by a large variety of birds, including brown cuckoo dove, Australasian figbird, green catbird, Lewin's honeyeater, olive-backed oriole, pied currawong, paradise riflebird, rose crowned fruit dove, superb fruit dove, topknot pigeon and wompoo fruit dove. Floyd, A. G. Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 1989, ISBN 0-909605-57-2 page 73 Polyscias elegans at NSW Flora Online Retrieved on 20 June 2009
Cryptocarya glaucescens known as jackwood, is a rainforest tree of the laurel family growing in eastern Australia. Cryptocarya glaucescens was one of the many species first described by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in his 1810 work Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae. Common names include jackwood, native laurel, brown beech, brown laurel, bolly laurel and silver sycamore. Cryptocarya glaucescens is a medium-sized tree to 35 metres tall and 90 cm in trunk diameter; the bark is dark brown or reddish brown and scaly. Surface not smooth with many irregularities. Bark can contain circular depressions, colloquially known as "bollies", which are seen in the related laurel, Litsea reticulata; the trunk may or may not be cylindrical, the base is buttressed in large trees. Leaves are elliptical, 6 to 13 cm long. Upper surface green. Hence the species name of Cryptocarya glaucescens. Midrib and lateral nerves and net veins are visible on both sides of the leaf, but more obvious beneath. Flowers appear from October to December.
Flowers are numerous in panicles. These panicles may be longer than the leaves; the fruit is a drupe. Black and shiny, of an appealing oblong or spherical shape. With vertical lines and wrinkles. 18 mm long and 15 mm deep. The aril has a unique and pleasant scent. Fruit eaten by rainforest birds including the topknot pigeon. Fruit ripe from March to June. Unlike most Australian Cryptocarya fruit, removal of the fleshy aril is not advised to assist seed germination, as the aril is so thin. Roots and shoots appear within three to six months. Common in warm temperate rainforest areas, but seen in the other rainforest types, it grows from Mount Dromedary in southern New South Wales to Eungella National Park, in tropical Queensland. Timber is pale brown. Sapwood not attacked by powder post borer. Floyd, A. G.. Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Inkata Press. ISBN 0-909605-57-2. "Cryptocarya glaucescens R. Br". Atlas of Living Australia
Platanus racemosa is a species of plane tree known by several common names, including California sycamore, western sycamore, California plane tree, in North American Spanish aliso. Platanus racemosa is native to California and Baja California, where it grows in riparian areas, floodplains, at springs and seeps, along streams and rivers in several types of habitats, it has been found as far north as Humboldt counties. This large tree grows to 35 metres in height with a trunk diameter of up to one meter. A specimen on the campus of Stanford University has a trunk girth of 10.5 feet. The trunk divides into two or more large trunks splitting into many branches; the bark is an attractive patchwork of white, tawny beige, pinkish gray, pale brown, with older bark becoming darker and peeling away. Platanus racemosa is the dominant species in the globally and state endangered sycamore-alluvial woodland habitat; the large palmately lobed leaves may be up to 25 centimetres centimeters wide and have three or five pointed lobes.
New leaves are a bright translucent green and somewhat woolly. The deciduous tree drops copious amounts of dry golden to orangish red leaves in the fall; the inflorescence is made up of a few spherical flower heads each around a centimeter wide. The female flower heads develop into spherical fruit clusters each made up of many hairy, maroon-red-woolly achenes; the tough and coarse-grained wood is difficult to work. It has various uses, including acting as a meat preparation block for butchers. Many small birds feed on its fruit, several mammals eat its twigs and bark; the pollen and the hairs on leaves and flowers can be allergens for some people. New leaves are susceptible to anthracnose canker, when it causes a side bud to become the new leader, can create picturesque angling trunks and branches on older specimens, it is widely planted horticulturally as a landscape tree in public landscapes and private gardens. New appreciation for how it shades sun in summer and lets sun through in winter has led to its use in green architecture and sustainable design.
The aesthetics of its bark and its overall form add interest. Deardorff, David. "Plant Portraits: California Sycamore". Garden. 1: 5–7 – via Archive.org. Jepson Manual Treatment Photo gallery Interactive Distribution Map of Platanus racemosa
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the sole living members of the family Platanaceae. All members of Platanus are tall. All except for P. kerrii are deciduous, most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane has proved tolerant of urban conditions, has been planted in London and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, they are known in English as planes or plane trees. Some North American species are called sycamores, although the term sycamore refers to the fig Ficus sycomorus, the plant so named, to the sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus; the genus name Platanus comes from Ancient Greek πλάτανος. The flowers are borne in balls. Male and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant; the number of heads in one cluster is indicative of the species. The male flower has 3–8 stamens. Plane trees are wind-pollinated. Male flower-heads fall off after shedding their pollen.
After being pollinated, the female flowers become achenes. The fruit is a multiple of achenes; the core of the ball is 1 cm in diameter and is covered with a net of mesh 1 mm, which can be peeled off. The ball is 2.5–4 cm in diameter and contains several hundred achenes, each of which has a single seed and is conical, with the point attached downward to the net at the surface of the ball. There is a tuft of many thin stiff yellow-green bristle fibers attached to the base of each achene; these bristles help in wind dispersion of the fruits as in the dandelion. The leaves are alternate. In the subgenus Platanus they have a palmate outline; the base of the leaf stalk is enlarged and wraps around the young stem bud in its axil. The axillary bud is exposed; the mature bark peels off or exfoliates in irregularly shaped patches, producing a mottled, scaly appearance. On old trunks, bark may not thickens and cracks instead. There are two subgenera, subgenus Castaneophyllum containing the anomalous P. kerrii, subgenus Platanus, with all the others.
