An assembly hall is a kind of function hall, a large room used to hold public meetings or meetings of the members of an organization such as a school, church, or deliberative assembly. An example of the last case is the Assembly Hall where the general assembly of the state of Mississippi was held; some Christian denominations call their meeting places or places of worship assembly halls, for example the Salt Lake Assembly Hall. Elders and ministers of Presbyterian churches gather in assembly halls for their general assembly, such as in the General Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland. A function hall, reception hall, or banquet hall is a room or building for the purpose of hosting a party, wedding or other reception, or other social event. Function halls are found within pubs, hotels, or restaurants; some are run by fraternal organizations and rented out as part of them being a club, for example Masonic Halls. The first recorded mention of "function rooms" is in 1922. On the campuses of colleges and universities in the United States, assembly halls are sometimes found in multi-purpose athletic buildings, where they share other uses, including as basketball courts.
Examples are Assembly Hall. Conference hall Meeting house Assembly rooms Wedding reception Church hall Village hall Media related to Function halls at Wikimedia Commons
Sydney Secondary College Blackwattle Bay Campus
Blackwattle Bay Campus is an academically selective high school] in Glebe, New South Wales, Australia. It is the senior campus of Sydney Secondary College; the school was established in 1979 as Glebe High School, with 109 students and 17 staff members, all housed in demountable classrooms. The school catered only for Year 7 in its first year. Permanent buildings were built in the early 1980s. In 2002, the school was renamed Blackwattle Bay Campus. Since 2005, it is a senior campus catering for Years 11 and 12; this enables the school to offer one of the largest range of Higher School Certificate courses in Sydney. The campus has a sister-school relationship with Malibaca Yamato High School in East Timor, a volunteer project in community work. In 2005, Fawad Qaiser became the first student to sit for a Higher School Certificate examination using the Auslan sign language. In 2011, Chinese language teacher, Chorng Leu, was awarded a Premier’s Teacher Scholarship to undertake an international study tour.
A number of Blackwattle Bay students have been awarded first place in the state in an HSC course: The school has sports that are compulsory for all year 11 students, including rowing which can be done in the morning or afternoon. Blackwattle Bay is on the waterfront, accordingly offers both rowing and kayaking as sporting options, a unique feature of the sporting curriculum that sets it apart from other urban Sydney high schools. A wide range of sports are available at Blackwattle Bay Campus. A student has the choice to participate in badminton, basketball, baseball, table tennis, fitness walking, rockclimbing, swimming or softball Students with disabilities participate in an annual state athletics carnival that can lead to selection in the Australian team for the Paralympic Games. Prior to 2002, Blackwattle Bay Campus was known as Glebe High School and held classes for students from Year 7 through to Year 12. Student enrolments increased when the school was transformed into a senior campus.
In 2012, local resident Robert Brand, his son Jason Brand, together with students from Leichhardt Public School and the senior students at the Blackwattle Bay Campus and tracked a balloon into near space as a science project. The balloon reached 25km before it burst. List of Government schools in New South Wales
A welder or lit operator is a tradesperson who specializes in fusing materials together. The term welder refers to the operator, the machine is referred to as the welding power supply; the materials to be joined can be varieties of plastic or polymer. Welders have to have good dexterity and attention to detail, as well as technical knowledge about the materials being joined and best practices in the field. Welding, without the proper precautions appropriate for the process, can be a dangerous and unhealthy practice. However, with the use of new technology and proper protection, the risks of injury and death associated with welding can be reduced; because many common welding procedures involve an open electric arc or flame, the risk of burns is significant. To prevent them, welders wear personal protective equipment in the form of heavy leather gloves and protective long sleeve jackets to avoid exposure to extreme heat and flames. Additionally, the brightness of the weld area leads to a condition called arc eye in which ultraviolet light causes the inflammation of the cornea and can burn the retinas of the eyes.
