Timothy John Evans was a Welshman falsely convicted and hanged for the murder of his wife and infant daughter at their residence at 10 Rillington Place in Notting Hill, London. In January 1950, he was convicted of the murder of his daughter, he was sentenced to death by hanging, a sentence, carried out. During his trial, Evans had accused his downstairs neighbour, John Christie, of committing the murders. Three years after Evans's execution, Christie was found to be a serial killer who had murdered six other women in the same house, including his own wife. Before his execution, Christie confessed to murdering Mrs. Evans. An official inquiry concluded in 1966 that Christie had murdered Evans's daughter, Evans was granted a posthumous pardon; the case is acknowledged as a serious miscarriage of justice. Along with those of Derek Bentley and Ruth Ellis, the case played a major part in the abolition of capital punishment in the United Kingdom for murder in 1965. Evans was a native of Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.
His father Daniel abandoned the family in April 1924 before Evans's birth. Evans had an older sister, born in 1921 and a younger half-sister, born in September 1929. Evans's mother remarried in September 1933; as a child, Evans struggled at school. Following an accident when he was eight, Evans developed a tubercular verruca on his right foot that never healed and caused him to miss considerable amounts of time from school for treatments, further setting back his education; as a result, when he reached adulthood Evans possessed low literacy skills needing others to read lengthy documents to him, although he did possess some ability in being able to read simple passages such as in comics, newspaper football reports and on his wages and receipts. He liked football, supporting QPR, as did Christie, boxing, he was prone to inventing stories about himself to boost his self-esteem, a trait that continued into adulthood and interfered with his efforts to establish credibility when dealing with the police and courts.
In 1935, his mother and her second husband moved to London, Evans worked as a painter and decorator while attending school. He returned to Merthyr Tydfil in 1937 and worked in the coal mines but had to resign because of continuing problems with his foot. In 1939, he returned to London to live again with his mother, in 1946 they moved to St Mark's Road, Notting Hill; this was just over two minutes' walk from 10 Rillington Place, his future residence after he married. Evans was fined 60 shillings at West London Magistrates court on 25 April 1946 for stealing a car, driving without insurance or a licence. On 20 September 1947, Evans married Beryl Susanna Thorley, whom he had met through a friend in January 1947 who had encouraged the pair to meet on a blind date; the couple lived with Evans's family at St Mark's Road but in early 1948 Beryl discovered she was pregnant and they decided they would find their own place to live with their child. On Easter Monday 1948, the couple moved into the top-floor flat at 10 Rillington Place in the Ladbroke Grove area of Notting Hill.
Their neighbours in the ground-floor flat were John Christie, a post office clerk and former Special Constable, his wife, Ethel Christie. Unknown to Evans, Christie was a serial killer who had killed two women at the property prior to the Evanses' arrival and had buried their bodies in the backyard garden. Christie would go on to murder at least four more women, including his wife, over the next five years. Timothy's and Beryl's daughter Geraldine was born on 10 October 1948, their marriage was characterised by angry quarrels, exacerbated by Beryl's poor housekeeping and inability to manage the family's finances. However, Timothy misspent his wages on alcohol, his heavy drinking at the time exacerbated his short temper; the arguments between Timothy and Beryl were loud enough to be heard by the neighbours and physical violence between them was witnessed on several occasions. In 1949, Beryl revealed to Timothy. Since the family was struggling financially, Beryl decided to have an abortion. After some initial reluctance, Evans agreed to this course of action.
Several weeks on 30 November 1949, Evans informed police at Merthyr Tydfil that his wife had died in unusual circumstances. His first confession was that he had accidentally killed her by giving her something in a bottle that a man had given him to abort the foetus, he told the police. When police examined the drain outside the front of the building, they found nothing and, discovered that the manhole cover required the combined strength of three officers to remove it; when re-questioned, Evans changed his story and said that Christie had offered to perform an abortion on Beryl. Evans stated. After some deliberation between Evans and his wife, they had both agreed to take up Christie's offer. On 8 November, Evans had returned home from work to be informed by Christie that the abortion had not worked and that Beryl was dead. Christie had said that he would dispose of the body and would make arrangements for a couple from East Acton to look after Geraldine, he said. On 14 November, Evans left for Wales to stay with relatives.
