Brothers Jean-Pierre Dardenne and Luc Dardenne are a Belgian filmmaking duo. They write and direct their films together, the Dardennes began making narrative and documentary films in the late 1970s. They came to attention in the mid-1990s with La Promesse. They won their first major international film prize when Rosetta won the Palme dOr at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival, in 2002, Olivier Gourmet won Best Actor at Cannes for the Dardennes Le Fils. In 2005, they won the Palme dOr a second time for their film L’Enfant, putting them in a club, at the time. Their film, Le Silence de Lorna, won Best Screenplay at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival and was released in Europe in the fall. Their film The Kid with a Bike won the Grand Prix at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, received one Golden Globe nomination, Jean-Pierre was the jury president for the Cinéfoundation and Short Films sections of the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. In 2015, their film Deux jours, une nuit received nine Magritte Award nominations, creators of intensely naturalistic films about working class life in Belgium, brothers Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne have created a notable body of work since 1996.
With La Promesse, Rosetta, Le Fils, and LEnfant, the Dardennes’ films show young people at the fringes of society – immigrants, the unemployed, the inhabitants of shelters. Both Rosetta and LEnfant were awarded the Palme dOr at the Cannes Film Festival, the Dardennes were born and raised in Seraing in Liege, in Wallonia, the French-speaking region of Belgium. Jean-Pierre studied drama while Luc studied philosophy, in 1975 they established Derives, the production company that produced the roughly sixty documentary films they made before branching into feature films. These films covered such topics as Polish immigration, World War II resistance and their first two feature films, are rarely seen today, Falsch and Je pense a vous, which Luc would describe as an unfortunate adventure. The Dardennes had their first international success with La Promesse in 1996, with Rosetta the Dardennes turned their focus to the burdens – philosophical, psychological – of unemployment. Rosetta was the first Belgian film ever to win the Palme dOr at Cannes, coming in ahead of films by David Lynch, Pedro Almodóvar, Takeshi Kitano, the film provided some impetus for a labor law designed to protect young workers like Rosetta shortly after the films release.
’t was pure chance, ’ Jean-Pierre insists, ‘There was already a bill going through, and the minister took advantage of our award to call it the Rosetta Law. But we never intended to get laws changed. ’ Luc adds, ‘Of course, we hope our films will speak to people, disturb them. Crimes and occupations again figure prominently in the Dardennes’ fourth film, the film earned the Dardennes the Palme dOr from Cannes, their second in seven years. LEnfant won the André Cavens Award in 2005, making directors Jean-Pierre, the Dardenne brothers have a regular stable of collaborators, including cinematographer Alain Marcoen and editor Marie-Hélène Dozo
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 km from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement in which the Sydney region was initially established, due to its pivotal role in Australias early history, it is one of the oldest established areas in the country. Geographically, its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in the south, at the 2011 Australian Census, the CBD recorded a population of 14,308. Sydney CBD is very used to refer not only to the CBD proper. The Sydney CBD is Australias main financial and economic centre, as well as a hub of economic activity for the Asia-Pacific region. The city centre employs approximately 13% of the Sydney regions workforce and it produced $64.1 billion worth of goods and services in 2011–12. Culturally, the city centre is Sydneys focal point for nightlife and it is home to some of the citys most significant buildings and structures.
The Sydney CBD is an area of very densely concentrated skyscrapers and other buildings, interspersed by parks such as Hyde Park, The Domain, Royal Botanic Gardens. George Street is the Sydney CBDs main north–south thoroughfare, the CBD runs along two ridge lines below Macquarie Street and York Streets. Between these ridges is Pitt Street, running close to the course of the original Tank Stream, bridge Street, took its name from the bridge running east–west that once crossed this stream. Pitt Street is the heart of the city which includes the Pitt Street Mall. Macquarie Street is a historic precinct that houses such buildings as the State Parliament House, the Sydney CBD falls under the authority of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The New South Wales state government has authority over some aspects of the CBD, the Sydney CBD is home to some of the largest Australian companies, as well as serving as an Asia-Pacific headquarters for many large international companies. Sydneys CBD is serviced by rail, light rail, buses.
