High Altitude Observatory
The High Altitude Observatory conducts research and provides support and facilities for the solar-terrestrial research community in the areas of solar and heliospheric physics, the effects of solar variability on the Earth's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. HAO is a laboratory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. NCAR is managed by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, receives substantial funding from the National Science Foundation. HAO's mission is to understand the behavior of the Sun and its impact on the Earth, to support and extend the capabilities of the university community and the broader scientific community and internationally, to foster the transfer of knowledge and technology; as articulated in its Strategic Plan for 2011-2015, HAO's vision is to: Perform world-leading science to understand fundamentally and with predictive capability the sources and nature of solar and geospace variability. HAO's telescopes are located at its Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, near the summit of that volcano on the big island of Hawaii.
NCAR's solar observatory shares space on the campus of NOAA's larger Mauna Loa Observatory. HAO's researchers are based in Boulder, Colorado. 1952 - Khartoum, Sudan This was a joint HAO – Naval Research Laboratory expedition, which obtained 50 spectra of the eclipse features of the sun. 1958 – Pukapuka, Cook Islands in the Pacific This was a joint HAO – Sacramento Peak expedition, unable to obtain a single photo due to rainstorms. 1959 – Fuertaventura, Canary Islands of Spain A joint HAO – Sacramento Peak expedition 1962 – Lae, New Guinea 1963 – Alaska and Canada 1965 – Bellingshausen Island, South Pacific 1966 – Pulacayo, Bolivia 1970 - San Carlos Youtepec, Mexico 1972 – Cap Chat, Canada 1973 – Loiengalani, Kenya 1980 – Palem, India HAO in collaboration with Southwestern at Memphis College, Tennessee 1981 – Tarma, Siberia, USSR HAO in collaboration with the Astronomical Council of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow 1983 – Tanjung Kodok, Indonesia 1988 - Mindanao, Philippines In Provocation No.
214, Dr. Roberts discusses the High Altitude Observatory expedition to the Philippines to observe the eclipse of March 18. HAO expedition staff included Dick Fisher, Kristy Rock, Mike McGrath, Lee Lacey.1991 - Mauna Loa, Hawaii HAO in collaboration with Rhodes College, Tennessee 1994 - Putre, Chile 1998 – Curaçao, Dutch Antilles2012 – Palm Cove, Australia2017 - Preparing for the 2017 Eclipse Walter Orr Roberts was a graduate student under Donald Menzel at Harvard, helped him set up a solar telescope at the Oak Ridge Station of Harvard College Observatory. In 1939, Menzel located a site for a western station in the Colorado mountains. In his unpublished memoirs, Menzel writes: “I returned the following summer, supervised the building of the observatory and an observer’s residence, started the installation of the equipment.“This branch of the Harvard College Observatory informally opened on 8 September 1940 at Climax Colorado. Its sole purpose was to study the sun, using the first coronagraph in the western hemisphere.”
Walter Roberts and his wife arrived in the summer of 1940, remained at the observatory for 7 years. Menzel continues: “In the summer of 1940, Walter and I solved the problems of our coronagraph. After I left, he soon had it working properly, he obtained daily records of the spectrum of the corona, which furnished us with a valuable index of solar activity. At Climax, Walter Roberts proved observationally what most astronomers had suspected, that the corona itself rotated with the same period as the solar surface, in something over twenty-five days, he initiated a study of the fine structure of the solar atmosphere, determining the behavior of what he called “spicules,” a phenomenon that I had myself discussed while at Lick Observatory. These studies formed the basis for his doctorate thesis submitted for the degree a year or two later.” Work at the observatory was classified during WWII because of its value in predicting radio disturbances from the study of the corona. "The wartime work of the observatory was done under the auspices of the Navy, although overall direction remained in the hands of Harvard.”
Post WWII, The National Bureau of Standards contracted the observatory for reports on solar activity. In 1946, CU Boulder became a joint sponsor with Harvard of the observatory, while the Central Radio Propagation Laboratory of the NSB funded HAO's operational costs; the headquarters of HAO was moved to Boulder in 1947. The founding Director of the High Altitude Observatory was Walter Orr Roberts; the current Director is Scott McIntosh. A list of all HAO directors since the founding of the Observatory is given below. High Altitude Observatory The High Altitude Observatory Exhibit History of HAO NASA Eclipse Website International Astronomical Union
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, the use of quantitative methods for their analysis. The term geophysics sometimes refers only to the geological applications: Earth's shape. However, modern geophysics organizations use a broader definition that includes the water cycle including snow and ice. Although geophysics was only recognized as a separate discipline in the 19th century, its origins date back to ancient times; the first magnetic compasses were made from lodestones, while more modern magnetic compasses played an important role in the history of navigation. The first seismic instrument was built in 132 AD. Isaac Newton applied his theory of mechanics to the precession of the equinox. In the 20th century, geophysical methods were developed for remote exploration of the solid Earth and the ocean, geophysics played an essential role in the development of the theory of plate tectonics.
Geophysics is applied to societal needs, such as mineral resources, mitigation of natural hazards and environmental protection. In Exploration Geophysics, Geophysical survey data are used to analyze potential petroleum reservoirs and mineral deposits, locate groundwater, find archaeological relics, determine the thickness of glaciers and soils, assess sites for environmental remediation. Geophysics is a interdisciplinary subject, geophysicists contribute to every area of the Earth sciences. To provide a clearer idea of what constitutes geophysics, this section describes phenomena that are studied in physics and how they relate to the Earth and its surroundings; the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun give rise to two high tides and two low tides every lunar day, or every 24 hours and 50 minutes. Therefore, there is a gap of 12 hours and 25 minutes between every high tide and between every low tide. Gravitational forces make rocks press down on deeper rocks, increasing their density as the depth increases.
Measurements of gravitational acceleration and gravitational potential at the Earth's surface and above it can be used to look for mineral deposits. The surface gravitational field provides information on the dynamics of tectonic plates; the geopotential surface called. The geoid would be the global mean sea level if the oceans were in equilibrium and could be extended through the continents; the Earth is cooling, the resulting heat flow generates the Earth's magnetic field through the geodynamo and plate tectonics through mantle convection. The main sources of heat are the primordial heat and radioactivity, although there are contributions from phase transitions. Heat is carried to the surface by thermal convection, although there are two thermal boundary layers – the core-mantle boundary and the lithosphere – in which heat is transported by conduction; some heat is carried up from the bottom of the mantle by mantle plumes. The heat flow at the Earth's surface is about 4.2 × 1013 W, it is a potential source of geothermal energy.
Seismic waves are vibrations that travel along its surface. The entire Earth can oscillate in forms that are called normal modes or free oscillations of the Earth. Ground motions from waves or normal modes are measured using seismographs. If the waves come from a localized source such as an earthquake or explosion, measurements at more than one location can be used to locate the source; the locations of earthquakes provide information on mantle convection. Recording of seismic waves from controlled sources provide information on the region that the waves travel through. If the density or composition of the rock changes, waves are reflected. Reflections recorded using Reflection Seismology can provide a wealth of information on the structure of the earth up to several kilometers deep and are used to increase our understanding of the geology as well as to explore for oil and gas. Changes in the travel direction, called refraction, can be used to infer the deep structure of the Earth. Earthquakes pose a risk to humans.
Understanding their mechanisms, which depend on the type of earthquake, can lead to better estimates of earthquake risk and improvements in earthquake engineering. Although we notice electricity during thunderstorms, there is always a downward electric field near the surface that averages 120 volts per meter. Relative to the solid Earth, the atmosphere has a net positive charge due to bombardment by cosmic rays. A current of about 1800 amperes flows in the global circuit, it flows downward from the ionosphere over most of the Earth and back upwards through thunderstorms. The flow is manifested by lightning below the sprites above. A variety of electric methods are used in geophysical survey; some measure spontaneous potential, a potential that arises in the ground because of man-made or natural disturbances. Telluric currents flow in the oceans, they have two causes: electromagnetic induction by the time-varying, external-origin geomagnetic field and motion of conducting bodies across the Earth's per
Syun-Ichi Akasofu is the founding director of the International Arctic Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, serving in that position from the center's establishment in 1998 until January 2007. He had been director of the university's Geophysical Institute from 1986. Akasofu earned a B. S. and a M. S. in geophysics at Tohoku University, Japan, in 1953 and 1957, respectively. He earned a Ph. D in geophysics at UAF in 1961. Within the framework of his Ph. D. thesis he studied the aurora. His scientific adviser was Sydney Chapman. Akasofu has been a professor of geophysics at UAF since 1964. Akasofu was director of the Geophysical Institute from 1986 until 1999, during which time the Alaska Volcano Observatory was established and Poker Flat Research Range was modernized, he went on to become the first director of the International Arctic Research Center upon its establishment in 1998, remained in that position until 2007. The same year, the building which houses IARC was named in his honor.
Akasofu has served as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research and the Journal of Geomagnetism & Geoelectricity, respectively. Furthermore, he has served as a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Planetary Space Science, the Editorial Advisory Board of Space Science Reviews, the Editorial Committee of Space Science Reviews; as a graduate student, Akasofu was one of the first to understand that the northern aurora was an aurora of light surrounding the North Magnetic Pole. He is an ISI cited researcher. Akasofu, S.-I. Polar and Magnetospheric Substorms, D. Reidel Pub. Co. Dordrecht, Holland, 1968. Akasofu, S.-I. B. Fogle, B. Haurwitz, Sydney Chapman, published by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the Publishing Service of the University of Colorado, 1968. Akasofu, S.-I. and S. Chapman, Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Clarendon Press, England, 1972. Akasofu, S.-I. The Aurora: A Discharge Phenomenon Surrounding the Earth, Chuo-koran- sha, Japan. Akasofu, S.-I. Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms, D. Reidel, Pub. Co.
Dordrecht, Holland, 1977. Akasofu, S.-I. Aurora Borealis: The Amazing Northern Lights, Alaska Geographic Society, Alaska Northwest Pub. Co. 6, 2, 1979. Akasofu, S.-I. Dynamics of the Magnetosphere, D. Reidel Pub. Co. Dordrecht, Holland, 1979. Akasofu, S.-I. and J. R. Kan, Physics of Auroral Arc Formation, Am. Geophys. Union, Washington, D. C. 1981. Akasofu, S.-I. and Y. Kamide, The Solar Wind and the Earth, Geophys. Astrophys. Monographs, Terra Scientific Pub. Co. Tokyo, D. Reidel Pub. Co. Dordrecht, Holland, 1987. Akasofu, S.-I. Secrets of the Aurora Borealis, Alaska Geographic Society, Banta Publications Group/Hart Press, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2002. Akasofu, S.-I. Exploring the Secrets of the Aurora, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 2002. 1976 - Chapman Medal, Royal Astronomical Society 1977 - The Japan Academy of Sciences Award 1979 - Fellow of the American Geophysical Union 1979 - John Adam Fleming Medal, AGU 1980 - Named a Distinguished Alumnus by UAF 1981 - Named one of the "1,000 Most-Cited Contemporary Scientists by Current Contents 1985 - First recipient of the Sydney Chapman Chair professorship, UAF 1985 - Special Lecture for the Emperor of Japan on the aurora 1986 - Member of the International Academy of Aeronautics, Paris 1987 - Named one of the "Centennial Alumni" by the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges 1993 - Japan Foreign Minister's Award for Promoting International Relations and Cultural Exchange between Japan and Alaska 1996 - Japan Posts and Telecommunications Minister Award for Contributions to the US-Japan Joint Project on Environmental Science in Alaska 1997 - Edith R. Bullock Prize for Excellence, University of Alaska 1999 - Alaskan of the Year - Denali Award 2002 - Named one of the "World's Most Cited Authors in Space Physics" by Current Contents ISI 2003 - Order of the Sacred Treasures and Silver Stars by the Emperor of Japan 2011 - European Geosciences Union, Hannes Alfvén Medal Syun-Ichi Akasofu at the International Arctic Research Center
An aurora, sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights, southern lights, is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions. Auroras are produced when the magnetosphere is sufficiently disturbed by the solar wind that the trajectories of charged particles in both solar wind and magnetospheric plasma in the form of electrons and protons, precipitate them into the upper atmosphere due to Earth's magnetic field, where their energy is lost; the resulting ionization and excitation of atmospheric constituents emits light of varying color and complexity. The form of the aurora, occurring within bands around both polar regions, is dependent on the amount of acceleration imparted to the precipitating particles. Precipitating protons produce optical emissions as incident hydrogen atoms after gaining electrons from the atmosphere. Proton auroras are observed at lower latitudes; the word "aurora" is derived from the name of the Roman goddess of the dawn, who traveled from east to west announcing the coming of the sun.
Ancient Roman poets used the name metaphorically to refer to dawn mentioning its play of colours across the otherwise dark sky. Most auroras occur in a band known as the "auroral zone", 3° to 6° wide in latitude and between 10° and 20° from the geomagnetic poles at all local times, most seen at night against a dark sky. A region that displays an aurora is called the "auroral oval", a band displaced towards the night side of the Earth. Early evidence for a geomagnetic connection comes from the statistics of auroral observations. Elias Loomis, Hermann Fritz and S. Tromholt in more detail, established that the aurora appeared in the auroral zone. Day-to-day positions of the auroral ovals are posted on the Internet. In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the northern lights; the former term was coined by Galileo in 1619, from the Roman goddess of the dawn and the Greek name for the north wind. The southern counterpart, the aurora australis or the southern lights, has features identical to the aurora borealis and changes with changes in the northern auroral zone.
The Aurora Australis is visible from high southern latitudes in Antarctica, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia. A geomagnetic storm causes the auroral ovals to expand, bring the aurora to lower latitudes; the instantaneous distribution of auroras is different, being centered about 3–5° nightward of the magnetic pole, so that auroral arcs reach furthest toward the equator when the magnetic pole in question is in between the observer and the Sun. The aurora can be seen best at this time, called magnetic midnight. Auroras seen within the auroral oval may be directly overhead, but from farther away, they illuminate the poleward horizon as a greenish glow, or sometimes a faint red, as if the Sun were rising from an unusual direction. Auroras occur poleward of the auroral zone as either diffuse patches or arcs, which can be subvisual. Auroras are seen in latitudes below the auroral zone, when a geomagnetic storm temporarily enlarges the auroral oval. Large geomagnetic storms are most common during the peak of the 11-year sunspot cycle or during the three years after the peak.
An aurora may appear overhead as a "corona" of rays, radiating from a distant and apparent central location, which results from perspective. An electron spirals about a field line at an angle, determined by its velocity vectors and perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field vector B; this angle is known as the "pitch angle" of the particle. The distance, or radius, of the electron from the field line at any time is known as its Larmor radius; the pitch angle increases as the electron travels to a region of greater field strength nearer to the atmosphere. Thus, it is possible for some particles to return, or mirror, if the angle becomes 90° before entering the atmosphere to collide with the denser molecules there. Other particles that do not mirror enter the atmosphere and contribute to the auroral display over a range of altitudes. Other types of auroras have been observed from space, e.g."poleward arcs" stretching sunward across the polar cap, the related "theta aurora", "dayside arcs" near noon.
These are infrequent and poorly understood. Other interesting effects occur such as flickering "black aurora" and subvisual red arcs. In addition to all these, a weak glow observed around the two polar cusps, the field lines separating the ones that close through the Earth from those that are swept into the tail and close remotely; the altitudes where auroral emissions occur were revealed by Carl Størmer and his colleagues, who used cameras to triangulate more than 12,000 auroras. They discovered that most of the light is produced between 90 and 150 km above the ground, while extending at times to more than 1000 km. Images of auroras are more common today than in the past due to the increase in the use of digital cameras that have high enough sensitivities. Film and digital exposure to auroral displays is fraught with difficulties. Due to the different color spectra present, the temporal changes occurring during the exposure, the results are somewhat unpredictable. Different layers of the film emulsion respond differently to lower light levels, choice of a film can be important.
Longer exposures superimpose changing features, blanket the dynamic attribute of a display. Hi
Wrangler (University of Cambridge)
At the University of Cambridge in England, a "Wrangler" is a student who gains first-class honours in the third year of the University's undergraduate degree in mathematics. The highest-scoring student is the Senior Wrangler, the second highest is the Second Wrangler, so on. At the other end of the scale, the person who achieves the lowest exam marks while still earning a third-class honours degree is known as the wooden spoon; until 1909, the University made the rankings public. Since 1910 it has publicly revealed only the class of degree gained by each student. An examiner reveals the identity of the Senior Wrangler "unofficially" by tipping his hat when reading out the person's name, but other rankings are communicated to each student privately. Therefore, the names of only some 20th-century Senior Wranglers have become publicly known. Another notable was Philippa Fawcett, she was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge, co-founded by her mother. In 1890, Fawcett became the first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams.
Her score was 13 per cent higher than the second highest score. When the women's list was announced, Fawcett was described as "above the senior wrangler", but she did not receive the title of senior wrangler, as at that time only men could receive degrees and therefore only men were eligible for the Senior Wrangler title; the results were always publicised, with the top scorers receiving great acclaim. Women had been allowed to take the Tripos since 1881, after Charlotte Angas Scott was unofficially ranked as eighth wrangler; the strain of preparing for Tripos could lead to mental breakdown. Students found it necessary to build up their physical endurance, it was noted that "virtually every high wrangler participated in some form of regular physical exercise to preserve his strength and stamina."Obtaining the position of a ranked Wrangler created many opportunities for the individual's subsequent profession. They would become Fellows before moving on to other professions, such as law, the Church, or medicine.
Throughout the United Kingdom and the British Empire, university mathematics professors were among the top three Wranglers. The order of Wranglers was publicised and shaped the public perception of mathematics as being the most intellectually challenging of all subjects. According to Andrew Warwick, author of Masters of Theory, the term'Senior Wrangler' became "synonymous with academic supremacy". Top marks in the Cambridge mathematics exam did not always guarantee the Senior Wrangler success in life. Bragg was third, Hardy was fourth, Sedgwick fifth, Malthus was ninth, Bertrand Russell was seventh, Keynes was 12th, some fared worse: Klaus Roth was not a wrangler. Joan Clarke, who helped to break the Nazi Enigma code at Bletchley Park, was a wrangler at Cambridge and earned a double first in mathematics, although she was prevented from receiving a full degree based on the university's policy of awarding degrees only to men; that policy was only abandoned in 1948. The present Astronomer Royal, Martin Rees, a wrangler, would go on to become one of the world's leading scientists, while holding the posts of Master of Trinity College and President of the Royal Society.
Students who achieve second-class and third-class mathematics degrees are known as Senior Optimes and Junior Optimes. Cambridge did not divide its examination classification in mathematics into 2:1s and 2:2s until 1995 but now there are Senior Optimes Division 1 and Senior Optimes Division 2. "The Senior Wrangler" is a member of the faculty of Unseen University in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series of novels. Roger Hamley, a character in Elizabeth Gaskell's Wives and Daughters, achieved the rank of Senior Wrangler at Cambridge. Vivie Warren, the headstrong heroine of George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. Warren's Profession and daughter of the play's infamous madam, tied with the Third Wrangler, settling for that place because she recognized that "it was not worth while to face the grind" because she did not intend an academic career for herself. "Wrangler" is a jargon term applied to codebreakers in some of John Le Carré's spy novels, such as Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy. Thomas Jericho, the main character of Robert Harris's book Enigma, was Senior Wrangler in 1938.
In Ford Madox Ford's Parade's End, reference is made to the fact that Christopher Tietjens came out of Cambridge as "a mere Second Wrangler". In Rumer Godden's In This House of Brede, Dame Agnes is noted to have been Eighth Wrangler before entering the abbey. In C S Forester's book, The General, a member of the main characters staff, the deputy assistant quartermaster-general, Spiller, is described as a Second Wrangler. Galton, Francis. "Classification of Men According to their Natural Gifts". Pp. 14–36. D. O. Forfar What became of the senior wranglers?, Mathematical spectrum 29, 1-4. A survey of the subsequent careers of senior wranglers during the 157 years in which the results of Cambridge’s mathematical tripos were published in order of merit. Peter Groenewegen. A Soaring Eagle: Alfred Marshall 1842-1924. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. ISBN 1-85898-151-4. Gives the story about Rayleigh. C. M. Neale The Senior Wranglers of the University of Cambridge. Available online Andrew Warwick (2
Fellow of the Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of London judges to have made a'substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science'. Fellowship of the Society, the oldest scientific academy in continuous existence, is a significant honour, awarded to many eminent scientists from history including Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Ernest Rutherford, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Dorothy Hodgkin, Alan Turing and Francis Crick. More fellowship has been awarded to Stephen Hawking, Tim Hunt, Elizabeth Blackburn, Tim Berners-Lee, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Atta-ur Rahman, Andre Geim, James Dyson, Ajay Kumar Sood, Subhash Khot, Elon Musk and around 8,000 others in total, including over 280 Nobel Laureates since 1900; as of October 2018, there are 1689 living Fellows and Honorary Members, of which over 60 are Nobel Laureates.
Fellowship of the Royal Society has been described by The Guardian newspaper as “the equivalent of a lifetime achievement Oscar” with several institutions celebrating their announcement each year. Up to 60 new Fellows and foreign members are elected annually in late April or early May, from a pool of around 700 proposed candidates each year. New Fellows can only be nominated by existing Fellows for one of the fellowships described below: Every year, up to 52 new Fellows are elected from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth of Nations which make up around 90% of the society; each candidate is considered on their merits and can be proposed from any sector of the scientific community. Fellows are elected for life on the basis of excellence in science and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRS. See Category:Fellows of the Royal Society and Category:Female Fellows of the Royal Society; every year, Fellows elect up to ten new Foreign Members. Like Fellows, Foreign Members are elected for life through peer review on the basis of excellence in science.
As of 2016 there are around 165 Foreign Members, who are entitled to use the post-nominal ForMemRS. See Category:Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Honorary Fellowship is an honorary academic title awarded to candidates who have given distinguished service to the cause of science, but do not have the kind of scientific achievements required of Fellows or Foreign Members. Honorary Fellows include Bill Bryson, Melvyn Bragg, Robin Saxby, David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville and Onora O'Neill. Honorary Fellows are entitled to use the post nominal letters FRS. Others including John Maddox, Patrick Moore and Lisa Jardine were elected as honorary fellows, see Category:Honorary Fellows of the Royal Society. Statute 12 is a legacy mechanism for electing members before official honorary membership existed in 1997. Fellows elected under statute 12 include 4th Earl of Selborne. Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom such as Margaret Thatcher, Neville Chamberlain,Ramsay Macdonald and H. H. Asquith were elected under statute 12, see Category:Fellows of the Royal Society.
The Council of the Royal Society can recommend members of the British Royal Family for election as Royal Fellows of the Royal Society. As of 2016 there are five royal fellows: Charles, Prince of Wales elected 1978 Anne, Princess Royal elected 1987 Prince Edward, Duke of Kent elected 1990 Prince William, Duke of Cambridge elected 2009 Prince Andrew, Duke of York elected 2013Her Majesty the Queen, Elizabeth II is not a Royal Fellow, but provides her patronage to the Society as all reigning British monarchs have done since Charles II of England. Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was elected under statute 12, not as a Royal Fellow; the election of new fellows is announced annually in May, after their nomination and a period of peer-reviewed selection. Each candidate for Fellowship or Foreign Membership is nominated by two Fellows of the Royal Society, who sign a certificate of proposal. Nominations required at least five fellows to support each nomination by the proposer, criticised for establishing an old-boy network and elitist gentlemen's club.
The certificate of election includes a statement of the principal grounds on which the proposal is being made. There is no limit on the number of nominations made each year. In 2015, there were 654 candidates for election as Fellows and 106 candidates for Foreign Membership; the Council of the Royal Society oversees the selection process and appoints 10 subject area committees, known as Sectional Committees, to recommend the strongest candidates for election to Fellowship. The final list of up to 52 Fellowship candidates and up to 10 Foreign Membership candidates is confirmed by the Council in April and a secret ballot of Fellows is held at a meeting in May. A candidate is elected if she secures two-thirds of votes of those Fellows present and voting. A maximum of 18 Fellowships can be allocated to candidates from Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences. A further maximum of 6 can be ‘Honorary’, ‘General’ or ‘Royal’ Fellows. Nominations for Fellowship are peer reviewed by sectional committees, each with 15 members and a chair.
Members of the 10 sectional committees change every 3 years to mitigate in-group bias, each group covers different
Istanbul known as Byzantium and Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosporus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives in suburbs on the Asian side of the Bosporus. With a total population of around 15 million residents in its metropolitan area, Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities, ranking as the world's fourth largest city proper and the largest European city; the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between the West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city grew in size and influence, becoming one of the most important cities in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine, Palaiologos Byzantine and Ottoman empires.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 CE and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. The city's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace. While Ankara was chosen instead as the new Turkish capital after the Turkish War of Independence, the city's name was changed to Istanbul, the city has maintained its prominence in geopolitical and cultural affairs; the population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in and city limits have expanded to accommodate them. Arts, music and cultural festivals were established towards the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network in the city.
12.56 million foreign visitors arrived in Istanbul in 2015, five years after it was named a European Capital of Culture, making the city the world's fifth most popular tourist destination. The city's biggest attraction is its historic center listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, its cultural and entertainment hub is across the city's natural harbor, the Golden Horn, in the Beyoğlu district. Considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world, it hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years; the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from Byzas. Ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists.
Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin and hence predated the Megarean settlement. After Constantine the Great made it the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 CE, the city became known as Constantinople, which, as the Latinized form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις", means the "City of Constantine", he attempted to promote the name "Nova Roma" and its Greek version "Νέα Ῥώμη" Nea Romē, but this did not enter widespread usage. Constantinople remained the most common name for the city in the West until the establishment of the Turkish Republic, which urged other countries to use Istanbul. Kostantiniyye and Be Makam-e Qonstantiniyyah al-Mahmiyyah and İstanbul were the names used alternatively by the Ottomans during their rule; the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect if not inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, but used the name Stamboul—as the Turks did—to describe the walled peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara.
Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν", which means "to the city" and is how Constantinople was referred to by the local Greeks; this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name'Der Saadet' meaning the'gate to Prosperity' in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first and third syllables dropped. A Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol "plenty of Islam" because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire, it is first attested shortly after the conquest