Full face welding helmets with dark face plates are worn to prevent this exposure, in recent years, new helmet models have been produced that feature a face plate that self-darkens upon exposure to high amounts of UV light. To protect bystanders, opaque welding curtains surround the welding area; these curtains, made of a polyvinyl chloride plastic film, shield nearby workers from exposure to the UV light from the electric arc, but should not be used to replace the filter glass used in helmets. Welders are often exposed to dangerous gases and particulate matter. Processes like flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc welding produce smoke containing particles of various types of oxides, which in some cases can lead to medical conditions like metal fume fever; the size of the particles in question tends to influence the toxicity of the fumes, with smaller particles presenting greater danger. Additionally, many processes produce fumes and various gases, most carbon dioxide and ozone, that can prove dangerous if ventilation is inadequate.
Furthermore, because the use of compressed gases and flames in many welding processes pose an explosion and fire risk, some common precautions include limiting the amount of oxygen in the air and keeping combustible materials away from the workplace. Welders with expertise in welding pressurized vessels, including submarine hulls, industrial boilers, power plant heat exchangers and boilers, are referred to as boilermakers. Notable people who have worked as welders include: İshak Alaton, Turkish businessman and investor Lucian Boz, Romanian literary critic, novelist and translator Bevan Braithwaite, chief executive of The Welding Institute Hardcore Holly, American semi-retired professional wrestler Mark Honadel, American businessman, former professional metal fabricator, welding instructor, industrial manager and politician William A. Schmidt, American welder, shop foreman and politician Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden Werner Herzog, German film director Honoré Sharrer, American painter Sam Bledsoe, American Big Brother contestant Mohammad Abbas, Pakistani cricketer Hyperbaric welding Welder certification ASM International.
Trends in Welding Research. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International. ISBN 0-87170-780-2 Hicks, John. Welded Joint Design. New York: Industrial Press. ISBN 0-8311-3130-6. Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-201-36131-0
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Balmain, New South Wales
Balmain, New South Wales is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Balmain is located 6 km west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the Inner West Council, it sits on a small peninsula. It is located on the Balmain peninsula surrounded by Port Jackson, adjacent to the suburbs of Rozelle to the south-west, Birchgrove to the north-west, Balmain East to the east. Iron Cove sits on the western side of the peninsula, with White Bay on the south-east side and Mort Bay on the north-east side. Traditionally blue collar, Balmain was where the industrial roots of the trade unionist movement began, it has become established in Australian working-class culture and history, due to being the place where the Australian Labor Party formed in 1891 and its social history and status is of high cultural significance to both Sydney and New South Wales. Today, the ALP contends with the Australian Greens for political prominence in Balmain, Jamie Parker of the Greens holds the State seat of Balmain.
Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by indigenous Aboriginal Australian and Wangal people. Stories from early settlers in the area tell of how the local indigenous people used to hunt kangaroo by driving them through the bushy peninsula, down the hill to Peacock Point at the east end, where they were killed; the area now known as Balmain was part of a 550-acre grant to colonial surgeon Dr William Balmain made in 1800 by Governor John Hunter. A year Balmain transferred his entire holding to settle a debt to John Borthwick Gilchrist before returning to Scotland; the legality of the land transfer from Balmain to Gilchrist for only 5 shillings was challenged by Balmain's descendents and further development of the area was blocked. The area subsequently became known as Gilchrist's place, though court documents refer to the area as the Balmain Estate. During the many years of legal challenges, the land was leased for farming and cattle purposes. In 1814 the adjacent homestead of Birchgrove was sold to Roland Warpole Loane, a merchant and settler descended from a family of English landlords.
One hundred acres on the adjoining Balmain estate were leased to Loane. In 1833, Gilchrist transferred power of attorney to Frederick Parbury; when Loane's lease expired in 1836 and the land retrieved from his possession, Parbury commissioned surveyor John Armstrong to sub-divide the land into six parcels. Three parcels were sold to Thomas Hyndes in 1837; the area was sub-divided and developed during the 1840s and by 1861 had been divided into the well populated eastern suburb of Balmain and the sparsely populated western area, extending to the gates of Callan Park, known as Balmain West. The peninsula changed during the 1800s and became one of the premier industrial centres of Sydney. Industries clustered around Mort Bay included shipbuilding, a metal foundry, engineering and the Mort's Dock and Engineering Company works which opened in 1855—in 1958 Mort's Dock closed and is the site of Mort Bay Park. Increasing industrialisation at Balmain created a demand for cheap housing; this was satisfied by the dock owners selling small blocks of land to entrepreneurs who built tiny cottages and rented them to the workers.