There is a largely-underground CBD rail loop, accessed in both directions via Central, which services five additional CBD stations, plus a spur line to Bondi Junction which services two. The only light rail line currently operating links the southern part of the CBD, both government-run and privately owned, service the CBD along several dozen routes to both inner and more remote suburbs. NightRide is an bus service that operates between midnight and 5, 00am, with most services running from George Street outside the Sydney Town Hall. Sydney Ferries operate largely from Circular Quay, on the edge of the CBD
Victoria is a state in southeast Australia. Victoria is Australias most densely populated state and its second-most populous state overall, most of its population is concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australias second-largest city. Prior to British European settlement, the area now constituting Victoria was inhabited by a number of Aboriginal peoples. With Great Britain having claimed the entire Australian continent east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria was included in the wider colony of New South Wales. The first settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, and much of what is now Victoria was included in the Port Phillip District in 1836, Victoria was officially created as a separate colony in 1851, and achieved self-government in 1855. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate, at state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
Victoria is currently governed by the Labor Party, with Daniel Andrews the current Premier, the personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria, currently Linda Dessau. Local government is concentrated in 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, Victorias total gross state product is ranked second in Australia, although Victoria is ranked fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne is home to a number of museums, art galleries and theatres and is described as the sporting capital of Australia. The Melbourne Cricket Ground is the largest stadium in Australia, and the host of the 1956 Summer Olympics, Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, having been founded in 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, who had been on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851.
The first British settlement in the known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. In the year 1826 Colonel Stewart, Captain S. Wright and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. Victorias next settlement was at Portland, on the south west coast of what is now Victoria, edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, from settlement the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after the now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe. And in 1838 Geelong was officially declared a town, despite earlier white settlements dating back to 1826, days later, still in 1851 gold was discovered near Ballarat, and subsequently at Bendigo. Later discoveries occurred at sites across Victoria
The Dandenong Ranges are a set of low mountain ranges, rising to 633 metres at Mount Dandenong, approximately 35 km east of Melbourne, Australia. The ranges consist mostly of rolling hills, steeply weathered valleys and gullies covered in temperate rainforest, predominantly of tall Mountain Ash trees. After European settlement in the region, the range was used as a source of timber for Melbourne. The ranges were popular with day-trippers from the 1870s onwards, much of the Dandenongs were protected by parklands as early as 1882 and by 1987 these parklands were amalgamated to form the Dandenong Ranges National Park, which was added to again in 1997. The range experiences light to moderate snow falls a few times most years, the Dandenongs are home to over 100,000 residents and the area is popular amongst visitors, many of which stay for the weekend at the various Bed & Breakfasts through the region. The popular Puffing Billy Railway, a steam railway, runs through the southern parts of the Dandenongs.
The etymology of the Dandenongs is a complicated one, two names have been used to refer to the ranges and Dandenong, both derived from the Woiwurrung language of the Wurundjeri people. It is suspected that the name Dandenong was applied to the ranges because Dandenong Creek originates there, however and it is not known where the name Dandenong came from nor what it means, or even its correct spelling, other variations include, Tanjenong and Bangeong. In any case, both names relate at least to watercourses in general, and not to mountains or ranges, so as the name Dandenong may not actually apply to anything in the immediate area, the relevance of the name Corhanwarrabul becomes apparent. Carhanwarrabul was the name for one of the two main summits, perhaps both or perhaps the entire range. The name applied to the summits and was in continued use up until around 1900. At any rate, Corhanwarrabul remains the most relevant name for the ranges to date, the range is the remains of an extinct volcano last active 373 million years ago.