Within subgenus Platanus, genetic evidence suggests that P. racemosa is more related to P. orientalis than it is to the other North American species. There are fossil records of plane trees as early as 115 million years. Despite the geographic separation between North America and Old World, species from these continents will cross resulting in fertile hybrids such as the London plane; the following are recognized species of plane trees: Planes are susceptible to plane anthracnose, a fungal disease that can defoliate the trees in some years. The most severe infections are associated with wet spring weather. P. occidentalis and the other American species are the most susceptible, with P. orientalis the most resistant. The hybrid London plane is intermediate in resistance. Ceratocystis platani, a wilt disease, has become a significant problem in recent years in much of Europe; the North American species are resistant to the disease, with which they coevolved, while the old world species are sensitive.
Other diseases such as powdery mildew occur but are of lesser importance. Platanus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phyllonorycter platani and Setaceous Hebrew Character. In the 21st century a disease known as Massaria disease, has attacked plane trees across Europe, it is caused by the fungus Splanchnonema platani, causes large lesions on the upper sides of branches. The principal use of these trees is as ornamental trees in urban areas and by roadsides; the London plane is popular for this purpose. The American plane is cultivated sometimes for timber and investigations have been made into its use as a biomass crop; the oriental plane is used as an ornamental and has a number of minor medicinal uses. Most significant aspects of cultural history apply to Platanus orientalis in the Old World; the tree is an important part of the literary scenery of Plato's dialogue Phaedrus. Because of Plato, the tree played an important role in the scenery of Cicero's De Oratore.
The legendary Dry tree first recorded by Marco Polo was a platanus. According to the legend, it marked the site of the battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III; the German camouflage pattern Platanenmuster, designed in 1937–1942 by Johann Georg Otto Schick, was the first dotted camouflage pattern. BooksNaumann, Helmut. "Die Platane von Gortyna". In Kämmerer. Thomas Richard. Studien zu Ritual und Sozialgeschichte im Alten. Berlin, de Gruyter. Pp. 207–226. Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. Pp. 606–607. JournalsFeng, Y.. H.. S.. "Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Genus Platanus as Inferred From Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 30: 786–799. Doi:10.1600/036364405775097851. Nixon, K. C.. "Revision of the Mexican and Guatemalan species of Platanus". Lundellia. 6: 103–137. Doi:10.2
Cryptocarya obovata is a large laurel growing on basaltic and fertile alluvial soils in eastern Australian rainforests. It is found from Wyong in New South Wales to Gympie in the state of Queensland. Extinct in the Illawarra region seen in the Illawarra in 1818 by Allan Cunningham; the species was included in the Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van Diemen, 402 Cryptocarya obovata, known as the pepperberry or white walnut, reaches a height of 40 metres and a trunk diameter of 90 cm. The hairy underside of the leaves gives the tree a rusty appearance; the trunk is straight and round in cross section buttressed. The bark is grey or brown and fairly smooth. Vertical lines of pustules are seen. Leaves are obovate or oblong, 6 to 12 cm long, with a round tip. Upper surface smooth and glossy, underside greyish and finely hairy. Brown leaf stalks 3 to 8 mm long. Leaf venation is prominent, the raised midrib and net veins are covered with brown hairs, standing out conspicuously. Veins yellow in colour.
Cream flowers in panicles. Individual flowers about 3 mm long without stalks. Flowering occurs between February to May; the fruit is a black globular drupe ribbed. 12 mm in diameter. The seed is around 8 mm in diameter. Fruit ripe from March to May. Eaten by Australasian figbird, rose-crowned fruit-dove, topknot pigeon and wompoo fruit dove. Like most Australian Cryptocarya fruit, removal of the fleshy aril is advised to assist seed germination, slow with Cryptocarya obovata After 205 days, a 50% germination success may be expected. Floyd, A. G.. Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia. Inkata Press. ISBN 0-909605-57-2. "Cryptocarya obovata R. Br". Atlas of Living Australia
Litsea reticulata is a common Australian tree, growing from near Milton, New South Wales to the Bunya Mountains, Queensland. Common names include bolly wood and brown beech; the habitat of the bollygum is rainforest of most types, except the dryer forms. Litsea reticulata was first described by Meisner in 1864 as Tetranthera reticulata, before being given its current name by von Mueller in 1882. Common names include bolly gum, bolly beech, brown beech, brown bolly beech, brown Bollywood, soft bollygum, brown bollygum. Litsea reticulata is a medium to large size tree reaching 40 metres in height and a 150 cm in trunk diameter; the bark is a grey and scaly, with numerous depressions caused by the shedding of round scales of bark, colloquially known as "bollies". Exposed bark is a paler colour. Litsea reticulata are buttressed or flanged at the base; the leaves are alternate, not toothed. 5 to 10 cm long, blunt or pointed, the leaves are veiny underneath. Leaf stalks are 5 to 12 mm long. Litsea reticulata is dioecious.
Flowers green with pink. Flowering period is May to July; the fruit matures from November to April, being a purple/black 14 mm long drupe, in a green cup shaped receptacle, with a single seed, 11 mm long. Seed germination can be slow. However, at other times, 60% germination result can be achieved within a month of sowing; the flesh should be removed from the fruit before sowing the seeds. Fruit are eaten by many rainforest birds, including the wompoo fruit dove, topknot pigeon and white-headed pigeon. Floyd, A. G. Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 1989, ISBN 0-909605-57-2 page 193