Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Wide Wide World
Wide Wide World was a 90-minute documentary series telecast live on NBC on Sunday afternoons at 4pm Eastern. Conceived by network head Pat Weaver and hosted by Dave Garroway, Wide Wide World was introduced on the Producers' Showcase series on June 27, 1955; the premiere episode, featuring entertainment from the US, Canada and Mexico, was the first international North American telecast in the history of the medium. It returned in the fall as a regular Sunday series, telecast from October 16, 1955 to June 8, 1958; the program was sponsored by General Motors and Barry Wood was the executive producer. Nelson Case was the announcer. In March 1956, Time magazine reported. Garroway was the host of the series which featured live remote segments from locations throughout North America and occasional reports on film from elsewhere in the world; the series carried live events into four million households. The October 16 premiere, "A Sunday in Autumn," featured 50 cameras in 11 cities, including a college campus, the fishing fleet at Gloucester, rainswept streets in Manhattan and Monitor broadcasting in NBC's Radio Central studio.
An appearance by Dick Button ice skating at Rockefeller Center was canceled because the rain had washed away the ice, a curious coverage by a nervous Ted Husing of an attempt by Donald Campbell to break a speed record showed nothing more than his boat, on the other side of the lake, failing to take off. Time reviewed: NBC's Wide Wide World whisked its audience all over the map; the camera lazed its way down the Mississippi, poked into a New Jersey lane where lovers walked and old men raked autumn leaves, wandered around Gloucester harbor as fishermen mended nets. There were vivid contrasts between the chasm of the Grand Canyon and the topless towers of Rockefeller Center, the swaying wheat fields of Nebraska and the money-conscious hubbub of the Texas State Fair, an underwater ballet from Florida and the overwater speed trials of Donald Campbell's jet racer at Arizona's man-made Lake Mead. Always there was the immediacy of things happening this minute, but the real brilliancy of Wide World may lie in its avoidance of the TV interview.
The only one attempted, at the Texas Fair, proved again that—given a microphone and someone to interview—an announcer can turn any subject into a crashing bore. The words needed in Wide World were kept to a literate minimum. Other episodes: "New Orleans", "American Theater'58", "Flagstop at Malta Bend" and "The Museum of Modern Art". ESPN's Steve Bowman described the logistics involved in setting up a live remote at Arkansas' Claypool Reservoir where George Purvis, head of the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, put 300,000 ducks on NBC: There were many hurdles. Purvis dealt with how to hide TV cameras, control trucks and the necessary workmen and equipment and how to get electricity and telephone lines two miles to the woods."To start with, the only way to get to the spot selected was over two miles of muddy woods roads where only tractors had gone before," Purvis recalls. "The cameras would be two miles from telephone. This meant using power generators placed far enough back in the woods so as not to disturb the wary ducks.
Six telephone circuits were needed to send the audio part of the program to New York."Even after stringing two miles of wire there was just one circuit from Claypool's Reservoir to Jonesboro, 20 miles away. So a radio loop was installed at the barn to cover the 20-mile gap." Camouflaged blinds were built for television cameras and operators, one of, 40 feet up a hickory tree. An additional blind was built for the remote control truck; the video would go from the camera to the control truck via the cable to an 80-foot relay tower 1,000 feet back in the woods 35 miles to another relay tower 40 miles to a third tower before being sent to Memphis. There it was transmitted 1,200 miles to New York where the audio and video were combined to be broadcast live. With the electronics in place, the only thing left was to make sure that at an exact prearranged time there would be ducks in front of the cameras — over a quarter-of-a-million ducks. Garroway, an inveterate music lover, lent his name to a series of recordings of jazz, classical music and pop released in the late 1950s and early 1960s, including Wide Wide World of Jazz.
This television program was the inspiration for ABC's Wide World of Sports. In the fall of 1960, ABC didn't have any other sports programming to air besides the college football games that Roone Arledge and Ed Scherick produced for the network; this idea led to Wide World of Sports. Gowdy did, appear in hunting and fishing segments with Arledge during the early years of Wide World of Sports. Gowdy moved to NBC, where he became well known for calling the network's MLB coverage until 1975 and its NFL cover
Sylvester Weaver (musician)
Sylvester Weaver was an American blues guitar player and a pioneer of country blues. Birth and death dates come from 1900 federal census, Louisville, KY, ward 2, district 0020, sheet 4, line 40 and Weaver's death certificate respectively; the census record has the 1896 and the death certificate has the 1897 birth date. Weaver recorded "Longing for Daddy Blues" and "I've Got to Go and Leave My Daddy Behind" with the blues singer Sara Martin on October 23, 1923, in New York City. Two weeks as a soloist, he recorded "Guitar Blues" and "Guitar Rag", the first blues guitar instrumentals. Both recordings were released by Okeh Records, they are the first recorded country blues, the first known recordings of a slide guitar. "Guitar Rag" became a blues classic. A cover version recorded by Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys in the 1930s as "Steel Guitar Rag" became a country music standard. Louisville city directories published between 1916 and 1930 indicate that Weaver, like his parents, lived most of his life in the Smoketown neighborhood and that he supported his music career with employment in various blue-collar jobs.
These directories list his occupation as porter, apartment janitor, chauffeur. The 1938 directory suggests financial hardship during the Great Depression. By 1949, he and his wife, had moved to a better neighborhood, near Cherokee Park, where they lived in a basement apartment a modest accommodation, his move from Smoketown is contemporaneous with the construction of the Sheppard Square housing project, so he and his parents may have been displaced when the project absorbed his Roselane Court and their Clay Street residences. Weaver recorded about 50 more songs, sometimes accompanied by Sara Martin, until 1927. On some recordings from 1927 he was accompanied by the singer Helen Humes. Weaver played his guitar bottleneck style, using a knife as a slide, his recordings were successful, but in 1927 he retired and went back to Louisville, where he lived until his death, on April 4, 1960, from carcinoma of the tongue. A revival of interest in the recordings of many country blues artists occurred from the 1950s on, but Weaver died forgotten.
A complete collection of his recordings was released on two CDs in 1992. In the same year his hitherto unmarked grave received a headstone by engagement of the Kentuckiana Blues Society, based in Louisville. Since 1989 the society has presented its Sylvester Weaver Award annually to honor those who have rendered outstanding services to blues music. Complete Recorded Works Vol. 1, 1992, Document Records Complete Recorded Works Vol. 2, 1992, Document Records Illustrated Sylvester Weaver discographyThe content of this article comes from the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article
Isaac Sidney Caesar was an American comic actor and writer, best known for two pioneering 1950s live television series: Your Show of Shows, a 90-minute weekly show watched by 60 million people, its successor, Caesar's Hour, both of which influenced generations of comedians. Your Show of Shows and its cast received seven Emmy nominations between the years 1953 and 1954 and tallied two wins, he acted in movies. Caesar was considered actor, as opposed to a stand-up comedian, he relied more on body language and facial contortions than dialogue. Unlike the slapstick comedy, standard on TV, his style was considered "avant garde" in the 1950s, he used writers to flesh out the concept and create the dialogue. Among the writers who wrote for Caesar early in their careers were Mel Brooks, Neil Simon, Larry Gelbart, Carl Reiner, Michael Stewart, Mel Tolkin, Selma Diamond, Woody Allen. "Sid's was the show. It was the place to be," said Steve Allen, his TV shows' subjects included satires of real life events and people—and parodies of popular film genres, television shows, opera.
But unlike other comedy shows at the time, the dialogue was considered sharper and more adult-oriented. He was "...best known as one of the most intelligent and provocative innovators of television comedy," who some critics called television's Charlie Chaplin and The New York Times refers to as the "...comedian of comedians from TV's early days."Honored in numerous ways over 60 years, he was nominated for 11 Emmy Awards, winning twice. He was a saxophonist and author of several books, including two autobiographies in which he described his career and struggle to overcome years of alcoholism and addiction to barbiturates. Caesar was the youngest of three sons born to Jewish immigrants living in New York, his father was Max Ziser and his mother was Ida. They were from Dąbrowa Tarnowska, Poland. Reports state that the surname "Caesar" was given to Max, as a child, by an immigration official at Ellis Island; this is an urban myth. According to Marian L. Smith, senior historian of the U. S. Citizenship and Immigration Service, there is no known case of a name changed at Ellis Island.
Max and Ida Caesar ran a 24-hour luncheonette. By waiting on tables, their son learned to mimic the patois and accents of the diverse clientele, a technique he termed double-talk, which he used throughout his career, he first tried double-talk with a group of Italians, his head reaching above the table. They enjoyed it so much that they sent him over to a group of Poles to repeat his native-sounding patter in Polish, so on with Russians, Frenchmen, Spaniards and Bulgarians. Sid Caesar's older brother, was his comic mentor and "one-man cheering section." They created their earliest family sketches from movies of the day like Test Pilot and the 1927 silent film Wings. At 14, Caesar went to the Catskill Mountains as a saxophonist in the Swingtime Six band with Mike Cifichello and Andrew Galos and performed in sketches in the Borscht Belt. After graduating from Yonkers High School in 1939, Caesar left home, he arrived in Manhattan and worked as an usher and a doorman at the Capitol Theater there. He was ineligible to join the musicians' union in New York City until he established residency, but he found work as a saxophonist at the Vacationland Hotel, a resort located in the Catskill Mountains of Sullivan County, New York.
Mentored by Don Appel, the resort's social director, Caesar played in the dance band and learned to perform comedy, doing three shows a week. He audited classes in saxophone at the Juilliard School of Music. In 1939, he enlisted in the United States Coast Guard, was stationed in Brooklyn, New York, where he played in military revues and shows. Vernon Duke, the composer of Autumn in New York, April in Paris, Taking a Chance on Love, was at the same base and collaborated with Caesar on musical revues. During the summer of 1942, Caesar met his future wife, Florence Levy, at the Avon Lodge in the Catskills village of Woodridge, New York, they were married on July 17, 1943, had three children: Michele and Karen. After joining the musicians' union, he played with Shep Fields, Claude Thornhill, Charlie Spivak, Art Mooney and Benny Goodman. In his career, he performed "Sing, Sing" with Goodman for a TV performance. Still in the service, Caesar was ordered to Palm Beach, where Vernon Duke and Howard Dietz were putting together a service revue called Tars and Spars.
There he met the civilian director of Max Liebman. When Caesar's comedy got bigger applause than the musical numbers, Liebman asked him to do stand-up bits between the songs. Tars and Spars toured nationally, became Caesar's first major gig as a comedian. Liebman produced Caesar's first television series. After the war, the Caesars moved to Hollywood. In 1946, Columbia Pictures produced a film version of Tars and Spars in which Caesar reprised his role; the next year, he acted in The Guilt of Janet Ames. He turned down the lead of The Jolson Story as he did not want to be known as an impersonator, turned down several other offers to play sidekick roles, he soon returned to New York, where he became the opening act for Joe E. Lewis at the Copacabana nightclub, he reunited wit
Elizabeth Inglis known as Elizabeth Earl, was an English actress, known for her role in The Letter. Inglis was born Desiree Mary Lucy Hawkins in Colchester, the daughter of Margaret Inglis and Alan George Hawkins, her screen debut was in Borrowed Clothes. She had a small part in The 39 Steps as Hilary Jordan, she played the role of the young maid Nancy in the original British production of Patrick Hamilton's Victorian stage thriller Gas Light, which premiered December 5, 1938, closed June 10, 1939, after a total of 141 performances. Inglis and the rest of the cast recreated their stage roles for a 1939 television presentation performed live on BBC Television. In Hollywood, Inglis played the role of Adele Ainsworth in William Wyler's 1940 film The Letter. By this time she was billed under the pseudonym/stage name Elizabeth Earl. In 1942, she married an American radio advertising executive, he was president of NBC television between 1953 and 1955. He is credited with helping to reshape broadcasting during the 1940s and'50s as television overtook radio as America's dominant form of home entertainment.
After marrying Weaver, Inglis retired from acting altogether. The couple had two children, one of whom, became actress Sigourney Weaver. A photograph of Inglis was seen in a deleted scene in Aliens as Weaver's character's elderly grown daughter, Amanda Ripley. Inglis died on August 25, 2007, in Santa Barbara, aged 94. Elizabeth Inglis on IMDb
Golden Age of Radio
The old-time radio era, sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Radio, was an era of radio programming in the United States during which radio was the dominant electronic home entertainment medium. It began with the birth of commercial radio broadcasting in the early 1920s and lasted through the 1940s, when television superseded radio as the medium of choice for scripted programming and dramatic shows. Radio was the first broadcast medium, people tuned-in to their favorite radio programs, families gathered to listen to the home radio in the evening. According to a 1947 C. E. Hooper survey, 82 out of 100 Americans were found to be radio listeners. A variety of new entertainment formats and genres were created for the new medium, many of which migrated to television: radio plays, mystery serials, soap operas, quiz shows, talent shows and evening variety hours, situation comedies, play-by-play sports, children's shows, cooking shows, more. Since this golden era, American commercial radio programming has shifted to narrower formats of news, talk and music.
Religious broadcasters, listener-supported public radio and college stations provide their own distinctive formats. The broadcasts of live drama, comedy and news that characterize the Golden Age of Radio had a precedent in the Théâtrophone, commercially introduced in Paris in 1890 and available as late as 1932, it allowed subscribers to eavesdrop on live stage performances and hear news reports by means of a network of telephone lines. The development of radio eliminated the wires and subscription charges from this concept; the earliest radio was continuous wave, which means that the information-transmitting capability of the radio signal was the same as a telegraph: the signal is on, or it is off. Knowledge of Morse code is required; this type of radio was used by military, transport and news services. There was no home usage save hobbyists. On Christmas Eve 1906, Reginald Fessenden is said to have broadcast the first radio program, consisting of some violin playing and passages from the Bible.
While Fessenden's role as an inventor and early radio experimenter is not in dispute, several contemporary radio researchers have questioned whether the Christmas Eve broadcast took place, or whether the date was in fact several weeks earlier. The first apparent published reference to the event was made in 1928 by H. P. Davis, Vice President of Westinghouse, in a lecture given at Harvard University. In 1932 Fessenden cited the Christmas Eve 1906 broadcast event in a letter he wrote to Vice President S. M. Kinter of Westinghouse. Fessenden's wife Helen recounts the broadcast in her book Fessenden: Builder of Tomorrows, eight years after Fessenden's death; the issue of whether the 1906 Fessenden broadcast happened is discussed in Donna Halper's article "In Search of the Truth About Fessenden" and in James O'Neal's essays. An annotated argument supporting Fessenden as the world's first radio broadcaster was offered in 2006 by Dr. John S. Belrose, Radioscientist Emeritus at the Communications Research Centre Canada, in his essay "Fessenden's 1906 Christmas Eve broadcast."It was not until after the Titanic catastrophe in 1912 that radio for mass communication came into vogue, inspired first by the work of amateur radio operators.
Radio was important during World War I as it was vital for air and naval operations. World War I brought about major developments in radio, superseding the Morse code of the wireless telegraph with the vocal communication of the wireless telephone, through advancements in vacuum tube technology and the introduction of the transceiver. After the war, numerous radio stations were born in the United States and set the standard for radio programs; the first radio news program was broadcast on August 1920 on the station 8MK in Detroit. This was followed in 1920 with the first commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA, being established in Pittsburgh; the first regular entertainment programs were broadcast in 1922, on March 10, Variety carried the front-page headline: "Radio Sweeping Country: 1,000,000 Sets in Use." A highlight of this time was the first Rose Bowl being broadcast on January 1, 1923 on the Los Angeles station KHJ. Several radio networks broadcast in the United States, their distribution made the golden age of radio possible.
The networks declined in the early 1960s. As of November 14, 2013, Mutual, ABC and NBC's radio assets now reside with Cumulus Media's Westwood One division through numerous mergers and acquisitions since the mid-1980s, with ABC maintaining a limited radio ownership presence. CBS's radio license assets were folded into Entercom in 2017, with CBS shareholders acquiring a stake in that company as part of the reorganization. NBC, CBS and ABC now produce content for radio through their television divisions; the major networks were: National Broadcasting Company. Mutual was run as a cooperative in which the flagship stations owned the network, not the other way ar
Oxford is a town in Worcester County, United States. The population was 13,709 at the 2010 census. For geographic and demographic information on the census-designated place Oxford, please see the article Oxford, Massachusetts. Oxford was first settled in 1687 and was incorporated in 1713, it was the birthplace of the first president and founder of the American Red Cross. Oxford was settled by Huguenots in two waves, the original settlement having been abandoned after four residents were killed in a violent confrontation with local Native Americans; this event, the Johnson Massacre, is commemorated near the south end of town on Main Street. The remains of the Huguenot Fort still exist near Huguenot Road; the first town clerk of Oxford was John Town, who served as selectman and as a church deacon. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.5 square miles, of which 26.6 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles, or 3.20%, is water. The town sits in a valley, much of its area lies in the flood plain of the French River, which runs through the town.
A substantial parcel north and west of Oxford Center is held, for flood control purposes, by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the land, known as Greenbriar serves as a nature preserve. It serves to cut off east–west travel on former roads through the site. Route 20 runs east–west through North Oxford; the town used to include much of what is now Webster, on its southern border, but Oxford and neighboring Dudley both gave portions of their land to allow the creation of that town. Other towns bordering Oxford are Charlton to the west and Auburn to the north and Sutton to the east, Douglas to the southeast; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,352 people, 5,058 households, 3,596 families residing in the town. The population density was 501.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,228 housing units at an average density of 196.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.62% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.32% from other races, 1.07% from two or more races.
1.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,058 households out of which 34.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.9% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $52,233, the median income for a family was $58,973. Males had a median income of $41,727 versus $30,828 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,828. 7.8% of the population and 5.5% of families were below the poverty line.
12.5% of those under the age of 18 and 7.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The Oxford public library was established in 1869. In fiscal year 2008, the town of Oxford spent 1.5% of its budget on its public library—some $34 per person. Oxford has a public school system with two elementary schools, one middle school, one high school; the first elementary school is The Alfred M. Chaffee School, which offers a pre-school and first grade education; the second elementary school is The Clara Barton School. The Oxford Middle School offers 5th-7th grade courses, The Oxford High School offers grades 8th-12th. Oxford High School has a number of sports throughout the fall and spring seasons; some of these sports include, field hockey, cross country, soccer, indoor track, outdoor track, softball and ultimate Frisbee. Bartlett's Bridge Barton Center for Diabetes Education, site of the Clara Barton Camp for Diabetic Children and the Clara Barton National Historic Site Hodges Village Dam Hudson House Huguenot Fort Oxford High School Oxford Public Library North Oxford Mills Agnes Ballard, early woman architect and first woman elected to office in Florida was born here Clara Barton, nurse, humanitarian best remembered for organizing American Red Cross during the Civil War Dr. Alexander Campbell, member of Massachusetts Provincial Congress, Chairman of Oxford Town Committee for forming Massachusetts State Constitution Rev. John Russell Campbell Nelson H. Davis, brigadier general during American Civil War Aaron Steven Haddad, professional wrestler and actor, known by ring names Damien Sandow and Aaron Stevens Tom Herrion, former head basketball coach at College of Charleston and Marshall University Elliott P. Joslin, pioneer in diabetes research Ebenezer Learned, general in American Revolution Tony Reno, football head coach at Yale Matthew Sands, educator DiiMoc, League of Legends resident feeder Oxford