Evans said he returned to 10 Rillington Place to ask about Geraldine, but Christ
Albert Pierrepoint was an English hangman who executed between 435 and 600 people in a 25-year career that ended in 1956. His father and uncle Thomas were official hangmen before him. Pierrepoint was born in Clayton in the West Riding of Yorkshire, his family struggled financially because of heavy drinking. Pierrepoint knew from an early age that he wanted to become a hangman, was taken on as an assistant executioner in September 1932, aged 27, his first execution was alongside his uncle Tom. In October 1941 he undertook his first hanging as lead executioner. During his tenure he hanged 200 people, convicted of war crimes in Germany and Austria, as well as several high-profile murderers—including Gordon Cummins, John Haigh and John Christie, he undertook several contentious executions, including Timothy Evans, Derek Bentley and Ruth Ellis and executions for high treason—William Joyce and John Amery—and treachery, with the hanging of Theodore Schurch. In 1956 Pierrepoint was involved in a dispute with a sheriff over payment, leading to his retirement from hanging.
He ran a pub in Lancashire from the mid-1940s until the 1960s. He wrote his memoirs in 1974 in which he concluded that capital punishment was not a deterrent, although he may have changed his position after that, he approached his task with gravity and said that the execution was "sacred to me". His life has been included in several works of fiction, such as the 2005 film Pierrepoint, in which he was portrayed by Timothy Spall. Albert Pierrepoint was born on 30 March 1905 in Clayton in the West Riding of Yorkshire, he was the third of five children and eldest son of his wife Mary. Henry had a series of jobs, including butcher's apprentice, clog maker and a carrier in a local mill, but employment was short-term. With intermittent employment, the family had financial problems, worsened by Henry's heavy drinking. From 1901 Henry had been on the list of official executioners; the role was part-time, with payment made only for individual hangings, rather than an annual stipend or salary, there was no pension included with the position.
Henry was removed from the list of executioners in July 1910 after arriving drunk at a prison the day before an execution and excessively berating his assistant. Henry's brother Thomas became an official executioner in 1906. Pierrepoint did not find out about his father's former job until 1916, when Henry's memoirs were published in a newspaper. Influenced by his father and uncle, when asked at school to write about what job he would like when older, Pierrepoint said that "When I leave school I should like to be public executioner like my dad is, because it needs a steady man with good hands like my dad and my Uncle Tom and I shall be the same". In 1917 the Pierrepoint family left Huddersfield, West Riding of Yorkshire, moved to Failsworth, near Oldham, Lancashire. Henry's health declined and he was unable to undertake physical work. Henry died in 1922 and Pierrepoint received two blue exercise books—in which his father had written his story as a hangman—and Henry's execution diary, which listed details of each hanging in which he had participated.
In the 1920s Pierrepoint left the mill and became a drayman for a wholesale grocer, delivering goods ordered through a travelling salesman. By 1930 he had learned to drive a lorry to make his deliveries. On 19 April 1931 Pierrepoint wrote to the Prison Commissioners and applied to be an assistant executioner, he was turned down as there were no vacancies, but received an invitation for interview six months later. He was accepted and spent four days training at Pentonville Prison, where a dummy was used for practice, he received his formal acceptance letter as an assistant executioner at the end of September 1932. At that time, the assistant's fee was £1-11-6d per execution, with another £1-11-6d paid two weeks if his conduct and behaviour were satisfactory; the executioner was chosen by the county high sheriff—or more delegated to the undersheriff, who selected both the hangman and the assistant. Executioners and their assistants were required to be discreet and the rules for those roles included the clause: He should understand that his conduct and general behaviour should be respectable, not only at the place and time of the execution, but before and subsequently, that he should avoid attracting public attention in going to or from the prison, he is prohibited from giving to any person particulars on the subject of his duty for publication.
In late December 1932 Pierrepoint undertook his first execution. His uncle Tom had been contracted by the government of the Irish Free State for the hanging of Patrick McDermott, a young Irish farmer who had murdered his brother, they travelled to the Mountjoy Dublin for the hanging. It was scheduled for 8:00 am, took less than a minute to perform. Pierrepoint's job as assistant was to follow the prisoner onto the scaffold, bind the prisoner's legs together step back off the trapdoor before the lead executioner sprung the mechanism. For the remainder of the 1930s Pierrepoint worked in the grocery business and as an assistant executioner. Most of his commissions were with his uncle Tom, he was impressed with his uncle's approach and demeanour, which were dignified and discreet.
The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The remit of the Home Office was reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office, its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure. The Home Office continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.
The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.
Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.
On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that follo
Harry Allen (executioner)
Harry Bernard Allen was one of Britain's last official executioners, officiating between 1941 and 1964. He was chief executioner at 41 executions and acted as assistant executioner at 53 others, at various prisons in England, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and Cyprus, he acted as assistant executioner for 14 years to Albert Pierrepoint from 1941 to 1955. In October 1955 Allen was appointed as Chief Executioner alongside Pierrepoint, although he did not execute anyone in this role until 10 May 1956, when he hanged two EOKA members in Cyprus. Pierrepoint was no longer available because he had resigned in February 1956. Allen's most controversial hanging came in April 1962, when James Hanratty was hanged for murder, despite efforts to clear his name. Hanratty was proven guilty in 2002 by DNA. Allen assisted in the execution of Derek Bentley in 1953, he performed one of the last two executions in Britain, in August 1964. Born in Denaby Main, near Conisbrough in the West Riding of Yorkshire on 5 November 1911, Allen was brought up in Ashton-under-Lyne and was educated at St Anne's Roman Catholic School in Burlington Street, Ashton.
His first job was in the Transport Department at Park Bridge Iron Works, before he became a bus driver with Ashton Corporation, a job he continued to hold after he became an assistant hangman in 1941. Allen was turned down, he applied to be put on the Home Office list of executioners and was employed as an assistant executioner to Tom Pierrepoint, the uncle of Albert Pierrepoint. As a preliminary step, he witnessed his first execution at the age of 29 – that of William Cooper – on 26 November 1940 at Bedford Prison, describing it as a "very good, clean job, not as gruesome as I expected". Allen became a publican in Farnworth, Lancashire in the 1940s, combining his role as executioner with running the pub, which he ran until the early 1950s when he took over another pub, the Junction Inn, on Higher Lane in Whitefield. In 1945, five German prisoners of war were hanged for murdering a fellow German soldier, Sergeant-Major Wolfgang Rosterg, whom they suspected of having betrayed their escape plan.
It seems to have been this crime and ultimate execution. He wrote, "It was a foul murder, they staged a mock trial, kicking the victim to death and dragging him by the neck to the toilet where they hung his lifeless body on a waste pipe. These five prisoners are the most callous men I have met so far but I blame the Nazi doctrine for that, it must be a terrible creed." A 21-year-old, Erich Koening, was the first of the soldiers to be hanged at Pentonville Prison, swearing allegiance to the last to Nazi Germany. On 28 January 1953 Allen assisted at the controversial execution of Derek Bentley, hanged for a murder committed by a friend and accomplice during an attempted robbery, for which Bentley received a posthumous pardon 45 years later. Contrary to some accounts Allen was not present at the execution of Ruth Ellis, the last woman to be hanged in the UK, in 1955: the assistant to Albert Pierrepoint on that occasion was Royston Rickard. Following the resignation of Albert Pierrepoint and the death of Stephen Wade in 1956, Allen and Robert Leslie Stewart jointly became Chief Executioners.
However, the Homicide Act 1957 reduced the number of condemned criminals by 75%, from an average of 15 a year in the early 1950s to about four a year in the late 1950s. As Chief Executioner, on 11 July 1958 Allen hanged American-born Scottish serial killer Peter Manuel at Barlinnie prison, Glasgow, he hanged Guenther Podola on 5 November 1959, a German-born petty thief, the last man to be hanged in the UK for killing a police officer. His most controversial case was that of James Hanratty, hanged on 4 April 1962 at Bedford Prison for the "A6 murder" case. Efforts to clear Hanratty's name continued until 2001, when DNA testing matched Hanratty to the crime scene; some newspapers claim that Allen's son Brian assisted his father at five hangings, a claim, rejected by Allen's biographer Stewart McLaughlin. In Charles Duff's book A Handbook on Hanging, an article in the Daily Sketch quotes Brian as saying that he had quit as assistant hangman because his fiancé would not marry him "unless you stop helping to hang people".
Brian Allen said "I'd been in two minds about quitting the job, but when Angela asked me to drop it, that decided me... Of course, Dad and I don't talk about the hangman's job. I know it is supposed to run in families, but I've decided it is "out" for me – though someone has to do it". However, a report in The Spokesman Review headlined "Hangman Quits To Save Lives" stated that he had quit because of a "conflict of loyalties" – he had qualified as a mental health nurse and had taken a vow to "do all in my power to save and preserve life". Allen performed the last execution in Northern Ireland in December 1961, when he hanged Robert McGladdery at Crumlin Road Gaol in Belfast, he performed the last hanging in Scotland, when Henry Burnett was hanged at Craiginches Prison in Aberdeen, on 15 August 1963 for the murder of Thomas Guyan, hanged Russell Pascoe – one of the third-last prisoners to be hanged in a British prison – at Bristol's Horfield Prison on 17 December in the same year. He performed one of the two final executions in the UK, when at 8.00 am on 13 August 1964 Gwynne Owen Evans was hanged at Strangeways Prison in Manchester for the murder of John Alan West.
This occurred with the execution of Evans's accomplice Peter Anthony Allen, hanged at Walton Gaol in Liverpool by Robert Leslie Stewart. Allen always wore a bow tie during executions as a sign of respect. Of his job, Al
HM Prison Wandsworth
HM Prison Wandsworth, is a Category B men's prison at Wandsworth in the London Borough of Wandsworth, South West London, England. It is the largest prison in the United Kingdom; the prison was built in 1851. It was designed according to the humane separate system principle: a number of corridors radiate from a central control point with each prisoner having toilet facilities; the toilets were subsequently removed to increase prison capacity and the prisoners had to engage in the humiliating process of "slopping out", until 1996. In 1930, inmate James Edward Spiers, serving a 10-year sentence for armed robbery, committed suicide in front of a group of Justices of the Peace who were there to witness his receiving 15 lashes a form of judicial corporal punishment. In 1951, Wandsworth was the holding prison for a national stock of the birch and the cat o' nine tails, implements for corporal punishment inflicted as a disciplinary penalty under the prison rules. An example of a flogging with the "cat" carried out in Wandsworth Prison itself was reported in July 1954.
On 8 July 1965, Ronnie Biggs escaped from the prison, where he was serving a 30-year sentence for his part in the Great Train Robbery. Two years he fled to Brazil and remained on the run until 2001, when he returned to the UK. Wandsworth was the site of 135 executions, between 1878 and 1961. Built in 1878, the gallows was located near the A wing. In 1911 a new gallows was built between the E and F wings, in 1938 a new facility was built at the E wing. Among those executed by hanging were: On 25 April 1951, a double execution took place at Wandsworth, when Edward Smith and Joseph Brown stood on the gallows together and were executed simultaneously; the final executions at Wandsworth were those of Francis Forsyth on 10 November 1960, Victor John Terry on 25 May 1961 and Henryk Niemasz on 8 September 1961. With the exceptions of Scott-Ford and Amery, who were convicted of treachery, all executions were for the crime of murder; the gallows were tested every six months. In 1994, they were dismantled and the condemned suite is now used as a tea room for the prison officers.
The gallows' trapdoor and lever were sent to the Prison Service Museum in Warwickshire. After this museum permanently closed in 2004, they were sent to the Galleries of Justice in Nottingham, where those and an execution box may be seen. In October 2009, gross misconduct charges were brought against managers of Wandsworth Prison, after an investigation found that prisoners had been temporarily transferred to HMP Pentonville before inspections; the transfers, which included vulnerable prisoners, were made in order to manipulate prison population figures. In March 2011, an unannounced follow-up inspection was conducted by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons, which found that "... Wandsworth compared badly with similar prisons facing similar challenges and we were concerned by what appeared to be unwillingness among some prison managers and staff to acknowledge and take responsibility for the problems the prison faced."In May 2015 a prisoner was found dead in his cell, prompting a murder investigation.
The prison has made good progress since the inspection in 2009 and has received praise from the MQPL Survey, undertaken in March 2011, which demonstrated progress over the same survey results in 2009. Wandsworth Prison contains eight wings on two units; the smaller unit, containing three wings, was designed for women but is closed for refurbishment. It is planned to reopen as a Category C unit focusing on resettlement services. Education and training courses are offered at Wandsworth. Facilities at the prison include a sports hall; the large prison chaplaincy offers chaplains from the Roman Catholic, Methodist, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist and Jehovah's Witness faiths. A BBC investigation showed large scale drug abuse and cannabis being smoked and harder drugs found. There are allegations of staff corruption of staff bringing drugs into the prison. Wandsworth has lost its status as a reform prison. Glyn Travis of the Prison Officers Association said, "Wandsworth staff had bought into the reform process and worked well with the governor to implement the reforms.
Now, the prison has lost its reform status and once again and prisoners have been left high and dry as this government’s agenda seems to change at the drop of a hat." Wandsworth is the most overcrowded prison in England and body scanners were not used on visitors to prevent contraband being brought into the prison due to shortage of staff. Peter Clarke said, "In essence, there were too many prisoners, many with drug-related or mental health issues, with not enough to do." Not all staff carried anti ligature knives despite six suicides since 2015. Bat Khurts, head of Mongolia's counter-terrorism agency, 2010. Bruce Reynolds, the man who organised the Great Train Robbery, he spent time in Wandsworth for breaking and entering and robbery. Charles Bronson, notorious long-term inmate and artist. Chris Huhne, former Energy Secretary jailed for perverting the course of justice in relation to swapping fixed penalty points with his wife, Vicky Pryce. Christopher Tappin, businessman convicted in the US for selling weapons parts to Iran in violation of international sanctions and jailed 33 months in January 2013.
David Chaytor, first MP to be convicted for his part in the United Kingdom Parli
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC