Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket. At the professional level, it was introduced by the England and Wales Cricket Board in 2003 for the inter-county competition in England and Wales. In a Twenty20 game the two teams have a single innings each, restricted to a maximum of 20 overs. Together with first-class and List A cricket, Twenty20 is one of the three current forms of cricket recognised by the International Cricket Council as being at the highest international or domestic level. A typical Twenty20 game is completed in about three hours, with each innings lasting around 90 minutes and an official 10 minute break between the innings; this is much shorter than previously-existing forms of the game, is closer to the timespan of other popular team sports. It was introduced to create a fast-paced form of the game which would be attractive to spectators at the ground and viewers on television; the game has succeeded in spreading around the cricket world.
On most international tours there is at least one Twenty20 match and all Test-playing nations have a domestic cup competition. The inaugural ICC World Twenty20 was played in South Africa in 2007 with India winning by five runs against Pakistan in the final. Pakistan won the second tournament in 2009, England won the title in the West Indies in 2010. West Indies won with Sri Lanka winning the 2014 tournament. West Indies are the reigning champions, winning the 2016 competition, in doing so, became the first nation to win the tournament twice. Was originated in 2005 When the Benson & Hedges Cup ended in 2002, the ECB needed another one day competition to fill its place. Cricketing authorities were looking to boost the game's popularity with the younger generation in response to dwindling crowds and reduced sponsorship, it was intended to deliver fast-paced, exciting cricket accessible to thousands of fans who were put off by the longer versions of the game. Stuart Robertson, the marketing manager of the ECB, proposed a 20 over per innings game to county chairmen in 2001 and they voted 11–7 in favour of adopting the new format.
The first official Twenty20 matches were played on 13 June 2003 between the English counties in the Twenty20 Cup. The first season of Twenty20 in England was a relative success, with the Surrey Lions defeating the Warwickshire Bears by 9 wickets in the final to claim the title; the first Twenty20 match held at Lord's, on 15 July 2004 between Middlesex and Surrey, attracted a crowd of 27,509, the highest attendance for any county cricket game at the ground – other than a one-day final – since 1953. Thirteen teams from different parts of the country participated in Pakistan's inaugural competition in 2004, with Faisalabad Wolves the first winners. On 12 January 2005 Australia's first Twenty20 game was played at the WACA Ground between the Western Warriors and the Victorian Bushrangers, it drew a sell-out crowd of 20,000, the first time in nearly 25 years the ground had been sold out. Starting 11 July 2006 19 West Indies regional teams competed in what was named the Stanford 20/20 tournament; the event was financially backed by billionaire Allen Stanford, who gave at least US$28,000,000 funding money.
It was intended. Guyana won the inaugural event, defeating Trinidad and Tobago by 5 wickets, securing US$1,000,000 in prize money. On 5 January 2007 Queensland Bulls played the New South Wales Blues at The Brisbane. A crowd of 11,000 was expected based on pre-match ticket sales. However, an unexpected 16,000 turned up on the day to buy tickets, causing disruption and confusion for surprised Gabba staff as they were forced to throw open gates and grant many fans free entry. Attendance reached 27,653. For 1 February 2008 Twenty20 match between Australia and India, 85,824 people attended the match at the Melbourne Cricket Ground involving the Twenty20 World Champions against the ODI World Champions; the Stanford Super Series was held in October 2008 between Middlesex and Trinidad and Tobago, the respective winners of the English and Caribbean Twenty20 competitions, a Stanford Superstars team formed from West Indies domestic players. On 1 November, the Stanford Superstars played England in what was expected to be the first of five fixtures in as many years with the winner claiming a US$20,000,000 in each match.
The Stanford Superstars won the first match, however no further fixtures were held as Allen Stanford was charged with fraud in 2009. Several T20 leagues started after the popularity of the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. BCCI started the Indian Premier League in 2008, which utilizes the North American sports franchise system with eight teams in major Indian markets, is in its eleventh season of competition. In September 2017, the broadcasting and digital rights for the next five years of the IPL were sold to Star India for US$2.55 billion, making it one of the world's most lucrative sports league per match. The IPL has seen a spike in its brand valuation to US$5.3 billion after the 10th edition, according to global valuation and corporate finance advisor Duff & Phelps. The Big Bash League, Bangladesh Premier League, Pakistan Super League, Caribbean Premier League started thereafter and remained popular with the fans; the Women's Big Bash League was started in 2015 by Cricket Australia, while the Kia Super League was started in England and Wales in 2016.
The first Twenty20 International match was held on 5 August 2004 between the England and New Zealand women's teams with New Zealand winning by nine runsOn 17 February 2005 Australia defeated New Zealand in the first men's full international Twenty20 match, played at Eden Park in Auckland
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of government and partisan politics; the ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia. Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission; the ABC now provides television, radio and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, the ABC was a Government licensed consortium of private entertainment and content providers, authorised under supervision to broadcast on the airwaves using a two-tiered system.
The "A" system derived its funds from the licence fees levied on the purchasers of the radio receivers, with an emphasis on building the radio wave infrastructure into regional and remote areas, whilst the "B" system relied on privateers and their capacity to establish viable enterprises using the new technology. Following the general downward economic trends of the era, as entrepreneurial ventures in National infrastructure struggled with viability, the "Company" was subsequently acquired to become a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 and renamed as Australian Broadcasting Commission, re-aligning more to the British, BBC model; the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, effective 1 July 1983. Although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983; the ABC is sometimes informally referred to as "Aunty" in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporation's nickname.
The first public radio station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart following. A licensing scheme, administered by the Postmaster-General's Department, was soon established allowing certain stations government funding, albeit with restrictions placed on their advertising content. Following a 1927 royal commission inquiry into radio licensing issues, the government established the National Broadcasting Service which subsequently took over a number of the larger funded stations, it nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company, created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations. On 1 July 1932, the Australian Broadcasting Commission was established, taking over the operations of the National Broadcasting Service and establishing offices in each of Australia's capital cities. Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a cohesive broadcasting organisation through regular program relays, coordinated by a centralised bureaucracy.
The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the commercial sector. News broadcasts were restricted, due to pressure from Sir Keith Murdoch, who controlled many Australian newspapers. However, journalists such as Frank Dixon and John Hinde began to subvert the agreements in the late 1930s. In 1939, Warren Denning was appointed to Canberra as the first ABC political correspondent, after Murdoch had refused to allow his newspapers to cover a speech by Joseph Lyons. In 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing, any exercise of the power had to be mentioned in the Commission's Annual Report, it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, "Kindergarten of the Air" began on ABC Radio in Perth, was broadcast nationally. In 1944 18-year-old Patricia Delaney, of Sydney, was the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's only girl cadet announcer, the youngest member of announcing staff.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 1920-1949 The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, followed the earlier radio practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state. ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, James Dibble reading the first television news bulletin. ABV-2 followed two weeks on 18 November 1956. Stations in other capital cities followed: ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2, ABT-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, both named after the base city. Although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. Other television programs at the time included the popular Six O'Clock Rock hosted by Johnny O'Keefe, Mr. Squiggle, as well as operas and plays.
In 1973 New South Wales Rugby League boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the ABC. In 1975, colour television was
Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales
The Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales was founded on 5 July 1822, when a group of Sydney's leading citizens formed the Agricultural Society of NSW, is "a not-for-profit organisation committed to supporting agricultural development and rural communities in Australia." The society has been responsible for holding the Sydney Royal Easter Show since 1823. Eleven officers were elected and the Society staged its first Show at Parramatta in 1823; however the Society lapsed in 1834 due to the pressure of drought and economic depression, but re-formed in 1857 under the name of the ‘Cumberland Agricultural Society.’ In 1859 the Society renamed itself the Agricultural Society of NSW. The Society's Shows, known at the time as Exhibitions, were held at Parramatta until 1868 and subsequently moved to Prince Alfred Park. From the 1870s the Society faced financial difficulty and high rent and empty coffers forced the RAS to look for a new venue; the City Council offered 40 acres of unpromising, sandy scrub at Moore Park for an annual rent of £10.
With the help of the NSW Government and public subscriptions the Society built a showground, which saw the show move from Prince Alfred Park and remain for the next 115 years. The Society had become the Royal Agricultural Society in 1891, when Queen Victoria gave her permission for the usage of "Royal"; the Royal Agricultural Society Showground became an important part of the history of rugby league in Australia, hosting some of the new code's first matches. The Royal Agricultural Society Shield was designated the newly formed NSWRFL Premiership's main trophy in 1908. During World War II the Sydney Royal Easter Show was cancelled when Moore Park was requisitioned for military use. By the late 1980s the Sydney Royal Easter Show had outgrown its Moore Park facilities. In 1994 the NSW Government approved its relocation to Sydney Olympic Park at Homebush; the first Show was held there in 1998. Sir John Robertson – President Sydney Burdekin – President Sir John See – President Sir Francis Suttor – President Samuel Hordern – President Sir Archibald Howie – President Sir Colin Sinclair – President Sam Hordern – President William Parry-Okeden – Executive Director for many years Lieutenant Colonel Roy Morell – Hon. Treasurer for 23 years Major-General Sandy Pearson – Executive Director Winter Warden – committee member for many years Lord Livingstone Ramsay – Committee member for many years Major Bill Chaffey – Councillor and Vice-President.
Made Honorary Vice-President in 1979. Mr Prosper Nicholas Trebeck - Treasurer for an eleven year period Sydney Royal National Poultry Show Royal Agricultural Society of NSW
Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales. It is held by a coalition of the Liberal Party and the National Party; the Government of New South Wales, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, the federal law prevails; the New South Wales Constitution says: "The Legislature shall, subject to the provisions of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, have power to make laws for the peace and good government of New South Wales in all cases whatsoever."
The Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of New South Wales, which consists of the Crown, represented by the Governor of New South Wales, the two Houses, the New South Wales Legislative Council and the New South Wales Legislative Assembly. Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers; the Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales and the Cabinet. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly.
Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of New South Wales and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Constitution Amendment Pledge of Loyalty Act 2006 No. 6 was enacted to amend the Constitution Act 1902 to require Members of the New South Wales Parliament and its Ministers to take a pledge of loyalty to Australia and to the people of New South Wales instead of swearing allegiance to the Queen her heirs and successors, to revise the oaths taken by Executive Councillors. The Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006; the following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of New South Wales. The government ministers are listed in order of seniority as listed on the Parliament of New South Wales website and were sworn on by the Governor with effect from 2 April 2019, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers.
All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales. List of New South Wales government agencies Local government areas of New South Wales New South Wales Ministry New South Wales Shadow Ministry Public Service Association of NSW Government of New South Wales website New South Wales Government Annual Reports and Other Publications The Constitution of New South Wales
Australian Football League
The Australian Football League is the pre-eminent professional competition of Australian rules football. Through the AFL Commission, the AFL serves as the sport's governing body, is responsible for controlling the laws of the game; the league was founded as the Victorian Football League as a breakaway from the previous Victorian Football Association, with its inaugural season commencing in 1897. Comprising only teams based in the Australian state of Victoria, the competition's name was changed to the Australian Football League for the 1990 season, after expanding to other states throughout the 1980s; the league consists of 18 teams spread over five of Australia's six states. Matches have been played in all states and mainland territories of Australia, as well as in New Zealand and China to promote the sport abroad; the AFL season consists of a pre-season competition, followed by a 23-round regular season, which runs during the Australian winter. The team with the best record after the home-and-away series is awarded the "minor premiership."
The top eight teams play off in a four-round finals series, culminating in the AFL Grand Final, held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground each year. The grand final winner is termed the "premiers", is awarded the premiership cup; the current premiers are the West Coast Eagles. The Victorian Football Association was established in 1877 and went on to become Victoria's major Australian rules football competition. During the 1890s, an off-field power struggle occurred between the VFA's stronger and weaker clubs, the former seeking greater administrative control commensurate with their relative financial contribution to the game; this came to a head in 1896 when it was proposed that gate profits, which were always lower in matches involving the weaker clubs, be shared amongst all teams in the VFA. After it was intimated that the proposal would be put to a vote, six of the strongest clubs—Collingwood, Fitzroy, Geelong and South Melbourne—seceded from the VFA, invited Carlton and St Kilda to join them in founding a new competition, the Victorian Football League.
The remaining VFA clubs—Footscray, North Melbourne, Port Melbourne and Williamstown—were given the opportunity to compete as a junior sides at a level beneath the VFL, but rejected the offer and remained for the 1897 VFA season. The VFL's inaugural season occurred in 1897, it made several innovations early on to entice the public's interest, including an annual finals tournament, rather than awarding the premiership to the team with the best record through the season. Although the VFL and the VFA continued to compete for spectator interest for many years, the VFL established itself as the premier competition in Victoria. In 1908, the league expanded to ten teams, with Richmond crossing from the VFA and University Football Club from the Metropolitan Football Association. University, after three promising seasons, finished last each year from 1911 until 1914, including losing 51 matches in a row; as a result, the club withdrew from the VFL at the end of 1914. Beginning sporadically during the late 1890s and from 1907 until World War I, the VFL premier and the premier of the South Australian Football League met in a playoff match for the Championship of Australia.
South Australia's Port Adelaide was the most successful club of the competition winning three titles during the period along with an earlier victory. In 1925, the VFL expanded from nine teams to twelve, with Footscray and North Melbourne each crossing from the VFA. North Melbourne and Hawthorn remained weak in the VFL for a long period. Although North Melbourne would become the first of the 1925 expansion sides to reach a Grand Final in 1950 it was Footscray that adapted to the VFL with the most ease of the three clubs, by 1928 were well off the bottom of the ladder. Between the years of 1927 and 1930, Collingwood became the first, only VFL team, to win four successive Premierships. In 1952, the VFL hosted ` National Day'. Matches were played at the Sydney Cricket Ground, Brisbane Exhibition Ground, North Hobart Oval, Albury Sports Ground and Victorian country towns Yallourn and Euroa. Footscray became the first of the 1925 expansion teams to win the premiership in 1954. Melbourne became a powerhouse during the 1950s and early 1960s under coach Norm Smith and star player Ron Barassi.
The club contested seven consecutive grand finals from 1954 to 1960, winning five premierships, including three in a row from 1955 to 1957. Television coverage began with direct telecasts of the final quarter permitted. At first, several channels competed through broadcasting different games. However, when the VFL found that television was reducing crowds, it decided that no coverage was to be allowed for 1960. In 1961, replays were introduced although direct telecasts were permitted in Melbourne. In 1959, the VFL planned the first purpose built mega-stadium, VFL Park, to give it some independence from the Melbourne Crick
Sydney Showground (Moore Park)
The former Sydney Showground at Moore Park was the site of the Sydney Royal Easter Show in New South Wales, Australia from 1882 until 1997, when the Show was moved to the new Sydney Showground at Sydney Olympic Park, built for the Sydney 2000 Olympics. The old site was leased to News Corporation on a 99-year lease from the Government of New South Wales to be used for the site of Fox Studios Australia, is now part of The Entertainment Quarter. In 1811, Governor Macquarie proclaimed an area of 1,000 acres. In 1882, The Agricultural Society established its grounds within the site, which henceforth became the venue of the Sydney Royal Easter Show—an annual expression of national pride in Australian produce and industry; the period from 1902 to 1919 saw the expansion of the showgrounds to the south. From 1920–1937, the grounds were further expanded to the north, with the addition of new squares and judging rings; the dominant visual elements of the complex by this time were the peripheral walls, the Members’ Grandstand clock tower and the tower of the Anthony Hordern building.
The country’s sesqui-centenary celebrations of 1938 led to a further building program at the showground, including the Government Pavilion and the Commemorative Pavilion. Aside from the Royal Easter Show and rugby league matches, the venue was used for World Series Cricket games in the late 1970s when the Sydney Cricket Ground was unavailable. At its peak, the old showground could hold over 90,000 people; the Main Arena at the Sydney Showground was used as one of two Sydney Harness racing venues, the other being the Harold Park Paceway, located only 4 km from Moore Park in the suburb of Glebe. From 1926 until 1996 the Showground's Main Arena doubled as the Sydney Showground Speedway, a dirt track speedway known as Speedway Royale, the speedway attracted large spectator attendances throughout the summer months. Claimed to be the fastest speedway in the world in 1937, the 509 metres long "egg shaped" track was the site of some spectacular crashes and some tragic deaths. Although solo motorcycles were first to race at the Showgrounds they were soon joined by sidecars and Super Modifieds.
In the 1950s stock cars began to appear joined much by demolition derbies. Since the departure of the Sydney Royal Easter Show to the new showground, the old showground has been redeveloped as Fox Studios, a commercial venture designed at supporting Australia's film industry, it is in close proximity with some of Sydney's largest public venues, namely the Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney Football Stadium, the Hordern Pavilion, a multipurpose entertainment venue. The showground was the venue for the first game of rugby football sanctioned by the breakaway New South Wales Rugby Football League premiership the first game of rugby league in Australia. Played by a New South Wales team against New Zealand's rebel 1907 tourists, it attracted a sellout crowd of 20,000. After that the Agricultural Ground hosted the first interstate matches between New South Wales and Queensland. Sydney's Royal Agricultural Showground was venue for the first Ashes test on Australian soil; the showground became the venue for the NSWRFL's grand finals until the late 1920s, hosted 183 first grade rugby league games.
The final Rugby League match played at the ground was on 11 April 1987 between North Sydney and St George in front of 24,000 spectators. Norths won the match 18-16; the venue hosted concerts by many famous artists, including Led Zeppelin, ABBA, David Bowie, AC/DC, The Police and KISS, among others. English rock band Led Zeppelin played to over 25,000 fans at the Sydney Showground in February 1972 as part of their 1972 Australasian Tour. Footage from the show is featured on disc two of the Led Zeppelin DVD released some thirty years after the event; the Sydney Showgrounds was the venue for the annual Sydney Big Day Out music festival held in January between 1992 and 1997. The 1997 event was titled'Six and Out - Big Day out' indicating the final Big Day Out Festival before its new beginning at the new Sydney Showground Homebush in 1999; the former Sydney Showground is featured in the Rage Against the Machine video clip for "Bulls on Parade", from when they performed live at the Big Day Out Festival on 25 January 1996
Sydney International Aquatic Centre
The Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre is a swimming venue located in the Sydney Olympic Park in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Built in 1994, the SOPAC was a major venue for the 2000 Summer Olympics as it hosted the swimming, synchronized swimming, the medal events for water polo, the swimming portion of the modern pentathlon competitions; the stadium holds 10,000 people. Capacity was boosted to 17,000 during the 2000 Summer Olympics, it is Australia's largest swimming arena. In October 2013, a large blaze ripped through the centre's carpark, destroying more than 40 cars, one motorcycle and forcing 1,500 people to evacuate. 2000 Summer Olympics venues List of sports venues in Australia Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre at Austadiums SOPAC Swimming Club