Lever Brothers Factory opened in 1895. A coal mine was opened in 1897 beside. From the bottom of the shaft a decline led down to a block of coal situated under the harbour between Ballast Point and Goat Island. Balmain Power Station was erected in stages from 1909 and the Balmain Reservoir was built in 1915; the opening of the railway in the 1920s further established and Balmain gained a reputation as a rough working-class area of Sydney. The coal mine closed in 1931. A large influx of immigrants boosted Balmain's population in the 1950s. Gentrification of Balmain began in the 1960s. Balmain's desirability to the middle class was due in part to its waterfront location and proximity to Sydney's CBD; the Balmain Association was formed in 1965. Increasing property values and waterfront development continued to push the suburb's remaining industry out. In 1996, the Lever Brothers site became a series of apartment complexes with a handful of original buildings preserved; the power station was demolished in 1998 to make way for apartments.
However, many aspects of Balmain's industrial past have been retained as heritage. Balmain has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 1 Blake Street: Ewenton Booth Street: Balmain Hospital Main Building Glassop Street: Dawn Fraser Swimming Pool 12b Grafton Street: Hampton Villa 37 Nicholson Street: Waterview Wharf Workshops Thames, College, McKell, Yeend Streets: Mort's Dock 2 Wells Street: Louisaville According to the 2016 census of population, there were 10,453 residents in Balmain. 61.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 9.1%, New Zealand 3.3%, Ireland 1.5% and United States of America 1.5%. 79.6% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Italian at 1.3%. The most common responses for religious affiliation were No Religion 41.2% and Catholic 22.3%. Darling Street, Balmain's main thoroughfare, features boutique shops, quality restaurants and cafes alongside old drinking establishments. Landmarks on this street include the Post Office and Court House, alongside Balmain Town Hall, the historic Westpac Bank, Balmain Fire Station and Balmain Working Men's Institute.
Other commercial developments are scattered throughout the suburb. The headquarters of the NSW Water Police moved to Cameron Cove in Balmain in late 2007. Balmain has several ferry wharves that are serviced by the Inner
Accessibility is the design of products, services, or environments for people with disabilities. The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some entity; the concept focuses on enabling access for people with disabilities, or special needs, or enabling access through the use of assistive technology. Accessibility is not to be confused with usability, the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness and satisfaction in a specified context of use. Accessibility is related to universal design, the process of creating products that are usable by people with the widest possible range of abilities, operating within the widest possible range of situations; this is about making things accessible to all people. The disability rights movement advocates equal access to social and economic life which includes not only physical access but access to the same tools, services and facilities for which everyone pays.
Article 9 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits signatories to provide for full accessibility in their countries. While it is used to describe facilities or amenities to assist people with handicap impaired mobility, through the provision of facilities like wheelchair ramps, the term can extend include other types of disability. Accessible facilities therefore extend to areas such as Braille signage, audio signals at pedestrian crossings, walkway contours, website design and reading accessibility. Government mandates including Section 508, WCAG, DDA are all enforcing practices to standardize accessibility testing engineering in product development. Accessibility modifications may be required to enable persons with disabilities to gain access to education, transportation, recreation, or simply to exercise their right to vote. Various countries have legislation requiring physical accessibility which are: In the US, under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, new public and private business construction must be accessible.
Existing private businesses are required to increase the accessibility of their facilities when making any other renovations in proportion to the cost of the other renovations. The United States Access Board is "A Federal Agency Committed to Accessible Design for People with Disabilities." The Job Accommodation Network discusses accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace. Many states in the US have their own disability laws. In Australia, the Disability Discrimination Act 1992 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In South Africa the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 2000 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In the UK, the Equality Act 2010 has numerous provisions for accessibility. In Sri Lanka, the Supreme Court, on 27 April 2011 gave a landmark order to boost the inherent right of disabled persons to have unhindered access to public buildings and facilities. In Norway, the Discrimination and Accessibility Act Diskriminerings- og tilgjengelighetsloven defines lack of accessibility as discrimination and obliges public authorities to implement universal design in their areas.
The Act refers to issue-specific legislation regarding accessibility in e.g. ICT, the built environment and education. In Canada, relevant federal legislation includes the Canadian Human Rights Act, the Employment Equity Act, the Canadian Labour Code. Legislation may be enacted on a state, provincial or local level. In Ontario, the Ontarians with Disabilities Act of 2001 is meant to "improve the identification and prevention of barriers faced by persons with disabilities..." The European Union, which has signed the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has adopted a European Disability Strategy for 2010-20. The Strategy includes the following goals, among others: devising policies for inclusive, high-quality education. A European Accessibility Act was proposed in late 2012; this Act would establish standards within member countries for accessible products and public buildings. The harmonization of accessibility standards within the EU "would facilitate the social integration of persons with disabilities and the elderly and their mobility across member states, thereby fostering the free movement principle".
Assistive technology is the creation of a new device that assists a person in completing a task that would otherwise be impossible. Some examples include new computer software programs like screen readers, inventions such as assistive listening devices, including hearing aids, traffic lights with a standard color code that enables colorblind individuals to understand the correct signal. Adaptive technology is the modifica
According to many definitions, a disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, intellectual, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. Other definitions describe disability as the societal disadvantage arising from such impairments. Disability affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body structure. Disability is thus not just a health problem, it is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Disability is a contested concept, with different meanings in different communities, it may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions medicine, view as needing to be fixed. It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society. Or the term may serve to refer to the identity of disabled people.
Physiological functional capacity is a related term that describes an individual's performance level. It gauges one's ability to perform the physical tasks of daily life and the ease with which these tasks are performed. PFC declines with advancing age to result in frailty, cognitive disorders or physical disorders, all of which may lead to labeling individuals as disabled; the discussion over disability's definition arose out of disability activism in the United States and the United Kingdom in the 1970s, which challenged how the medical concept of disability dominated perception and discourse about disabilities. Debates about proper terminology and their implied politics continue in disability communities and the academic field of disability studies. In some countries, the law requires that disabilities are documented by a healthcare provider in order to assess qualifications for disability benefits. For the purposes of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia.
Contemporary understandings of disability derive from concepts that arose during the West's scientific Enlightenment. During the Middle Ages and other conditions were thought to be caused by demons, they were thought to be part of the natural order during and in the fallout of the Plague, which wrought impairments throughout the general population. In the early modern period there was a shift to seeking biological causes for physical and mental differences, as well as heightened interest in demarcating categories: for example, Ambroise Pare, in the sixteenth century, wrote of "monsters", "prodigies", "the maimed"; the European Enlightenment's emphases on knowledge derived from reason and on the value of natural science to human progress helped spawn the birth of institutions and associated knowledge systems that observed and categorized human beings. Contemporary concepts of disability are rooted in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century developments. Foremost among these was the development of clinical medical discourse, which made the human body visible as a thing to be manipulated and transformed.
These worked in tandem with scientific discourses that sought to classify and categorize and, in so doing, became methods of normalization. The concept of the "norm" developed in this time period, is signaled in the work of the Belgian statistician, sociologist and astronomer Adolphe Quetelet, who wrote in the 1830s of l'homme moyen – the average man. Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population and find their average, that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire; this idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, the Western European states during this time period, it is tied to the rise of eugenics. Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, normalcy came from this; the circulation of these concepts is evident in the popularity of the freak show, where showmen profited from exhibiting people who deviated from those norms.
With the rise of eugenics in the latter part of the nineteenth century, such deviations were viewed as dangerous to the health of entire populations. With disability viewed as part of a person's biological make-up and thus their genetic inheritance, scientists turned their attention to notions of weeding such "deviations" out of the gene pool. Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit. At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, d