Bohuslav Reynek was one of the most important Czech poets, writers and translators of the 20th century. In 1904-1911 he studied at Grammar School in Bohemia. There he learned both German. After a short time studying at Prague University, he left Prague for Petrkov. In 1926 he married the French poet Suzanne Renaud, whose work he would translate into Czech. In 1914, he started his long-time and close cooperation with Josef Florian in the town of Stará Říše translating and publishing his own poetry, he and Suzanne had two sons, Daniel and Jiří. In 1949 his farmstead was confiscated by the new Communist state, the publishers that had heretofore published his work were closed down, he died in 1971 on his farmstead, was buried nearby in Svatý Kříž in the family grave. His poems are meditative and inspired by the Czech landscape, rural life in the manor and deep Christian humanism. What is noteworthy is the delicate way in which religious themes are refracted through images of his immediate surroundings.
He employs, for traditional forms, with inventive rhymes. Reynek was a translator of French and German. Among the poets he translated was the German expressionist Georg Trakl, it is clear that he learnt much from Trakl's techniques. After the Communist revolution of 1948, Reynek's manor was confiscated and devastated, his books were prohibited and those of public libraries liquidated because of Reynek's Christian faith, he died poor with his works banned but became a hero to young Czech poets of the 1960s and 1970s, the most prominent of which were Ivan Martin Jirous, Zbyněk Hejda and Ivan Diviš. His work was published in exile and after 1989 a critical edition of his poems was completed and edited by Torst Publishing House, Prague; the French author Sylvie Germain wrote a meditation on his life and art. Žízně, poems Rybí šupiny, poems in prose Had na sněhu, poems in prose Smutek země, poems Rty a zuby, poems Setba samot, poems Pieta, poems Podzimní motýli, poemsposthumously: Odlet vlaštovek - samizdat, in exile, many editions after 1989.selected poems: Vlídné vidiny, ed. Jaromír Zelenka definitive edition of the poems: Básnické spisy, ed. Marie Chlíbcová Bohuslav Reynek, Fish Scales, trans.
Kelly Miller and Zdenka Brodská. Bohuslav Reynek, "Shadows," trans. Justin Quinn, New Yorker. Bohuslav Reynek, trans. Xavier Galmiche. See the publishing house Romarin's catalogue. Photos of Reynek and his art-work Poems in Anthology Vrh křídel Reynek-Renaud Society, France Reynek, Bohuslav: Ostny v závoji. Praha, Paseka 2002
Châteauroux is the capital of the Indre department in central France and the second-largest town in the province of Berry, after Bourges. Its residents are called Castelroussins. Châteauroux temperatures range from an average January low of 0.8 °C to an average August high of 25.1 °C. The old town, close to the river, forms a nucleus around which a newer and more extensive quarter, bordered by boulevards, has grown up; the castle from which the city takes its name was built in the latter part of the 10th century by Raoul, prince of Déols. From 920 to 1008, the Norman raids forced the monks of the abbey of Saint-Gildas-de-Rhuys, founded in Brittany by Saint Gildas, to bring his relics to the abbey of Saint-Gildas of Châteauroux that they founded under the protection of the prince Ebbes of Déols, father of Raoul. During the Middle Ages it was the seat of a seigniory, which passed to the Chauvigny from 1207 to 1473 and was raised to the rank of countship in 1497 for Jean V d'Aumont. In 1616, when it was held by Henry II, Prince of Condé, it was raised to the rank of duchy.
In 1736 it returned to the crown, was given to Marie Anne de Mailly-Nesle, duchess of Châteauroux, by Louis XV in 1744. The present Château Raoul housing the préfecture offices dates from the 15th century. Châteauroux is one of the communes awarded the grand prize by the Concours National des Villes et Villages Fleuris, a beautification initiative begun in 1959. Château de Bouges Château Raoul Church of St. André Church of St. Martial Église Notre-Dame Convent of the Cordeliers Equinoxe La Prairie St. Gildas Le Parc de loisirs de Belle-Isle Le Tarmac Musée Bertrand Musée des Arts et Traditions Populaires Musée du Compagnonnage Public Garden and the Jardins des Cordeliers Quartier St. Christophe La Berrichonne de Châteauroux is the town's football club based in Châteauroux, founded in 1883; the team plays in Ligue 2, the second division of French football, played only one season in Ligue 1 in 1997–98. Châteauroux reached the final of the 2003–04 Coupe de France, where they were defeated 1–0 by Paris Saint-Germain, qualifying for the following season's UEFA Cup.
The team play their home fixtures at the 17,173-capacity Stade Gaston Petit. Bals'arts Festival Country Good Old Days Châteauroux Festival de théâtre "les Nocthalies" Festival Multirythmes Festival Populaire du Folklore Forum des associations La Biennale de Céramique contemporaine La Châteauroux Classic d'Indre Trophée Fenioux Les Litztomanias Rock à Belle-Isle Salon du livre de Châteauroux Stage festival de danse de Châteauroux Vendredi... Musique There are direct services from Châteauroux railway station to Paris, Orléans, Limoges and several other regional destinations; the A20 motorway connects Châteauroux with Vierzon, Brive-la-Gaillarde, Toulouse. The city offers free public transportation since 2001. Total ridership is up 208% between 2001 and 2012; the city is served by Châteauroux-Centre "Marcel Dassault" Airport, in the commune of Déols to the North. The airport is used for cargo, maintenance and light aviation but is served by seasonal charter services. Born in Châteauroux: Henri Gratien, Comte Bertrand, general of Napoleon's army Albert Aurier, symbolist poet and art critic Marcel Boussac and horse breeder Robert Falcucci, illustrator Jack Claude Nezat, City Councilor of Lésigny, initiator of Lésigny-Leingarten twinning and first President of Rencontres Franco Allemandes, Annecy Gérard Depardieu and businessman Dean Brown, jazz guitarist Mardi Jacquet, playmate Tom Darby, American journalist, Nevada Broadcast Hall of Fame inductee and blogger Gilles Sunu, footballer Roger Barbat, International Illusionist as: Le Magicien Blanc Jean Lauron Jean-Claude Guymon de la Touche Pierre Leroux Napoléon Chaix Adolphe Combanaire George-Albert Aurier Fernand Maillaud Bernard Naudin Ernest Nivet Émile Goué Abbé Paviot Édouard Ramonet Louis Suard Jean Fourton, humanist and psychoanalyst.
Former town councillor of Châteauroux. Châteauroux is twinned with: Gütersloh since 1977 Bittou since November 1985 Olsztyn since 23 February 1991 Fresno since January 1 2016. Berrichonne de Châteauroux Châteauroux-Déols "Marcel Dassault" Airport Communes of the Indre department Marie-Anne de Mailly-Nesle duchess de Châteauroux Saint-Benoît-du-Sault INSEE http://www.lameteo.org/chateauroux.html https://web.archive.org/web/20080327174957/http://www.villes-et-villages-fleuris.com/chateaur.htm This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Châteauroux". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. P. 964. City of Châteauroux Official Website
Emmanuel Levinas was a French philosopher of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry, known for his work related to Jewish philosophy, ethics and ontology. Emmanuelis Levinas was born in 1906 into a middle-class Litvak family in Kaunas, Russian Empire; because of the disruptions of World War I, the family moved to Charkow in the Region of Ukraine in 1916, where they stayed during the Russian revolutions of February and October 1917. In 1920 his family returned to the Republic of Lithuania. Levinas's early education was in Russian-language schools in Kaunas and Charkow. Upon his family's return to the Republic of Lithuania, Levinas spent two years at a Jewish gymnasium before departing for France, where he commenced his university education. Levinas began his philosophical studies at the University of Strasbourg in 1923, his lifelong friendship with the French philosopher Maurice Blanchot. In 1928, he went to the University of Freiburg for two semesters to study phenomenology under Edmund Husserl. At Freiburg he met Martin Heidegger, whose philosophy impressed him.
Levinas would in the early 1930s be one of the first French intellectuals to draw attention to Heidegger and Husserl by translating in 1931 Husserl's Cartesian Meditations and by drawing on their ideas in his own philosophy, in works such as La théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl, De l'Existence à l'Existant, En Découvrant l’Existence avec Husserl et Heidegger. In 1929 he was awarded his doctorate by the University of Strasbourg for his thesis on the meaning of intuition in the philosophy of Husserl, published in 1930. Levinas became a naturalized French citizen in 1939; when France declared war on Germany, he reported for military duty as a translator of Russian and French. During the German invasion of France in 1940, his military unit was surrounded and forced to surrender. Levinas spent the rest of World War II as a prisoner of war in a camp near Hannover in Germany. Levinas was assigned to a special barrack for Jewish prisoners, who were forbidden any form of religious worship.
Life in the Fallingbostel camp was difficult, but his status as a prisoner of war protected him from the Holocaust's concentration camps. Other prisoners saw him jotting in a notebook; these jottings were developed into his book De l'Existence à l'Existent and a series of lectures published under the title Le Temps et l'Autre. His wartime notebooks have now been published in their original form as Œuvres: Tome 1, Carnets de captivité: suivi de Écrits sur la captivité. Meanwhile, Maurice Blanchot helped Levinas's wife and daughter spend the war in a monastery, thus sparing them from the Holocaust. Blanchot, at considerable personal risk saw to it that Levinas was able to keep in contact with his immediate family through letters and other messages. Other members of Levinas's family were not so fortunate. After the Second World War, he studied the Talmud under the enigmatic Monsieur Chouchani, whose influence he acknowledged only late in his life. Levinas's first book-length essay and Infinity, was written as his Doctorat d'État primary thesis.
His secondary thesis was titled Études sur la phénoménologie. After earning his habilitation, Levinas taught at a private Jewish High School in Paris, the École normale Israélite orientale becoming its director, he began teaching at the University of Poitiers in 1961, at the Nanterre campus of the University of Paris in 1967, at the Sorbonne in 1973, from which he retired in 1979. He published his second major philosophical work, Autrement qu'être ou au-delà de l'essence, in 1974, he was a Professor at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland. In 1989 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Philosophy. According to his obituary in The New York Times, Levinas came to regret his early enthusiasm for Heidegger, after the latter joined the Nazis. Levinas explicitly frames several of his mature philosophical works as attempts to respond to Heidegger's philosophy in light of its ethical failings, his son is the composer Michaël Levinas. Among his most famous students is Rabbi Baruch Garzon from Tetouan, who learnt Philosophy with Levinas at the Sorbonne, went on to become one of the most important Rabbis of the Spanish-speaking world.
In the 1950s, Levinas emerged from the circle of intellectuals surrounding Jean Wahl as a leading French thinker. His work is based on the ethics of the Other or, in Levinas's terms, on "ethics as first philosophy". For Levinas, the Other is not knowable and cannot be made into an object of the self, as is done by traditional metaphysics. Levinas prefers to think of philosophy as the "wisdom of love" rather than the "love of wisdom". In his view, responsibility toward the Other precedes any "objective searching after truth". Levinas derives the primacy of his ethics from the experience of the encounter with the Other. For Levinas, the irreducible relation, the epiphany, of the face-to-face, the encounter with another, is a privileged phenomenon in which the other per
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC