American Gothic (1995 TV series)
American Gothic is an American horror series created by Shaun Cassidy and executive producer Sam Raimi. The show first aired on CBS on September 22, 1995, was canceled after a single season on July 11, 1996; the story takes place in the fictional town of Trinity, South Carolina, revolves around Caleb Temple and the town's corrupt sheriff, Lucas Buck. Though appearing affable and charismatic, Sheriff Buck is a murderous rapist whose power base is backed by apparent supernatural powers, which he uses to manipulate people to "fulfil their potential" and make life-changing choices. Caleb Temple is a normal child whose paternity masks a horrific secret: Lucas Buck is his biological father, having raped his mother in front of Caleb's older sister Merlyn; the horror of watching her mother being sexually assaulted caused Merlyn to become emotionally traumatized and withdrawn from the rest of the world, made worse when her mother committed suicide after giving birth to Caleb. During the pilot episode of the series, Sheriff Buck murders Merlyn in cold blood and manipulates Caleb's "father" into committing suicide in order to eliminate Caleb's family and claim his biological son for his own.
However, the newly arrived Dr. Crower begins to uncover the sheriff's role in the death of Merlyn and Merlyn's father and, with help from Caleb's out-of-town cousin Gail Emory, struggles to prevent Lucas from corrupting young Caleb, they are aided in part by Merlyn's ghost, who appears before Caleb throughout the series in order to try to keep him from Buck's corrupt grasp. Note: The character of Dr. Billy Peale was a late addition to the series, intended to be a regular character to replace Dr. Matt Crower as a more formidable adversary to Lucas Buck, he was added to the opening credits in the episode "Doctor Death Takes a Holiday", in which Dr. Crower is written out. Producer Shaun Cassidy stated that Dr. Crower would have returned had the show been renewed for a second season. CBS aired American Gothic in a differing sequence than the production order and omitted four episodes from its network broadcast. Subsequent, syndicated airings of the series included these four episodes. Universal Studios released the complete series of American Gothic on DVD as a Region 1 NTSC double-sided 3-disc set in the United States and as a Region 2 PAL single-sided 6-disc set in Europe.
The Region 1 and Region 2 Discs have the episodes in the same order. The only exception is the German boxset, which features all episodes in the intended order on 7 DVDs; the order is as follows: American Gothic on IMDb American Gothic at TV.com American Gothic at TV Guide.com
Knight Rider (1982 TV series)
Knight Rider is an American television series created and produced by Glen A. Larson; the series was broadcast on NBC from 1982 to 1986. The show stars David Hasselhoff as Michael Knight, a high-tech modern crime fighter assisted by KITT, an advanced artificially intelligent, self-aware and nearly indestructible car; this was the last series Larson devised at Universal Television. Self-made billionaire Wilton Knight rescues police Detective Lieutenant Michael Arthur Long after a near fatal shot to the face, giving him a new identity and a new name: Michael Knight. Wilton selects Michael to be the primary field agent in the pilot program of his public justice organization, the Foundation for Law and Government; the other half of this pilot program is the Knight Industries Two Thousand, a modified, technologically advanced Pontiac Firebird Trans Am with numerous features including an durable shell and frame, controlled by a computer with artificial intelligence. Michael and KITT are brought in during situations where "direct action might provide the only feasible solution".
Heading FLAG is Devon Miles. Dr. Bonnie Barstow is the chief engineer in charge of KITT's care, as well as technical assistant to Devon. David Hasselhoff as Michael Knight, an undercover detective of Los Angeles Police Department who, while on a case in Las Vegas, is shot in the face and nearly killed. Wilton Knight, founder of Knight Industries and creator of FLAG, directs his doctors to save Long's life and reconstruct his face. With his new identity, "Michael Knight", Long is provided with high tech crime-fighting equipment, most notably the car named KITT. Hasselhoff played Garthe Knight, Wilton Knight's estranged son and a criminal mastermind who drives Goliath, a semi tractor trailer Peterbilt 352 Pacemaker truck armed with rockets and protected by KITT's molecular bonded shell after the formula was stolen by Elizabeth Knight, Wilton's widow. William Daniels as the voice of KITT, or Knight Industries Two Thousand, the autonomous, artificially intelligent car, with whom Michael Knight is partnered.
Daniels, who starred on St. Elsewhere, requested not to be credited for his role as KITT's voice. Edward Mulhare as Devon Miles, the leader of FLAG, who appeared in every episode to provide mission details to Knight and KITT, he was the spokesman for FLAG whenever it came under scrutiny. Patricia McPherson as Dr. Bonnie Barstow, KITT's chief technician and romantic tension for Michael; the character was dropped after the first season, but due to strong fan reaction and lobbying by Hasselhoff and Mulhare, she was returned for the third season and remained through the end of the series. Rebecca Holden as April Curtis, chief technician for KITT; the character was written out. The connection between the two was never established in any installments. Peter Parros as Reginald Cornelius III aka RC3, driver of the FLAG mobile unit and occasional sideman for Michael and KITT. Richard Basehart as Wilton Knight, the creator of FLAG, who dies in the pilot episode. Basehart's voice, however, is heard throughout the series, narrating over the outro.
The car used as KITT in the series was a customized 1982 Pontiac Firebird sports model, that cost US$100,000 to build. Nose and other interior of the car were designed by the design consultant Michael Scheffe; the "Knight Rider Theme" was composed by Glen A. Larson; the series DVD bonus material contains an interview about this lead music, where Glen A. Larson says he remembers a theme out of a classical piece from which he took pieces for the "Knight Rider Theme"; the rest of the series music was composed by Stu Phillips for 13 episodes, Don Peake for 75 episodes, Glen A. Larson co-wrote music only for the "K. I. T. T. vs. K. A. R. R." Episode and Morton Stevens who wrote music for the "Deadly Maneuvers" episode in the first season. Peake took over scoring duties at S1E14 in 1983, when Larson moved to Twentieth Century-Fox and Phillips was working there on his projects. Peake insisted as the only and main composer until the end of the series in 1986, exceptionally for the "K. I. T. T. vs. K. A. R. R." Episode in third season, which he composed together with Stu Phillips and Glen A. Larson.
In 2005 FSM released a disc of music from the series, featuring the series theme, ad bumpers and Phillips' scores for "Knight of the Phoenix", "Not a Drop to Drink", "Trust Doesn't Rust", "Forget Me Not" and the composer's final episode "Inside Out", as well as the logo music for Glen Larson Productions. Albums of Don Peake's scores have been issued; the intro throughout most of the episodes began with this narration: Knight Rider, a shadowy flight into the dangerous world of a man who does not exist. Michael Knight, a young loner on a crusade to champion the cause of the innocent, the helpless, the powerless in a world of criminals who operate above the law. During the first season, the outro was Michael and KITT driving though a road in the desert with Wilton Knight's words of "One man can make a difference, Michael." The narration goes on to say: Michael Knight, a lone crusader in a dangerous world. The world of the Knight Rider; the outro of Seasons 2 and 3 was KITT driving away from the sunset toward the camera.
Season 4's outro was the same, except with KITT in Super Pursuit Mode. Knight Rider was first syndicated in the U. S. in the Fall of 1986. Stations were offered either the o
Andromeda (TV series)
Andromeda is a Canadian/American science fiction television series, based on unused material by Gene Roddenberry, developed by Robert Hewitt Wolfe, produced by Roddenberry's widow, Majel Barrett. It starred Kevin Sorbo as High Guard Captain Dylan Hunt; the series premiered on October 2, 2000, ended on May 13, 2005. Andromeda was filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia and produced by Andromeda Productions, Tribune Entertainment, Fireworks Entertainment and MBR Productions. In Canada, the show was on Global TV in Canada and syndicated in the United States on Tribune and other stations. Andromeda is one of two TV series based on concepts Roddenberry had created as early as the 1960s and 1970s; the name Dylan Hunt had been used for the hero of two TV pilots Roddenberry had produced in the mid-1970s, Genesis II, Planet Earth, all sharing a similar dystopian, post-apocalyptic premise. Thousands of years in the future, the Systems Commonwealth is a republic based in a distant star system called Tarn-Vedra.
Humankind is a part of The Commonwealth. The Commonwealth spans the Milky Way and Andromeda, with Tarn-Vedra near its core; the Commonwealth is at war with the Magog, a predatory humanoid species with bat-like faces, dedicated to war. Peace talks led the Commonwealth to cede a key world to that of the Nietzscheans. Dylan Hunt is the captain of the Commonwealth ship Andromeda Ascendant, its computer is a powerful artificial intelligence which can emit a holographic interface persona in the form of a woman, called "Andromeda" or "Rommie". Caught by surprise in the first engagement of the Nietzschean uprising, the crew evacuates; the Andromeda, with Hunt aboard, is caught at the edge of the event horizon of a black hole, freezing both in time. Three hundred and three years in CY 10087, the crew of the salvage ship Eureka Maru locates the ship; the Systems Commonwealth has fallen, the era known as The Long Night has begun. Hunt recruits the salvage crew to join him in an attempt to restore the Systems Commonwealth and "rekindle the light of civilization".
The salvage crew comprises Beka Valentine, a con-artist and expert pilot. The salvage crew's beneficiary brings along an insurance policy in the form of a Nietzschean mercenary named Tyr Anasazi. Dylan Hunt, played by Kevin Sorbo, captain of the Andromeda Ascendant. Beka Valentine, played by Lisa Ryder, Captain of first officer on Andromeda. Tyr Anasazi played by weapons officer. Seamus Zelazny Harper, played by Gordon Michael Woolvett, chief engineer. Trance Gemini, played by Laura Bertram, life support officer. Rev Bem, played by Brent Stait, Science Officer. Andromeda, played by Lexa Doig, Ship's AI and android avatar. Telemachus Rhade, played by Steve Bacic. Weapons officer. Doyle, played by Brandy Ledford, AI's second android avatar. Slipstream is the primary mode of travel for ships in the Andromeda universe, the only known method of traveling faster than the speed of light; the Vedran discovery of the Slipstream was instrumental in the formation of their intergalactic empire, which became the precursor of the Systems Commonwealth.
Slipstream cannot be navigated by AIs. Only organic pilots can "sense" a way to their destination, although AIs are fitted on all large ships, they always require an organic pilot for interstellar travel, it is thought to be the process of choosing a path. A function of slipstream is that apparent objective velocities are variable, as it enables travel across millions of light years as swiftly as traveling between neighboring stars only tens of light years apart. Further, slipstream is a non-linear method of travel; the more used routes are easier and more predictable. The Systems Commonwealth was a huge utopian civilization, spanning three major galaxies of the Local Group, it was founded by the Vedrans, the first race to discover slipstream, who used it to conquer the Andromeda Galaxy. After a long and bitter war of attrition with the major powers of the Triangulum Galaxy, the Vedran Empire was reorganized as the democratic Systems Commonwealth; the Commonwealth served as a peaceful intergalactic government for 10,000 years until the Nietzschean revolt.
Dylan managed to restore the Commonwealth. However, the New Commonwealth soon fell victim to internal corruption masterminded by the group known as the Collectors, who were allied with the Abyss. Hephaestus, a system with a significant Nietzschean population, devastated by a rogue black hole in the pilot episode and the place of Dylan's frozen imprisonment in time for 300 years, it turned out in season five that the A
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Surface (TV series)
Surface is an American science fiction television series that premiered on NBC on September 19, 2005. The program aired ten episodes before going on hiatus on November 28, 2005 due to NBC's coverage of the 2006 Winter Olympics, it returned for five more episodes, beginning January 2, 2006. On May 15, 2006, NBC announced the series' cancellation. During a routine submersible dive in the North Pacific Ocean, California oceanographer Laura Daughtery is attacked by an unknown life-form that appears out of a field of craters on the ocean's floor. Miles Barnett, a 14-year old North Carolina teenager, finds himself face to face with the strange sea creature after falling off his wakeboard during a nighttime outing with his friends. Meanwhile, Richard Connelly, a Louisiana man on a fishing trip, loses his brother in a suspicious diving accident when a creature drags him to the depths of the Gulf of Mexico. All around the world, strange things are occurring in the world's oceans. Shooting stars fall from the night sky into the Caribbean Sea.
In South Carolina, an unknown carcass washes up on a public beach, prompting the government to evacuate and cordon off the area, claiming it as a beached whale killed by red tide poisoning. Meanwhile, Daughtery's research is seized by government officials led by a mysterious Croatian scientist, Dr. Aleksander Cirko. Curious as to what he's seen, Miles ventures back to the area where he first spotted the creature only to find the water covered in strange pods he classifies as "eggs". Unable to cope with his brother's disappearance, Connely ventures to South Carolina to see the creature for himself. Connelly meets Daughtery upon arrival after they are both taken into custody due to asking too many questions; when the fish in Miles' tank disappear and the tank breaks, Miles discovers that something has hatched from the egg. Daughtery and Connelly sneak onto the beach and bring back a hagfish, feeding on the carcass; each returns to their home, Daughtery sends the fish's stomach contents to be tested.
As they wait for the results, reports of strange creatures beaching themselves around the world begin to surface. These three strangers may have stumbled upon the greatest secret in human history; the creature that hatched from the "egg" Miles found appears to be a kind of web-footed aquatic lizard a Pliosaur. It has the ability to heal instantaneously. Miles's friend Phil names the creature Nimrod, shortened to "Nim". Dr. Cirko is murdered before he can tell anyone, his assistant gives his research to Daughtery, who has teamed up with Connelly. In the remaining episodes we learn that agent Lee is a clone of one of the men on the original Kessler expedition. After some of the other young creatures attack him, Miles develops some of the creatures' abilities- electrical surges and a need for excess salt, due to Nim healing him by licking his bites and scratches. In the series finale the creatures' activities on the sea floor cause a massive earthquake which turns into a tsunami that destroys Puerto Rico and heads toward the east coast.
Rich discovers a cryogenic version of Noah’s Ark in the Iderdex plant. There were dozens of monorails being sent into the Mariana Trench; the series ends with Miles meeting Laura and Rich during the evacuation. The last shot is of Miles, Laura and Caitlin looking out from the church steeple they climbed to escape the waves to see how the tsunami placed all of Wilmington, NC under water; this TV series encompasses possible implications of genetic engineering, modern biotechnology. The underlying theme of the series involves the artificial creation of an organism, through a secret biotechnological company. One scene in episode #113 involves a scientist going for an interview for the company, where the interviewer reveals revelations such as the recovery of the Archaeopteryx, that cloning Dolly the Sheep was 30 years after their secret company discovered how to clone. On May 1, 2006 it was announced that Universal Studios Home Entertainment would be releasing the Surface - Season One DVD set on August 15, 2006.
The DVD set was released with the title of Surface: The Complete Series. The complete series was released in Australia on April 4, 2007. During the show's initial airing, Surface was broadcast in syndication on the Sci-Fi Channel in the United States. In addition to U. S. network the programme was broadcast in Canada on CH, as well as ITV2 in the UK, Network Ten in Australia, VT4 in Belgium, on La Sexta and Calle 13 in Spain and on Universal Channel in Mexico. During the summer of 2006, the series was broadcast on ProSieben in Germany, by Fox on Portuguese and Brazilian cable networks, in Israel on Yes network, on Canal+ in most of Scandinavia. During the summer of 2008, the series was broadcast on Veronica in The Netherlands; the entire series was repeated in the UK on ITV1 between 23 July 2009 and 30 October 2009. Surface was subsequently broadcast in Italy on Italia 1 and in Norway on TVNorge, Portugal on TVI on Saturday afternoons, Australia on Network Ten on Sundays, 6.30pm, reruns on Sci Fi Channel, Spain on La Sexta, Finland on MTV3, rebroadcast in Germany on ProSieben and in Canada on Space.
In July 2007 the ser
The Invisible Man (2000 TV series)
The Invisible Man is a Sci-Fi American television series starring Vincent Ventresca, Paul Ben-Victor, Eddie Jones, Shannon Kenny and Michael McCafferty. It aired for two seasons, from June 9, 2000 to February 1, 2002; the plot revolves around Darien Fawkes, a thief facing life imprisonment, recruited by a spy agency, short on funds, given the power of invisibility via implantation of a special "Quicksilver gland" in his head. The gland allows Fawkes to secrete a light-bending substance called "Quicksilver" from his pores and follicles; the substance coats his skin, nails and whatever he is carrying, renders him invisible. He can consciously release the Quicksilver, which flakes off and disintegrates. However, the Quicksilver gland was sabotaged at its creation by scientist Arnaud DeFehrn to release a neurotoxin that accumulates in the bloodstream and causes intense pain, followed by antisocial behavior and psychosis; the host requires regular doses of "counteragent" to keep him sane and healthy, controlled by the government agency.
This series lasted for two seasons, before being cancelled due to cost issues and internal bickering between the Sci Fi Channel and its then-parent company, USA Networks. The show's first season ran concurrently in first-run syndication as well as on Sci-Fi. Despite its science fiction and action elements, the series' plot deals with a variety of adult themes such as freedom of choice and state bureaucracy; the Invisible Man is both a comedy with buddy cop elements. Episodes were of two types. Many centered on cases given to Hobbes by The Agency; these dealt with assassinations or government experiments that had run amok. During the first season, The Agency was given a nemesis agency called Chrysalis, behind the week's conspiracy. Alternatively, episodes dealt with Fawkes' quest to have the gland removed from his head and/or to reduce his dependency on the counteragent, his unorthodox methods included reviving the mind of his dead brother and periodically contacting Arnaud DeFehrn, one of the gland's creators, though these encounters ended with one of the two in pain.
The agency considered the gland too great an asset to remove so Fawkes' personal quest brought him in direct conflict with those in power. Episodes begin with a voice-over by Fawkes who would open with a famous quote and comment about what he was thinking; the voice over would reemerge at the end of the episode to sum up Fawkes' opinion on the mission or allow him to voice lingering questions. At the conclusion of the series, Fawkes had been given a new counteragent that permanently cured him of quicksilver madness- his body having become immune to the standard counteragent- but after returning to his old thieving career and another stint at the FBI, he returned to the Agency to continue fighting Chrysalis; the following is a list of characters featured in the American science fiction series The Invisible Man. This list may not list characters. Darien Fawkes Darien Fawkes is a former career criminal and catburglar, who received multiple misdemeanor convictions and two felony convictions before he was thirty.
Darien is described as having an "above-average intellect", capable of being deceptive. He and his brother Kevin were raised on a farm by their aunt and uncle after their mother died and their father left them. While Kevin became a scientist, Darien began a career as a thief while still in his teens. After being caught because he stopped to give CPR to a heart-attack victim, he was sentenced to life in prison without possibility of parole under California's three strikes law; this was where his older brother, stepped in. Kevin was a research scientist, working on a top-secret project, he cut a deal with his bosses to get Darien out of prison in exchange for using him as a test subject. When Darien agreed, he was implanted with the Quicksilver gland, but Kevin's rush to remove Darien from prison meant that he implanted the gland before devising a way to remove it without killing the recipient. One of the other scientists, Arnaud DeFehrn, was a terrorist that had infiltrated the project, led an attack on the research facility that caused Kevin's death and the loss of most of the project research.
Darien was unwillingly drafted into The Agency, who had funded the project. In exchange for the counteragent he needed to stay sane, Darien agreed, albeit reluctantly, to be an agent under their employment. Upon working with The Agency, Darien develops an affinity for his co-workers and opts to continue working there after his dependency on counteragent is cured by Claire, he has high morals for a career criminal – he could have escaped after his final break-in except he surprised the elderly owner into a heart attack, stayed behind to perform CPR. He is a talented thief with expert-level breaking and entering skills, learned from his many incarcerations, finds these skills quite useful in his new career as an espionage agent, his trademark expression is "Oh, crap." said when he realizes he just got himself in trouble, although he has a habit of quoting various other sources at least once in each episode. On one occasion, Darien was possessed by the personality of Simon Cole, the previous owner of the gland
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram