Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, in six print issues annually. Foreign Policy magazine and ForeignPolicy.com are published by The FP Group, a division of Graham Holdings Company. The FP Group produces FP Events, Foreign Policy's events division, launched in 2012. Foreign Policy was founded in the late 1970 by Samuel P. Huntington, professor of Harvard University, his friend Warren Demian Manshel to give a voice to alternative views about American foreign policy at the time of the Vietnam War. Huntington hoped it would be "serious but not scholarly, lively but not glib". In early 1978, after six years of close partnership, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace acquired full ownership of Foreign Policy. In 2000, a format change was implemented from a slim quarterly academic journal to a bimonthly magazine, it launched international editions in Europe, the Middle East and Latin America.
In September 2008, Foreign Policy was bought by The Washington Post Company. In 2012, Foreign Policy grew to become the FP Group – an expansion of Foreign Policy magazine to include ForeignPolicy.com and FP Events. According to its submissions guidelines, Foreign Policy articles "strike the balance" between informed specialist research and general readability, tend to be written in plain - rather than "wonky" - language. Foreign Policy endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U. S. presidential election. Since 2003, Foreign Policy has been nominated for eight National Magazine Awards, winning six - three for its print publication, three for its digital publication at ForeignPolicy.com. FP is the only independent magazine that has won consecutive digital national magazine awards every year from being established in 2009.2003 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for Outstanding Achievement and General Excellence in the under 100,000 circulation category.2007 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category.
Foreign Policy was presented as a Gold Winner by the Eddie Awards for “Who Wins in Iraq,” in the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category.2008 Folio Magazine Gold Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, "What America Must Do" by Kenneth Rogoff, Jan/Feb 2008. FP's "What America Must Do" feature received the Eddie Award as a Gold Winner for the Consumer News/Commentary/General Interest category for a Single Article. Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, "A World Enslaved" by Benjamin Skinner, Mar/Apr 2008. Folio Magazine Silver Editorial Excellence Award – Consumer Magazine, News/Commentary/General Interest, May/June 2008. Media Industry Newsletter's "Best of the Web" Award in the blog category for Passport a blog by the editors of Foreign Policy.2009 Foreign Policy won the National Magazine Award for General Excellence in the 100,000 to 250,000 circulation category. Forbes RealClearWorld designated ForeignPolicy.com as a top international news site.2010 Foreign Policy's "The Best Defense" column authored by Tom Ricks received the Digital National Magazine Award for best blog.2011 Foreign Policy Magazine and former Editor-in-Chief Susan Glasser were presented with a special citation for the Edward Weintal Prize for Diplomatic Reporting.
“Turtle Bay,” the reported blog by journalist Colum Lynch, won the Digital National Magazine Award for best reporting for a series of hard-hitting investigative articles about the United Nations.2012 Foreign Policy won an Overseas Press Club award for General Excellence for the best overall international coverage on a website. FP’s “Qaddafi Files” won the National Magazine Award for Multimedia2014 Foreign Policy received its first design recognition for "The Surveillance State", appearing in its annual Global Thinkers issue in December 2013; the illustration by Oliver Munday accompanied the marquee story by novelist William T. Vollmann, who discussed “the surveillance state” we knowingly living in after the revelations of wide-reaching surveillance by the NSA. Munday’s illustration for FP appeared in the American Illustration annual award book Foreign Policy writers won multiple awards from the United Nations Correspondents Association. Senior diplomatic reporter Colum Lynch received the silver medal for the Elizabeth Neuffer Memorial Prize for his three-part series on the UNAMID peacekeeping mission in Darfur.
FP contributor James Reinl won the gold medal in The United Nations Foundation Prize for print for his reporting on Somalia and Kenya, including his story in Foreign Policy titled "Crazy Town" about PTSD in Somalia.2016 Foreign Policy contributors received two Overseas Press Club awards for excellence in international reporting. Honorees included Tristian McConnell for his 2015 piece called "Close Your Eyes and Pretend to be Dead," detailing the deadly attack on Nairobi's Westgate Mall in 2013. Christina Larson received the award for her profile of the entrepreneur Zhao Bowen entitled "The Zhao Method" and featured FP's September/October 2015 print edition. Foreign Policy and photographer Andrew Quilty received the George Polk Award in photography for the three part photo series titled "The Man on the Operating Table," showing the destruction following airstrikes on Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Kunduz, Afghanistan in October 2015. FP Top 100 Global Thinkers Foreign Policy of the United States Official website
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, Punjab province to the north. Sindh borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh. Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port; the remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, produces fruit, food consumer items, vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.