It consists predominantly of Devonian dacite and rhyodacite, the topography consists of a series of ridges dissected by deeply cut streams. Rainfall is fairly uniform through the year, tending to peak between April and October with lower rainfall during the months of January and February, the mean annual rainfall is between 1000 and 1500 mm, increasing with elevation and from west to east. Due to the elevation, fog is common in winter months, as a result of its elevation snow typically falls one or two times a year at higher elevations, mostly between the months of June and October. A rare summer snow occurred on Christmas Day 2006, the local region has experienced substantial warming in recent decades and heavy snowfalls which were once common have become rare. The last significant snowfall to affect the Dandenongs Ranges was on August 10,2008, a Bureau of Meteorology weather station sits at an elevation of 513 m in the Ferny Creek Reserve in the southern part of the Dandenongs Ranges. This weather station replaced one that was located on the summit of Dunns Hill
Museum of Contemporary Art Australia
It is housed in the art deco-style former Maritime Services Board Building on the western edge of Circular Quay. The collection contains over 4,000 works by Australian artists that have acquired since 1989. With the relocation of the Maritime Services Board to larger premises in 1989, extensions made in 2010–12 were to a design by Sydney architect Sam Marshall. The new extension, called the Mordant Wing, opened in March 2012, Museum of Contemporary Art official website Museum of Contemporary Art Artabase page Architect Marshall official website Museum of Contemporary Art Australia
Olinda is a suburb in Melbourne, Australia,36 km east of Melbournes central business district. Its local government area is the Shire of Yarra Ranges, at the 2006 Census, Olinda had a population of 1568. Olinda is named after Olinda Creek, which begins in the township, the creek was named in 1858 after Alice Olinda Hodgkinson, the daughter of Clement Hodgkinson, Victorias acting Surveyor General. The town was initially a settlement, however as land was made available for horticulture in the early 1900s. The Post Office opened on 21 August 1901, berry farming and flower growing became prosperous industries, and tourism soon flourished as the principal industry of Olinda. In 1919 the Australian artist Sir Arthur Streeton returned to Australia and built a house on the property called Longacres, in Olinda. Olinda is home to cafes, restaurants and craft shops, and numerous art galleries, showcasing local, national and it has a public swimming pool, a primary school, and is home to the National Rhododendron Garden and the Olinda State Forest.
The Ashendene Boys Home was located in Olinda, together with its neighbouring township Ferny Creek Olinda has an Australian Rules football and netball teams competing in the Yarra Valley Mountain District Football League. Olinda has a cricket club boasting 5 junior teams from non-competitive to under 16s,4 senior sides, in past four years the cricket club has won a total of 8 premierships. Golfers play at the course of the Olinda Golf Club on Olinda Monbulk Road
Nicolas Winding Refn
Nicolas Winding Refn is a Danish film director and producer. In 2008, Refn co-founded the Copenhagen-based production company Space Rocket Nation, Nicolas Winding Refn was born in Copenhagen and raised partly in New York, United States. His parents are Danish film director and editor Anders Refn and cinematographer Vibeke Winding and his half-brother is Danish singer Kasper Winding. Refn has cited viewing The Texas Chain Saw Massacre as inspiration for his filmmaking career and my parents were brought up on the French New Wave. That was God to them, but to me it was the antichrist, and how better to rebel against your parents than by watching something your mother is going to hate, I want to be all of them at once. And that film proved that you can do it because that movie is not a normal movie and he attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts but was expelled for throwing a table into a wall. Refn made his debut with the Danish crime drama film Pusher. The original film garnered a Best Supporting Actor Award for Zlatko Burić at the 1997 Bodil Awards, in 1999, Refn directed the crime-drama-thriller Bleeder, which featured much of the same cast from the Pusher Trilogy, including actors such as Kim Bodnia and Mads Mikkelsen.
In 2003, Refn directed and wrote his first English-language film, Fear X, Refn made two sequels to Pusher, Pusher II and Pusher 3. For Pusher II, lead actor Mads Mikkelsen won a Best Actor award at the 2005 Bodil Awards, Best Actor at the 2005 Robert Festival and Best Actor at the 2005 Zulu Awards. The film was remade into a British version in 2012, directed by Luis Prieto, the film won Best Film at the 2009 Sydney Film Festival, and was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize at the 2009 Sundance Film Festival. Hardy won a Best Actor award at the 2009 British Independent Film Awards for his portrayal of Charles Bronson, Hardy was nominated for Best Actor from the Evening Standard British Film Awards and the London Critics Circle Film Awards. In 2009, Refn teamed up again with frequent collaborator Mads Mikkelsen to write and direct Valhalla Rising, the film won a Best Make-Up award at the 2011 Robert Festival. In 2011, Refn directed the American neo-noir crime drama Drive and it premiered in competition at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival, where he received the Best Director Award.
The film earned Refn a BAFTA nomination for directing, the Bangkok-set crime thriller Only God Forgives, starring Ryan Gosling and Kristin Scott Thomas, premiered in competition at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival. The film was awarded the Sydney Film Prize at the 2013 Sydney Film Festival, Liv Corfixen, Refns wife, directed the documentary My Life Directed by Nicolas Winding Refn centered on the life and work of Refn. The documentary film premiered on July 17,2014 in Denmark, in September 2011, Refn stated his next film after Only God Forgives will be I Walk with the Dead, with Drive co-star Carey Mulligan slated to play the lead. According to Winding Refn, it will be a horror-movie sex thriller that may be set in Tokyo or Los Angeles, in 2013, Nicolas Winding Refn confirmed I Walk with the Dead as his next project
Steve McQueen (director)
Steven Rodney Steve McQueen CBE is an English film director, producer and video artist. McQueen is the first black filmmaker to win an Academy Award for Best Picture, McQueen is known for his collaborations with actor Michael Fassbender, who has starred in all three of McQueens feature films as of 2014. McQueens other feature films are Hunger, a drama about the 1981 Irish hunger strike, and Shame. For his artwork, McQueen has received the Turner Prize, the highest award given to a British visual artist, in 2006 he produced Queen and Country, which commemorates the deaths of British soldiers in Iraq by presenting their portraits as a sheet of stamps. For services to the arts, he was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2011. In April 2014, TIME magazine included McQueen in its annual TIME100 as one of the Most Influential People in the World, in October 2016, McQueen was granted BFIs highest honour, the BFI Fellowship. McQueen was born in London and is of Grenadian and Trinidadian descent and he grew up in Hanwell, West London and went to Drayton Manor High School.
Later, the new head of the school would admit that there had been institutional racism at the time. McQueen added that he was dyslexic and had to wear an eyepatch due to a lazy eye and he was a keen football player, turning out for the St. Georges Colts football team. He left Goldsmiths and studied briefly at New York Universitys Tisch School of the Arts in the United States and he found the approach there too stifling and insufficiently experimental, complaining that they wouldnt let you throw the camera up in the air. His artistic influences include Andy Warhol, Sergei Eisenstein, Dziga Vertov, Jean Vigo, Buster Keaton, Carl Theodor Dreyer, Robert Bresson, Bear was McQueens first major film, presented at the Royal College of Art in London. Although not a political piece, for many it raised questions about race, sexual attraction to men. It shows a wrestling match between two men who alternate ambiguous relations and gestures of aggression and erotic attraction, the films protagonists, one of them McQueen, are both black, but issues of race, he has said, do not take priority in his work.
Like all McQueens early films, Bear is black-and-white, and was shot on 16-millimetre film, five Easy Pieces is a short film by McQueen. It follows a woman across a tight-rope, McQueen has stated that he finds a walker to be the perfect image of a combination of vulnerability. Just Above My Head is a film which shares close ties with McQueens preceding film with the key theme of walking. As stated by David Frankel, the fragility and persistence is seemingly meant as a metaphor for black life in England as elsewhere. Media Art noted that his use of black and white emulates 1920s film style without a historicizing strategy or to reinterpret the origins of moving images, the film was exhibited on loop in the Museum of Modern Arts Contemporary Galleries, 1980-Now from 17 November 2011 to 17 February 2014
Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day