The Casablanca Conference was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, French Morocco, from January 14 to 24, 1943, to plan the Allied European strategy for the next phase of World War II. In attendance were United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British prime minister Winston Churchill. Attending and representing the Free French forces were Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, though they played minor roles and were not part of the military planning. Premier Joseph Stalin had declined to attend, citing the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad as requiring his presence in the Soviet Union; the conference agenda addressed the specifics of tactical procedure, allocation of resources, the broader issues of diplomatic policy. The debate and negotiations produced what was known as the Casablanca Declaration, its most provocative statement of purpose, "unconditional surrender"; the doctrine of "unconditional surrender" came to represent the unified voice of implacable Allied will—the determination that the Axis powers would be fought to their ultimate defeat.
The conference produced a unified statement of the Casablanca Declaration. It announced to the world that the Allies would accept nothing less than the "unconditional surrender" of the Axis powers. Roosevelt had borrowed the term from General Ulysses S. Grant, who had communicated that stance to the Confederate commander at Fort Donelson and Fort Henry during the American Civil War. In a February 12, 1943 radio address, Roosevelt explained what he meant by unconditional surrender: "we mean no harm to the common people of the Axis nations, but we do mean to impose punishment and retribution upon their guilty, barbaric leaders". Behind the scenes, the United States and the United Kingdom were divided in the commitment to see the war through to Germany's capitulation; some source material contradicts the official reported accord between Churchill and Roosevelt, indicating that Churchill did not subscribe to the doctrine of unconditional surrender. New York Times correspondent Drew Middleton, in Casablanca at the conference revealed in his book, Retreat From Victory, that Churchill had been "startled by the announcement.
I tried to hide my surprise. But I was his ardent lieutenant". According to former U. S. Ambassador to Moscow Charles Bohlen, "Responsibility for this unconditional surrender doctrine rests exclusively with President Roosevelt", he guessed that Roosevelt made the announcement "to keep Soviet forces engaged with Germany on the Russian front, thus depleting German munitions and troops" and "to prevent Stalin from negotiating a separate peace with the Nazi regime". That the war would be fought by the Allies until the total annihilation of enemy forces was not universally welcomed. Diplomatic insiders were critical that such a stance was too unequivocal and inflexible, would prevent any opportunity for political maneuvering and would be morally debilitating to French and German resistance groups; the British felt that arriving at some accommodation with Germany would allow the German army to help fight off the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe. To Churchill and the other Allied leaders, the real obstacle to realising that mutual strategy with Germany was the leadership of Adolf Hitler.
Allen Dulles, the chief of OSS intelligence in Bern, maintained that the Casablanca Declaration was "merely a piece of paper to be scrapped without further ado if Germany would sue for peace. Hitler had to go". There is evidence that German resistance forces placed anti-Nazi government officials, were working with British intelligence, MI6, to eliminate Hitler and negotiate a peace with the Allies. One such man was head of German intelligence, the Abwehr, his persistent overtures for support from the United States were ignored by Roosevelt. Roosevelt, with advice from General George C. Marshall, the U. S. Army Chief of Staff, lobbied for a cross-Channel invasion of Europe. Churchill, with advice from the British Chiefs of Staff, led by General Sir Alan Brooke, the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, felt the time was not opportune, favored an Allied assault on the island of Sicily followed by an invasion of mainland Italy; the British argument centred on the need to pull German reserves down into Italy where, due to the poor north-south lines of communication, they could not be extracted to defend against a invasion of northwest Europe.
Additionally, by delaying the cross-Channel landing, it would mean that any invasion would be against a German army further weakened by many more months fighting on the Eastern Front against the Red Army. Throughout the conference, Roosevelt's attention was prominently focused on the Pacific War front and he faulted the British for what he felt was not a full commitment against Japanese entrenchment; the Italian strategy was agreed upon, a compromise between the two leaders, Roosevelt acceding to Churchill's approach for Europe. Churchill, in turn, pledged more troops and resources to the Pacific and Burma to reinforce positions held by Chiang Kai-shek against the Japanese; the United States would provide assistance to the British in the Pacific by supplying escorts and landing craft. Next phase of European war All possible aid would be provided to the Russian offensive Assessment of U-boat danger in the Atlantic Disposition of ships, troops in the various theatres of war Joseph Stalin and Chiang Kai-shek would be apprised of the conference agenda and resulting accords Charles de Gaulle had to be forced to attend, he met a chilly reception from Roosevelt and Churchill.
No Frenchmen were allowed to attend the military planning sessi
The Nicene Creed is a statement of belief used in Christian liturgy. It is called Nicene because it was adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea in 325. In 381, it was amended at the First Council of Constantinople, the amended form is referred to as the Nicene or the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed; the Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches use this profession of faith with the verbs in the original plural, but the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches convert those verbs to the singular. The Anglican and many Protestant denominations use the singular form, sometimes the plural; the earlier Apostles' Creed is used in the Latin West, but not in the Eastern liturgies. On Sundays and solemnities, one of these two creeds is recited in the Roman Rite Mass after the homily; the Nicene Creed is part of the profession of faith required of those undertaking important functions within the Catholic Church. In the Byzantine Rite, the Nicene Creed is sung or recited at the Divine Liturgy preceding the Anaphora, is recited daily at compline.
The purpose of a creed is to provide a doctrinal statement of correct orthodoxy. The creeds of Christianity have been drawn up at times of conflict about doctrine: acceptance or rejection of a creed served to distinguish believers and deniers of particular doctrines. For that reason, a creed was called in Greek a σύμβολον, which meant half of a broken object which, when fitted to the other half, verified the bearer's identity; the Greek word passed through Latin symbolum into English "symbol", which only took on the meaning of an outward sign of something. The Nicene Creed was adopted to resolve the Arian controversy, whose leader, Arius, a clergyman of Alexandria, "objected to Alexander's apparent carelessness in blurring the distinction of nature between the Father and the Son by his emphasis on eternal generation". In reply, Alexander accused Arius of denying the divinity of the Son and of being too "Jewish" and "Greek" in his thought. Alexander and his supporters created the Nicene Creed to clarify the key tenets of the Christian faith in response to the widespread adoption of Arius' doctrine, henceforth marked as heresy.
The Nicene Creed of 325 explicitly affirms the co-essential divinity of the Son, applying to him the term "consubstantial". The 381 version speaks of the Holy Spirit as glorified with the Father and the Son; the Athanasian Creed describes in much greater detail the relationship between Father and Holy Spirit. The earlier Apostles' Creed does not explicitly affirm the divinity of the Son and the Holy Spirit, but in the view of many who use it, this doctrine is implicit in it; the original Nicene Creed was first adopted in 325 at the First Council of Nicaea. At that time, the text ended with the words "We believe in the Holy Spirit", after which various anathemas against Arian propositions were added. F. J. A. Hort and Adolf von Harnack argued that the Nicene creed was the local creed of Caesarea recited in the council by Eusebius of Caesarea, their case relied on a specific interpretation of Eusebius' own account of the Council's proceedings. More recent scholarship has not been convinced by their arguments.
The large number of secondary divergences from the text of the creed quoted by Eusebius make it unlikely that it was used as a starting point by those who drafted the conciliar creed. Their initial text was a local creed from a Syro–Palestinian source into which they awkwardly inserted phrases to define the Nicene theology; the Eusebian Creed may thus have been either a second or one of many nominations for the Nicene Creed. Soon after the Council of Nicaea, new formulae of faith were composed, most of them variations of the Nicene Symbol, to counter new phases of Arianism; the Catholic Encyclopedia identifies at least four before the Council of Sardica, where a new form was presented and inserted in the Acts of the Council, though it was not agreed on. What is known as the "Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed" or the "Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed" received this name because of a belief that it was adopted at the Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople in 381 as a modification of the original Nicene Creed of 325.
In that light, it came to be commonly known as the "Nicene Creed". It is the only authoritative ecumenical statement of the Christian faith accepted by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and the major Protestant denominations, it differs in a number of respects, both by addition and omission, from the creed adopted at the First Council of Nicaea. The most notable difference is the additional section "And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver-of-Life, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets, and in one, holy and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come. Amen."Since the end of the 19th century, scholars have questioned the traditional explanation of the origin of this creed, passed down in the name of the council, whose official acts have been lost over time. A local council of Constantinople in 382 and the third ecumenical council made no mention of it, with the latter affirming the 325 creed of Nicaea as a valid
Simbolul was a Romanian literary and art magazine, published in Bucharest between October and December 1912. Co-founded by writers Tristan Tzara and Ion Vinea, together with visual artist Marcel Janco, while they were all high school students, the journal was a late representative of international Symbolism and the Romanian Symbolist movement. Other figures associated with the magazine were Adrian Maniu, Emil Isac and Claudia Millian, the wife of poet and Tzara's mentor Ion Minulescu. Simbolul featured illustrations by, among others and his teacher Iosif Iser. Despite going through just four issues, Simbolul helped the transition toward avant-garde currents in Romanian literature and art, by publishing anti-establishment satirical pieces, by popularizing modernist trends such as Fauvism and Cubism, its successors on the local literary scene were Vinea's moderate magazines Chemarea and Contimporanul, while Tzara and Janco evolved to a more radical stance, taking part in founding the avant-garde trend known as Dada.
Around 1907, soon after the violent quelling of the peasants' revolt, left-wing authors such as Tudor Arghezi, Gala Galaction, Vasile Demetrius and N. D. Cocea began issuing a series of magazines which, in addition to following a radical political line, accommodated a modernist style; this approach contrasted with the more traditional approach favored by the Poporanist group and its Viața Românească journal. Another important factor in the evolution from Symbolism to radical modernism between 1895 and 1920 was the literary and artistic circle formed around controversial politician and author Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, which grouped together many of Simbolul's contributors. Starting in 1910, artistic innovation had manifested itself in art, with the activities of Tinerimea Artistică society and the art chronicles authored by Bogdan-Pitești, Arghezi and Theodor Cornel. Janco, at the time Iser's pupil, exhibited his first drawings at the Tinerimea Artistică Youth Salon in April 1912; the journal built on the legacy of other short-lived literary publications, in particular Revista Celor L'alți and Insula, both of, founded by poet Ion Minulescu.
A follower of French Symbolist critic Rémy de Gourmont, Minulescu had launched radical appeals to innovation, which some critics consider the first expressions of Romanian avant-gardism, which established connections not just with Symbolism, but with the Futurism of Italian writer Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. However, literary critic Paul Cernat notes, Ion Minulescu "did not have the virtues of an ideologue and a theorist." Thus, Simbolul was called by Cernat "a turning plate between the Symbolism of Insula contributors and pre-avant-gardist Post-symbolism." The three founders of the magazine, which published its six issues after October 25, 1912, were all in their teenage years. Tzara, known under his birth name Samuel Rosenstock and his early pseudonym S. Samyro, was sixteen and enrolled at the Sfântul Gheorghe High School; the magazine never published an editorial cassette, but a note in issue 3 specified that "all editing aspects are in the care of Mr. S. Samyro". Tzara and Janco were the publication's main financial backers.
Samyro debuted as a poet in Simbolul, contributing Symbolist pieces which, according to Paul Cernat, showed the influence of Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck, as well as that of Minulescu. Swedish literary historian Tom Sandqvist notes: "In his own poems in Simbolul, Samuel Rosenstock had quite a distance still to walk before he turned his back on symbolism". In all, Tzara published four lyrical pieces, one in each issue, pieces which Cernat deemed "naively musical", which other critics found so uncharacteristic that they believed them to be pastiche; the pieces are: Pe râul vieții, Cântec and Dans de fée. Ion Eugen Iovanaki, who adopted the name Ion Vinea, was a seventeen-year-old from Giurgiu, who studied at the Saint Sava National College, who first met Adrian Maniu when the latter was employed as his tutor. According to Cernat, Iovanaki's poems show the influence of Symbolism and its precursor, being inspired by or adapted from the work of French poets Albert Samain and Charles Baudelaire.
They include the first issue's Cetate moartă and Sonet, as well as the English-titled Lewdness, dedicated to an unnamed prostitute, Mare. The latter was the first in a series dedicated to seascapes and marine art, referenced Iser's early paintings. Maniu and Emil Isac took charge of the satirical side of Simbolul. Maniu contributed a series of humorous prose poems, published in his volume Figurile de ceară. Sandqvist writes that, although influenced by Symbolism, Maniu was by experimenting with "absurdism", something he believes is characteristic for both Figurile de ceară and the Simbolul story Mirela. Vinea's Saint Sava colleague Poldi Chapier, a future journalist and promoter of Marcel Janco's art contributed
Symbol (liturgical theology)
Symbol from Greek language sunbolon that means a seal, signet ring, legal bond or warrant. From sunballein, to throw together, compare. A name used beginning in the fourth or fifth century, in the East and West, for the declaratory creeds the Apostles' Creed suggesting the pact made between the baptismal candidate and God, but more deriving from the baptismal confession of faith as a sign and symbol of belief in the Triune God
Symbol is a studio album by Japanese electronica artist Susumu Yokota, released in 2005. This album is distinctive from others in his discography by being composed of samples from classical orchestral pieces, such as Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Suite and Saint-Saëns's Carnival of the Animals, as well as more modern compositions by John Cage and Meredith Monk; the cover art is a detail from the 1896 painting Hylas and the Nymphs by John William Waterhouse
In relation to the chemical elements, a symbol is a code for a chemical element. Symbols for chemical elements consist of one or two letters from the Latin alphabet and are written with the first letter capitalised. Earlier symbols for chemical elements stem from Greek vocabulary. For some elements, this is because the material was known in ancient times, while for others, the name is a more recent invention. For example, Pb is the symbol for lead; some symbols come from other sources, like W for tungsten, not known in Roman times. A 3-letter temporary symbol may be assigned to a newly synthesized element. For example, "Uno" was the temporary symbol for hassium which had the temporary name of unniloctium, based on its atomic number being 8 greater than 100. There are some historical symbols that are no longer used. In addition to the letter for the element itself, additional details may be added to the symbol as superscripts or subscripts a particular isotope, ionization or oxidation state, or other atomic detail.
A few isotopes have their own specific symbols rather than just an isotopic detail added to their element symbol. Attached subscripts or superscripts specifying a nuclide or molecule have the following meanings and positions: The nucleon number is shown in the left superscript position; this number defines the specific isotope. Various letters, such as "m" and "f" may be used here to indicate a nuclear isomer. Alternately, the number here can represent a specific spin state; these details can be omitted. The proton number may be indicated in the left subscript position; the atomic number is redundant to the chemical element, but is sometimes used to emphasize the change of numbers of nucleons in a nuclear reaction. If necessary, a state of ionization or an excited state may be indicated in the right superscript position; the number of atoms of an element in a molecule or chemical compound is shown in the right subscript position. If this number is one, it is omitted - the number one is implicitly understood if unspecified.
A radical is indicated by a dot on the right side. This is omitted unless relevant to a certain context because it is deducible from the charge and atomic number, as true for nonbonded valence electrons in skeletal structures. In Chinese, each chemical element has a dedicated character created for the purpose. However, Latin symbols are used in formulas. A list of current, dated, as well as proposed and historical signs and symbols is included here with its signification. Given is each element's atomic number, atomic weight or the atomic mass of the most stable isotope and period numbers on the periodic table, etymology of the symbol. Hazard pictographs are another type of symbols used in chemistry. Antimatter atoms are denoted by a bar above the symbol for their matter counterpart, so e.g. H is the symbol for antihydrogen; the following is a list of symbols and names used or suggested for elements, including symbols for placeholder names and names given by discredited claimants for discovery.
The following is a list of pictographic symbols employed to symbolize elements known since ancient times. Not included in this list are symbolic representations of substances called elements which are known today to be multi-atomic. Not included are symbolic representations used for elements in other languages such as the Chinese characters for elements. Modern alphabetic notation was introduced in 1814 by Jöns Jakob Berzelius; the following is a list of isotopes of elements given in the previous tables which have been designated unique symbols. By this it is meant that a comprehensive list of current systematic symbols are not included in the list and can instead be found in the Isotope index chart; the symbols for the named isotopes of hydrogen and tritium are still in use today, as is thoron for radon-220. Heavy water and other deuterated solvents are used in chemistry, it is convenient to use a single character rather than a symbol with a subscript in these cases; the practice continues with tritium compounds.
When the name of the solvent is given, a lowercase d is sometimes used. For example, d6-benzene and C6D6 can be used instead of C6H6; the symbols for isotopes of elements other than hydrogen and radon are no longer in use within the scientific community. Many of these symbols were designated during the early years of radiochemistry, several isotopes bear placeholder names using the early naming system devised by Ernest Rutherford. See Skeletal formula § Pseudoelement symbols. General: From organic chemistry: Exotic atoms: List of chemical elements naming controversies List of elements Nuclear notation Element name etymologies. Retrieved July 15, 2005. Atomic Weights of the Elements 2001, Pure Appl. Chem. 75
The metric system is an internationally recognised decimalised system of measurement. It is in widespread use, where it is adopted, it is the only or most common system of weights and measures, it is now known as the International System of Units. It is used to measure everyday things such as the mass of a sack of flour, the height of a person, the speed of a car, the volume of fuel in its tank, it is used in science and trade. In its modern form, it consists of a set of base units including metre for length, kilogram for mass, second for time and ampere for electrical current, a few others, which together with their derived units, can measure any physical quantity. Metric system may refer to other systems of related base and derived units defined before the middle of the 20th century, some of which are still in limited use today; the metric system was designed to have properties that make it easy to use and applicable, including units based on the natural world, decimal ratios, prefixes for multiples and sub-multiples, a structure of base and derived units.
It is a coherent system, which means that its units do not introduce conversion factors not present in equations relating quantities. It has a property called rationalisation that eliminates certain constants of proportionality in equations of physics; the units of the metric system taken from observable features of nature, are now defined by phenomena such as the microwave frequency of a caesium atomic clock which measures seconds. One unit, the kilogram, remains defined in terms of a man-made artefact, but scientists voted to change the definition to one based on Planck's constant via a Kibble balance; the new definition is expected to be formally propagated on 20 May 2019. While there are numerous named derived units of the metric system, such as watt and lumen, other common quantities such as velocity and acceleration do not have their own unit, but are defined in terms of existing base and derived units such as metres per second for velocity. Though other or widespread systems of weights and measures continue to exist, such as the British imperial system and the US customary system of weights and measures, in those systems most or all of the units are now defined in terms of the metric system, such as the US foot, now a defined decimal fraction of a metre.
The metric system is extensible, new base and derived units are defined as needed in fields such as radiology and chemistry. The most recent derived unit, the katal, for catalytic activity, was added in 1999. Recent changes are directed toward defining base units in terms of invariant constants of physics to provide more precise realisations of units for advances in science and industry; the modern metric system consists of four electromechanical base units representing seven fundamental dimensions of measure: length, time, thermodynamic temperature, luminous intensity, quantity of substance. The units are: the metre for length kilogram for mass second for time ampere for electromagnetism kelvin for temperature candela for luminous intensity mole for quantityTogether they are sufficient for measuring any known quantity, without reference to further quantities or phenomena; the metre, ampere and mole are all defined in terms of other base units. For example, the speed of light is defined as 299,792,458 metres per second, the metre is derived from that constant and the definition of a second.
As a result, in dimensional analysis, they remain wholly separate concepts. There are 22 derived units with special names in the metric system, these are defined in terms of the base units or other named derived units. Eight of these units are electromagnetic quantities: volt, a unit of electrical potential ohm, a unit of electrical resistance tesla, a unit of magnetic flux density weber, a unit of magnetic flux farad, a unit of electrical capacitance henry, a unit of electrical inductance siemens, a unit of electrical conductance coulomb, a unit of electrical chargeFour of these units are mechanical quantities: watt, a unit of mechanical or electrical power newton, a unit of mechanical force joule, a unit of mechanical, electrical or thermodynamic energy pascal, a unit of pressureFive units represent measures of electromagnetic radiation and radioactivity: becquerel, a unit of radioactive decay sievert, a unit of absorbed ionising radiation gray, a unit of ionising radiation lux, a unit of luminous flux lumen, a unit of luminous intensityTwo units are measures of circular arcs and spherical surfaces: radian, a unit of circular arc steradian, a unit of spherical surface areaThree units are miscellaneous: degree Celsius, a unit of thermodynamic temperature katal, a unit of catalytic activity hertz, a unit of cycles per second Although SI, as published by the CGPM, should, in theory, meet all the requirements of commerce and technology, certain customary units of measure have acquired established positions within the world community.
In order that such units are used around the world, the CGPM catalogued such units in Tables 6 to 9 of the SI brochure. These categories are: Non-SI units accepted for use with the International System of Units; this list includes the hour and minute, the angular measures, the historic metric units, the litre and hectare Non-SI units whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally. This list includes various units of measure used in atomic and nuclear physics and in astronomy such as the dalton, the electron mass, the electron volt, the astronomical unit