Sindh is known for its distinct culture, influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees. Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro; the word Sindh is derived from the Sanskrit term Sindhu, a reference to Indus River. The official spelling "Sind" was discontinued in 1988 by an amendment passed in Sindh Assembly; the Greeks who conquered Sindh in 325 BC under the command of Alexander the Great rendered it as Indós, hence the modern Indus.
The ancient Iranians referred to everything east of the river Indus as hind. Sindh's first known village settlements date as far back as 7000 BCE. Permanent settlements at Mehrgarh in Balochistan, to the west expanded into Sindh; this culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. The Indus Valley Civilization rivalled the contemporary civilizations of Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia in size and scope, numbering nearly half a million inhabitants at its height with well-planned grid cities and sewer systems; the primitive village communities in Balochistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji. This was one of the most developed urban civilizations of the ancient world, it flourished between the 25th century BCE and 1500 BCE in the Indus valley sites of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The people had a high standard of art and craftsmanship and a well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which remains un-deciphered.
The ruins of the well planned towns, the brick buildings of the common people, public baths and the covered drainage system suggest a organized community. According to some accounts, there is no evidence of large palaces or burial grounds for the elite; the grand and holy site might have been the great bath, built upon an artificially created elevation. This indigenous civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE; the cause may have been a massive earthquake, which dried up the Ghaggar River. Skeletons discovered in the ruins of Moan Jo Daro were thought to indicate that the city was attacked and the population was wiped out, but further examinations showed that the marks on the skeletons were due to erosion and not of violence; the ancient city of Roruka, identified with modern Aror/Rohri, was capital of the Sauvira Kingdom, finds mentioned early Buddhist literature as a major trading center. Sindh finds mention in the Hindu epic Mahabharata as being part of Bharatvarsha. Sindh was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the 6th century BC.
In the late 4th century BC, Sindh was conquered by a mixed army led by Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great. Alexander described his encounters with these trans-Indus tribes of Sindh: "I am involved in the land of lions and brave people, where every foot of the ground is like a well of steel, confronting my soldier. You have brought only one son into the world, but everyone in this land can be called an Alexander." The region remained under control of Greek satraps for only a few decades. After Alexander's death, there was a brief period of Seleucid rule, before Sindh was traded to the Mauryan Empire led by Chandragupta in 305 BC. During the rule of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist religion spread to Sindh. Mauryan rule ended in 185 BC with the overthrow of the last king by the Shunga Dynasty. In the disorder that followed, Greek rule returned when Demetrius I of Bactria led a Greco-Bactrian invasion of India and annexed most of the northwestern lands, including Sindh. Demetrius was defeated and killed by a usurper, but his descendants continued to rule Sindh and other lands as the Indo-Greek Kingdom.
Under the reign of Menander I, many Indo-Greeks converted to Buddhism. In the late 2nd century BC, Scythian tribes shattered the Greco-Bactrian empire and invaded the Indo-Greek lands. Unable to take the P
Bahria Town Limited. Is a Rawalpindi-based owned real-estate development company which owns and manages properties across Pakistan. Founded in late-1990s, it established its first gated community in southern Rawalpindi on the Grand Trunk Road, which by mid-2000s had expanded into nine phases divided into two compounds, its second gated community opened in Lahore, influenced by Greco-Roman culture and is built in Southern Lahore. In 2015, it launched the Bahria Town Karachi, the largest of its gated communities, while Bahria Enclave Islamabad is the smallest of them. Most of these communities are large towns in their own right, its oldest community in Rawalpindi spans over 16,000 hectares; the under-construction Bahria Town Karachi spans over 16,000 hectares and it is the largest owned residential community in the country. Combined, its projects have the capacity to house over a million people. Apart from gated towns, the company owns several shopping complexes including the Mall of Lahore and the under-construction Mall of Islamabad, chain of cinemas under the brand of Cine Gold, a chain of supermarkets under the banner of Green Valley Hypermarket and skyscrapers including the Bahria Icon Tower, the tallest in Pakistan.
With over 100,000 employees, the group is the developer of Grand Jamia Mosque, the seventh largest in the world and is constructing the third largest mosque in Karachi. The under-construction Rafi Cricket Stadium when completed will be the largest in the country. On November 2016, Bahria entered into a contract with Hyatt to develop four properties across Pakistan, including two golf resort's, worth combined $600 million; the properties would be owned by Bahria. Bahria projects house upper middle and high income Pakistanis, these communities have private security, ability to restrict access to non-residents and are energy independent from the national grid. Bahria gated communities are home to private schools including those operate by the company, private hospitals and commercial avenues. Bahria has been featured by international news agencies' GlobalPost claimed that in 2013, Bahria houses some 100,000 people in Rawalpindi alone. Newsweek calls it as Pakistan's Gateway to Paradise. On October 6, 2011, Los Angeles Times refereed Bahria as'functioning state within a non-functioning one'.
Regardless of that Bahria has been subject to controversies, it is referred to as a symbol of inequality, blamed for illegal encroachment of forests and illegal alliance with military. The original project, the gated community has series of projects, it is divided into smaller projects. Unlike other housing societies in Pakistan, Bahria produces its own electricity and sells it to its resident through the Bahria Town Electric Supply Company. Bahria Town projects in Rawalpindi and Lahore were running 12 and 9 megawatts of generation units of their own. Bahria Town has constructed 3 grid stations with its own resources and provides underground lines to its residents. Along with DHA. Bahria Enclave Islamabad is a housing scheme launched by Bahria Town in July 2011, it is located 8 km drive from Chak Shahzad, the Park Road & the Kuri Road with access from Kashmir Highway, Lehtrar Road & Islamabad Highway. On January 31, 2012, Capital Development Authority approved the plan for development of Jinnah Avenue in Zone-IV.
The construction project of four-lane road would link main Kuri Road to Kuri Model Village and is awarded to Bahria Town. It is a flagship gated community in Lahore; the community is home to the Grand Jamia Mosque, Lahore, the seventh largest mosque in the world which has a total capacity of 70,000 people. Includes residential and commercial plots, Bahria apartments, Bahria homes and an exclusive block for overseas residents, it include Bahria Sports City and Bahria Golf City. Situated on Karachi-Hyderabad super-highway. Located at the prime location of Qazi Ahmed Road near the Rohri Canal Bridge, this project is undoubtedly a welcoming effort to establish a world-class housing scheme in a semi-urban area. Project includes commercial plots and bahria homes on 3 year installment plan. Under-construction golf themed gated community. On November 14, 2016, Hyatt Hotels Corporation and Bahria Town Group entered into agreement in Abu Dhabi to develop four properties in Pakistani worth over $600 million.
All properties are under-construction as of 2016. After success at national level, Bahria has been featured by international magazines and news agencies, referred to as the prosperous face of Pakistan. According to Emirates 24/7 Bahria Town is'where Pakistan's new middle class takes refuge from the Taliban attacks and endless power cuts that plague the rest of the.' GlobalPost claimed. Newsweek calls it as Pakistan's Gateway to Paradise. On October 6, 2011, Los Angeles Times refereed Bahria as'functioning state within a non-functioning one'. Regardless of that Bahria has been subject to controversies, it is referred to as a symbol of inequality, blamed for illegal encroachment of forests and unholy alliance with military. Bahria has been subject to controversies, it is referred to as a symbol of inequality, blamed for illegal encroachment of forests and unholy alliance with military. Ayesha Siddiqa, a civilian military analyst and author of "Military Inc: Inside Pakistan Military Economy," alleges that those links have allowed him to acquire land, in some cases returning a percentage to senior o
Mayor of Karachi
Mayor of Karachi is the Mayor who heads the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation which controls the Local Government system of Karachi. The current Karachi Local Government System follows Sindh Local Government Act 2013 The Karachi Local Government consists of Karachi Metropolitan Corporation, subdivided into of 6 District Municipal Corporations which are headed by Chairmen and Deputy Chairmen; the districts or Zila of Karachi Local Government as of Sindh local government act 2013 are District Central, District West, District East, District South and Korangi. Each district is further divided into Union Committees which are headed by Chairmen and vice chairmen; each Union committee is further sub divided into four wards. The Local government elections directly elect the UC chairmen/vice chairmen panel and the 4 ward members of each UC. the seats are reserved for women, non Muslim minorities, youth members and labours in a Union Committee all of which are indirectly elected by the direct election of chairman/vice chairman panel.
The chairman of a Union committee belongs to the City council/KMC and elects the Mayor/deputy mayor candidate, while the Vice Chairman of Union Committee elects the chairman/Vice chairman of District Municipal corporation and works in District municipal corporation office. The historic and iconic building of Karachi Metropolitan Corporation houses the offices of mayor and deputy mayor of the city and the city council Hall with 304 members; the foundation of the building was laid in 1927 and the construction was completed on 1930. The cost of building was 1,725,000 RS. KDA Scheme 1 in Gulshan-e-Iqbal'Camp Office' is the official residence for the Deputy Mayor of Karachi. 1979 - 2005:Though the LBEs were, by law, held on a non-party basis, in reality the political parties were at the heart of the process. Political parties were supporting candidates, the media was extensively reporting party involvement.2016 elections: were party based officially. Party Legend Mayor results 2005 * All counsellors participated in direct voting process for mayor election for CDGK).
The election took place on October 6, 2005. Naimatullah Khan was fielded by Tameer-i-Karachi Ittehad of the combined opposition parties. * The 308 directly and indirectly elected members of Union Committee of KMC voted for Mayor of Karachi on August 24, 2016. Waseem Akhter comfortably defeated 6 party alliance formed to contest against the city's dominant political force, the MQMPTI Karachi leader Faisal Vawda submitted petition for the disqualification of Karachi mayor-elect Waseem Akhter few hours before his oath taking ceremony in the Sindh High Court. Sindh High Court withdrew his production orders and all sessions judges in Karachi were stopped from administering the oath after not getting clearance from the Sindh High Court. Faisal Wavda petition was rejected and second production orders were issued. Waseem Akhter was crowned mayor of Karachi on August 30, 2016. Ceremony was held at Polo Ground. City District Government Karachi Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Mayor of Hyderabad History of Mayors at CDG Karachi Official Page
Malik Riaz Hussain is a Pakistani business magnate and billionaire. He is the founder and chairman of Bahria Town, the largest held real estate development company in Asia. Riaz is the 7th richest person in Pakistan, he is one of Pakistan's most prominent philanthropists. Born in Sialkot into a wealthy family which went bankrupt during his adolescence. Riaz started his career as a clerk with a construction company in Rawalpindi. In the 1980s Riaz moved to become a contractor, in 1995 Riaz's construction company Hussain Global, signed an agreement with Pakistan Navy's charitable trust known as Bahria Foundation to develop a gated community for Pakistan Navy; the Navy's Bahria Foundation served a legal notice to Riaz to stop using the word "Bahria" for his company's construction projects, but Riaz went on to develop Bahria Town Rawalpindi. He expanded his real-estate company and developed gated communities in Karachi and Islamabad during the 2000s, developing a combined area of 45,000 square acres.
As of 2016, Bahria has 60,000 employees, making it one of the largest private sector employers in Pakistan. Riaz has been subject of several corruption investigations. Bahria Town Karachi is the biggest private project of Asia, owned by Malik Riaz. Malik Riaz was born to a contractor who suffered heavy losses in business, forcing Riaz to drop out of high school after completing his matriculation, he went on to work as a clerk with the Military Engineering Service and working part-time as a painter. He moved to become a low-key contractor in the military. According to Dr. Ayesha Siddiqa, Riaz learnt to "work the system". According to Siddiqa, Riaz used his contacts to secure a contract with the Pakistan Navy in the mid-1990s to develop two housing schemes in the outskirts of Rawalpindi. In 2000, the Pakistan Navy transferred its entire shareholding to Hussain and fought a legal battle with Riaz over contract infringement in which the Supreme Court ruled in Hussain’s favor. Malik Riaz has ambitiously expanded his business empire under the brand name of Bahria Town Group but a Supreme Court ordered trial has concluded that Riaz cannot use the word Bahria for its gated communities.
Riaz is considered as a liberal in his business practises, according to Dr. Ayesha Siddiqa "to think that he is defined by religiosity and traditionalism, would be a mistake, his employees' profiles show that he hires a lot of women at the middle and senior management levels, because he finds them "hard-working and diligent". Bahria Town has projects in Lahore, Islamabad and Karachi. Bahria Town Karachi is the biggest private project of Asia, owned by Malik Riaz, his assets are valued at well over 800 million USD by finding the difference of "purchase of land" and "sale of land", it doesn't include the sale of file, required to register the specific property. Many critics claim. Malik Riaz Hussain was approached by an intermediary of Arsalan Iftikhar Chaudhry, son of Chief Justice Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry, that he had inside information and a case and it can be resolved in his favour. Malik Riaz Hussain in an official deposition produced itemised list of how he bankrolled a playboy lifestyle for the son of the country's top judge.
Arsalan Iftikhar Chaudhry had promised to influence his father's rulings. Malik Riaz Hussain, the Chairman of Bahria Town Pvt. Ltd. has been at the center of some controversies and allegations. The allegations are that he pays to get things done his way. An excerpt from pakistanherald.com states that "National Accountability Bureau is looking into another application filed by a former military officer Lt-Col Tariq Kamal, which states that the land on which Bahria town is constructed, is further expanding, was not acquired through legal means. It is alleged that Hussain has strong ties with Pakistan’s military which assisted him in building a huge empire; some claims go as far as saying that a handful of the important serving army officers and lawyers are on Hussian’s payroll."In April 2016, his son Ahmed Ali Riaz was named in the Panama Papers. Official website How the Arsalan Iftikhar case affected Bahria Town
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol