91/Perris Valley Line
The 91/Perris Valley Line known as the 91 Line, is a commuter rail line operated by Metrolink that runs from Los Angeles to Perris in Southern California, paralleling State Route 91 between Riverside and Santa Fe Springs. Operating since May 2002, the line runs on the Southern Transcon track owned by BNSF Railway, as well as the Riverside County Transportation Commission-owned San Jacinto Branch Line. Although branded as a single line, not all trains serve the entire length of the line. There are twelve stations on the 91 Line: The stations at West Corona, North Main Corona, Riverside-La Sierra, Riverside-Downtown are served by the Inland Empire-Orange County Line. Although the 91 Line follows the same route through Los Angeles County as the Orange County Line, the 91 Line does not stop at the Commerce station. Metrolink began operating limited weekend service on the 91 Line in July 2014; the Perris Valley Line is a 24-mile-long extension of the original 91 Line into the Perris Valley. The extension runs on the San Jacinto Branch Line, which parallels Interstate 215.
The Riverside County Transportation Commission purchased the BNSF San Jacinto Branch Line in 1993, soon after Metrolink began operating. Planning for the extension formally began in 2002. After studying the service alternatives available for the Perris Valley, RCTC selected commuter rail service in 2004; the Federal Transit Administration provided funding for the extension in 2007. In 2009, both the Federal Transit Administration and RCTC decided to conduct further studies into the project; the Federal Transit Administration decided to require a Supplemental Environmental Assessment to refresh the 2004 information and to obtain new public comment. RCTC had decided to prepare a full draft environmental impact report to clarify concerns and address new station site options; the draft EIR was released for public comment on April 5, 2010, with the public comment period closing on May 24, 2010. The draft SEA was completed and the comment period for the SEA ended on January 6, 2011; as of October 2012, comments received on both the EIR and the SEA were under review.
Seven stations were planned by RCTC—five to open along with the extension, two to be built in the future. However, in the April 2010 CEQA-mandated environmental impact report, three stations were dropped: the two future stations, one on the Cajalco Expressway near its junction with Interstate 215 in Perris and one in Box Springs within Riverside. In response to these removals, RCTC officials stated that more stations could be built in the future if necessary. A local community group filed a CEQA lawsuit against the extension in 2011. Led by RCTC, construction on the extension began in October 2013. Planned to start in December 2015, public service on the extension was delayed to February 2016 March 2016 scheduled for sometime in the spring; the delay had been attributed to construction on the South Perris station. After numerous delays, the extension opened June 6, 2016. Metrolink inconsistently uses the terms "91/Perris Valley Line" and "91 Line" to refer to both the extension and the entire rail line.
The extension was projected to cost $248 million with funding coming from the state, a $75 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration, Measure A, Riverside County's special sales tax for transportation projects. In 2005, an RCTC-commissioned study determined that extending the line to San Jacinto or Hemet via an underused rail line owned by RCTC, and/or to Temecula via a brand-new trackage, would be feasible. Construction on a station in Placentia is planned to begin in 2018 with a scheduled opening in 2020. 91 Line Schedule 91/Perris Valley Line on Twitter Perris Valley Line at the Metrolink website Perris Valley Line extension project website
Sylmar, Los Angeles
Sylmar is a neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Known for its profusion of olive orchards, Sylmar can trace its past to the 18th century and the founding of the San Fernando Mission. In 1890 olive production was begun in a systematic manner; the Sylmar climate was considered healthy, so a sanitarium was established, the first in a series of hospitals in the neighborhood. There are fourteen public and eight private schools within Sylmar; the population of the Sylmar area was 3,500 in 1940, 10,000 in 1950, 31,000 in 1962, 40,000 in 1972, 41,922 in 1980 and 53,392 in 1986. By 2000, a "wave of immigrants and working poor" had enveloped Sylmar, Pacoima and Sun Valley, resulting in a housing shortage for lower-income people; the 2000 U. S. census counted 69,499 residents in the 12.46-square-mile Sylmar neighborhood—or 5,579 people per square mile, among the lowest population densities for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 79,614.
In 2009, the Sylmar Chamber of Commerce estimated that the population was 90,000 residents. In 1980 Sylmar was predominantly white, 36 % Latino. Twenty years in 2000, the neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a high percentage of Latinos; the breakdown in 2000 was Latinos, 69.8%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 36.7% of the residents who were born abroad—an average figure for Los Angeles. In 2000 the median age for residents was 28, considered young for county neighborhoods. In 2000, renters occupied 29.2% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 70.8%. The average household size of 3.6 people was considered high for Los Angeles. The percentage of married women was among the county's highest. There were 3,607 veterans, or 7.7% of the population, average for the city of Los Angeles and the county. A study by four graduate students from the University of Southern California in 2005 stated that: Sylmar in the 1970s and 1980s was a rural, predominantly white, non-Hispanic community, whose residents focused on creating a place centered around equestrian activities.
Today, the dramatic influx of residents has serious consequences for a community that has too little housing stock, too few employment opportunities, overburdened public facilities and decaying public infrastructure systems. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $65,783, considered average for the city. San Fernando became a city in 1874, leading to the naming of the unincorporated land surrounding San Fernando as Morningside. In 1893 the area was named a fusion of the Latin words for Sea of Trees. Around 2000, some local residents proposed a plan to rename the northwest portion of the district as Rancho Cascades; the name change was approved in 2018. Sylmar has been nicknamed "The Top of Los Angeles." The foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains at the north slope of the San Fernando Valley were seen as "an unattractive and worthless waste" before 2,000 acres of them were transformed in the late 1890s by the Los Angeles Olive Growers Association. One observer recalled that the land had been "a mass of ill-looking chapparal and chemisal" before it was planted with olives.
In 1893, a group of Illinois businessmen purchased from the trustees of the Maclay ranch either 1,000 or 2,000 acres east of the railroad tracks on San Fernando Road just south of Roxford Street and in 1894 began planting olives trees on up to 1,700 acres. Experts were brought from France to supervise the work. Calling themselves the Los Angeles Olive Growers Association, they built a packing plant and sold olives under the Tyler Olives label changing to the Sylmar Packing label. Sylmar's olives became noted throughout the state for purity. Chinese pickers were hired to harvest the crops, up to 800 U. S. gallons of olive oil a day were produced. The pickling plant was located on the corner of San Fernando Road. By March 1898 about 200,000 trees had been planted, by 1906 the property had become the largest olive grove in the world. One source stated in 1981 that it was the "Fusano family" who built a headquarters building for the olive association on Roxford and San Fernando in 1902 and that the first packing plant was built in 1909.
The trees began bearing fruit in 1912. The first groves were planted with Nevadillo Blanco and Manzanillo olives; some Sevillano and Ascolano varieties were planted for extra-large fruit. During the picking season in the early 1900s, an extra force of 300 Japanese was employed and housed in a village of tents. In 1927 the packing plant, built in 1910, employed some five hundred workers during its busiest season, November through January; the oil was pressed from the fruit, allowed to separate from the fruit's water content drawn into 12,000-gallon concrete tanks lined with glass and set deep into the ground to avoid a change in temperature. Over time, the plant expanded its activities, bringing in figs and watermelon rind from the San Joaquin Valley for processing. In 1904 the Sylmar brand olive oil won first place at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, St, Missouri, in 1906 at the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Oregon, in 1915 at the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.
In 1922, the controlling interest in the Los Angeles Olive Growers' Association, held by the estate of F. D. Butterfield, was bought by Charle
Metrolink is a commuter rail system in Southern California consisting of seven lines and 62 stations operating on 534 miles of rail network. The system operates in Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, Ventura counties, as well as to Oceanside in San Diego County, it connects with the Los Angeles County Metro Rail and Metro Busway system, the San Diego Coaster commuter rail and Sprinter light rail services, with Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Southwest Chief, Sunset Limited intercity rail services. The system, founded in 1991 as the Southern California Regional Rail Authority and adopting "Metrolink" as its moniker, started operation in 1992. Average weekday ridership was 39,838 as of 2017. In addition to suburban communities and cities, Metrolink serves several points of interest such as Downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood Burbank Airport, California State University, Los Angeles, Angel Stadium of Anaheim, the San Clemente Pier. Special service has been extended to the Pomona Fairplex, the Ventura County Fairgrounds, the Auto Club Speedway for certain events.
Metrolink's fare structure is based on a flat fee for boarding the train and an additional cost for distance with fares being calculated in 25-cent increments between stations. Metrolink tickets are valid fare for most connecting trains. Fare increases occur annually in July, to coincide with increased fuel and labor expenses, have averaged between 3.5% and 5% per year. The oil price increases since 2003 are to blame for increasing fares, as Metrolink trains are powered by diesel fuel; the member agencies of the SCRRA purchased 175 miles of track, maintenance yards, stations and other property from Southern Pacific for $450 million in 1990. The rights to use Los Angeles Union Station were purchased from Union Pacific, the station's owner at the time, for $17 million in the same year; the Authority was formally founded in 1991. Amtrak began operation of the Ventura, Santa Clarita, San Bernardino lines on October 26, 1992 under contract to the SCRRA. In 1993, service was expanded to include the Orange County Lines.
The Inland Empire-Orange County Line opened in 1995. In 1995, more trains on the Orange County service were funded; the 91 Line opened in 2002. From July 2004, Metrolink fares were changed from zone based to one based on distance. In 2005 a five-year operational contract was awarded to Connex Railroad/Veolia Transport. In 2005, the Orange County Transportation Authority approved a plan to increase frequencies to 76 trains daily on the Orange County and Inland Empire-Orange County Lines by 2009, funding for increased Metrolink service was included in the renewal of the Measure M sales tax for transportation approved by voters in November 2006. A proposed station in Yorba Linda was canceled in 2005 due to local opposition. In July 2008, it was announced. Following the 2008 Chatsworth train collision in which 25 people died and 135 were injured a number of safety measures were taken. In 2010, the first of 117 energy absorbing passenger carriages were received by the operator. Amtrak regained the contract to operate Metrolink beginning in July 2010.
Average weekday ridership for the fourth quarter of 2009 was 38,400. In 2010, to save money in the face of funding cuts, the Metrolink board voted to reduce mid-day service on the Inland Empire–Orange County Line, as well as weekend service on both the Orange County and Inland Empire–Orange County lines. Average weekday ridership was 41,000 during May 2011. A survey found that 90% of users during a typical weekday in 2009 would have driven alone or carpooled and that the system replaced an estimated 25,000 vehicle trips. During a weekend closure of Interstate 405 in July 2011, the system recorded its highest-ever weekend ridership of 20,000 boardings, 50% higher than the same weekend in 2010 and 10% higher than the previous weekend ridership record which occurred during U2 360° Tour in June 2011. Ridership continued to rise in 2012, when average weekday ridership reached 42,265. Although 2013 annual boardings were 12.07 million, ridership dropped to 11.74 million by fall 2014, contrary to projections.
Blaming the decrease on the worst recession since World War II, Metrolink said it found itself caught between cutting service and boosting fares, both of which would further decrease ridership. Metrolink began offering mobile ticketing in early 2016; the Riverside County Transportation Commission extended the 91 Line southeast 24 miles to Perris, using the existing San Jacinto Branch Line, which it purchased in 1993. Initial plans were for construction/renovation of the line to begin in 2012, but these were delayed by a lawsuit filed by homeowners in the affected area, who challenged the RCTC's environmental report; the lawsuit was settled in late July 2013. Construction on the $248.3 million extension began in October 2013. In mid-February 2016, the extension's opening was planned in March of that year; the extension opened in June 2016
Newhall is a rail station in the city of Santa Clarita, California. The station is served by Metrolink's Antelope Valley Line operating between Los Angeles Union Station and Lancaster and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach buses to Bakersfield. Newhall was built as an infill station on the busy Antelope Valley Line and opened on March 18, 2000; the official name of the station is Jan Heidt Newhall Metrolink Station after Santa Clarita's first Mayor Pro-tem. The station is served by 28 Metrolink trains each weekday running at peak hours in the peak direction of travel while weekend departures and arrivals are evenly spaced throughout the day. Weekend service consists of 12 trains on both Sunday; the station serves as a major transfer station for City of Santa Clarita Transit routes: Local: 4, 5, 6, 12, 14 Commuter Express: 757, 796, 797, 799 Amtrak California operates routes under the Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach brand from the Newhall station. Connections to San Joaquin trains to Oakland and Sacramento are provided through route 1C and 1A buses that travel to and from the Bakersfield Amtrak Station.
When San Joaquin trains aren't running during the overnight hours a route 1B bus provides service to Fresno and select intermediate stations for passengers who are traveling on a round-trip ticket. Route 1C: Torrance - Bakersfield Route 1A: San Diego - Los Angeles - Bakersfield Route 1A: Santa Ana - Los Angeles - Bakersfield Route 1B: Los Angeles - Bakersfield - Fresno Newhall serves as the connection point to the Antelope Valley Transit Authority route 790, the North County TRANSporter; the route allows Metrolink passengers on mid-day trains to travel to the Palmdale station. Los Angeles County Department of Public Works operates the Acton & Agua Dulce Shuttle between Santa Clarita and the communities of Acton and Agua Dulce; the shuttle operates on Monday and Saturday and makes a round-trip in the morning and in the evening. Santa Clara River Trail Newhall station at the Metrolink website
Los Angeles Mission College
Los Angeles Mission College is a public community college in the Sylmar district of Los Angeles, California. It is part of the Los Angeles Community College District and it is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Los Angeles Mission College is the ninth and youngest college established in the Los Angeles Community College District, it was first located in high schools, office buildings, shopping centers, other locations scattered throughout the city of San Fernando and the Sylmar neighborhood of Los Angeles, opened its doors to the public in February 1975 with twelve hundred students. The graduating class of 1975 consisted of a single student, who had transferred to the college that semester. Within two years, over 3,000 students were taking classes in fifty different disciplines, including Administration of Justice, Chemistry, Chicano Studies, English and Consumer Studies, Journalism, Real Estate, Zoology; the college outgrew its locations and decided to find a permanent location for the campus.
One option for the permanent campus was an empty piece of land on the SE corner of Polk and Laurel Canyon on hilly terrain across from the Interstate 5 freeway, but none took interest in it. Not the LACCD took interest. So they decided for a location on Hubbard and Eldridge on the northeast part of the Sylmar neighborhood instead. Sixteen years in the summer of 1991, the college moved to its permanent campus, built on 22 acres of land in the northeast part of the Sylmar neighborhood of Los Angeles on the intersection of Hubbard St and Eldridge Ave. Before the LACCD and Mission College purchased the 22 acres of land, it was slated for an LAUSD public middle school on Hubbbard and Eldridge; the permanent campus had only a campus center with a library and the main instructional building with a culinary arts department & classes, a cafeteria, administrative offices. Seven years after the permanent campus opened in 1991, a new Library and Learning Rescource Center opened in 1997 and relieved the old library in the Campus Center of LA Mission College.
After the new library opened and built in 1997, the large indoor area in the Campus Center where the old library was turned into an event space with meeting rooms, much like a convention center has. In 2002, Mission College constructed a collaborative studies building to house more classes on the campus. By 2004, the Center for Child Development Studies building was built and opened on the permanent campus. By 2008, the campus opened a new parking structure on the south end of the main campus, accommodating the influx of students commuting to the campus. In 2008, The college had broken ground on construction of a new cafeteria, student store, culinary arts institute building at LA Mission College. In 2009, LAMC opened the Heath and Fitness building on its new east campus property, relieving the physical education classes that once housed in the storefronts of shopping centers in Sylmar. In 2009, Mission College began shuttle service between the east campus; the old sheriff's building at LAMC was moved into temporary bungalow buildings.
By Fall 2009, ground had broken on the new Media Arts building at Mission College and construction began on the new building. By spring 2011, construction began on the new Center for Math and Science building at the LAMC East Campus. In that same year, the anime club at LA Mission College began by ASO, the LAMC anime club was at the height of its popularity in fall 2011. In fall 2011, the LACCD purchased an abandonded residential property on Hubbard across from the main campus and built a parking lot and asphalt areas for bungalows; the new Culinary Arts Institute building with a new cafeteria and student store was built and opened in spring 2011, relieving the old cafeteria in the Instructional Building. During 2011, the construction of the Media Arts building was delayed for one year until April 2012, due to a lack of funding the college has. In 2012, the Center for Math and Science building opened in the east campus in fall 2012. In spring 2012, the first main walkway on the campus was repaved in concrete due to a new storm drain placed under.
The LA Mission College shuttle service was cancelled in fall 2012, due to a lack of funding. During summer 2012, construction on the Media Arts building had resumed. Over the years from 2014 to 2016, The ASO's anime club has declined in popularity and lack of interest and was cancelled in fall 2015. By spring 2017, the new Media Arts building has built and opened after many delays and budget issues. By December 2017, a new transit center for the Metro Local bus routes 234 and 230 was built and began service on the main campus next to the Media Arts building, changing the bus routes and serving the east campus. In January 2018, Mission College expanded their campus and added a Sunland/ Tujunga campus location at a shopping center on Foothill Blvd. In addition to its academic degrees, Mission College provides vocational education and training in which students may receive certificates in Child Development and Consumer Studies and Computer Applications. Miguel González Ivan Becerra Jhonny Bravo Gerardo Bravo Official website
Metro Local is a bus service type in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service. Metro Local buses cover both local, limited-stop, shuttle bus services. Metro Local buses are distinguished by their prominent orange color. Based on availability of equipment, units in non-Metro Local livery may be placed into service on lines that use Metro Local buses. There are bus lines that are operated under contract with MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Local buses can be found on 400-series and 500-series routes, which are Metro Express routes with different fare structures and routing. Metro buses are given line numbers; this method was devised by the SCRTD, Metro's predecessor. All service operated by Metro as of 28 June 2018. Local bus service to/from other areas; the line numbering begins at line 2 and proceeds counterclockwise around Downtown Los Angeles, ending at line 96 East/west service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles.
North/south service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles. Limited-stop versions of traditional local routes, which make fewer stops and operate during peak times. Most limited-stop routes are designated by placing a 3 before a main line number. Most limited-stop routes have been replaced by Metro Rapid routes. Shuttles, special routes and local service within one or two adjacent neighborhoods and/or jurisdictions. Former Metro Local Routes
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were