United States Government Publishing Office
The United States Government Publishing Office is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government. The office produces and distributes information products and services for all three branches of the Federal Government, including U. S. passports for the Department of State as well as the official publications of the Supreme Court, the Congress, the Executive Office of the President, executive departments, independent agencies. An act of Congress changed the office's name to its current form in 2014; the Government Printing Office was created by congressional joint resolution on June 23, 1860. It began operations March 4, 1861, with 350 employees and reached a peak employment of 8,500 in 1972; the agency began transformation to computer technology in the 1980s. For its entire history, GPO has occupied the corner of North Capitol Street NW and H Street NW in the District of Columbia; the large red brick building that houses the GPO was erected in 1903 and is unusual in being one of the few large, red brick government structures in a city where most government buildings are marble and granite.
An additional structure was attached to its north in years. The activities of GPO are defined in the public printing and documents chapters of Title 44 of the United States Code; the Director, who serves as the head of GPO, is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Director selects a Superintendent of Documents; the Superintendent of Documents is in charge of the dissemination of information at the GPO. This is accomplished through the Federal Depository Library Program, the Cataloging and Indexing Program and the Publication Sales Program, as well as operation of the Federal Citizen Information Center in Pueblo, Colorado. Adelaide Hasse was the founder of the Superintendent of Documents classification system. GPO first used 100 percent recycled paper for the Congressional Record and Federal Register from 1991-1997, under Public Printers Robert Houk and Michael DiMario. GPO resumed using recycled paper in 2009. In March 2011, GPO issued a new illustrated official history covering the agency's 150 years of Keeping America Informed.
With demand for print publications falling and a move underway to digital document production and preservation, the name of the GPO was changed to "Government Publishing Office" in a provision of an omnibus government funding bill passed by Congress in December 2014. Following signature of this legislation by President Barack Obama, the name change took place on December 17, 2014. By law, the Public Printer heads the GPO; the position of Public Printer traces its roots back to Benjamin Franklin and the period before the American Revolution, when he served as "publick printer", whose job was to produce official government documents for Pennsylvania and other colonies. When the agency was renamed in December 2014 the title "Public Printer" was changed to "Director". Davita Vance-Cooks was therefore the first "Director" of GPO. Public Printers: Almon M. Clapp John D. Defrees Sterling P. Rounds Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer Thomas E. Benedict Frank W. Palmer, O. J. Ricketts Charles A. Stillings, William S. Rossiter, Capt. Henry T. Brian John S. Leech Samuel B. Donnelly Cornelius Ford George H. Carter Augustus E. Giegengack, John J. Deviny John J. Deviny, Phillip L. Cole Raymond Blattenberger, John M. Wilson, Felix E. Cristofane James L. Harrison Adolphus N. Spence, Harry J. Humphrey, L.
T. Golden Thomas F. McCormick John J. Boyle, Samuel Saylor Danford L. Sawyer, Jr. William J. Barrett Ralph E. Kennickell, Jr. Joseph E. Jenifer Robert Houk, Michael F. DiMario Michael F. DiMario Bruce James, William H. Turri Robert C. Tapella William J. Boarman Davita Vance-Cooks GPO contracts out much of the federal government's printing but prints the official journals of government in-house, including: Code of Federal Regulations Public and Private Laws The Congressional Record The Federal Register, the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, notices of Federal agencies and organizations. United States Code United States Statutes at Large House Journal and Senate Journal GPO has been producing U. S. passports since the 1920s. The United States Department of State began issuing e-passports in 2006; the e-Passport includes an electronic chip embedded in the cover that contains the same information, printed in the passport: name and place of birth, dates of passport issuance and expiration, passport number, photo of the bearer.
GPO produces the blank e-Passport, while the Department of State receives and processes applications and issues individual passports. GPO ceased production of legacy passports in May 2007, shifting production to e-passports. In March 2008, the Washington Times published a three-part story about the outsourcing of electronic passports to overseas
Gouverneur Morris I was an American statesman, a Founding Father of the United States, a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution. He wrote the Preamble to the United States Constitution and has been called the "Penman of the Constitution." In an era when most Americans thought of themselves as citizens of their respective states, Morris advanced the idea of being a citizen of a single union of states. He represented New York in the United States Senate from 1800 to 1803. Morris was born into a wealthy landowning family in New York City. After attending Columbia College, he studied law under Judge William Smith and earned admission to the bar, he was elected to the New York Provincial Congress before serving in the Continental Congress. After losing re-election to Congress, he moved to Philadelphia and became the assistant superintendent of finance of the United States, he represented Pennsylvania at the 1787 Philadelphia Convention, where he advocated a strong central government.
He served on the committee. After the ratification of the Constitution, Morris served as Minister Plenipotentiary to France, he criticized the execution of Marie Antoinette. Morris returned to the United States in 1798 and won election to the Senate in 1800, affiliating with the Federalist Party, he lost re-election in 1803. After leaving the Senate, he served as chairman of the Erie Canal Commission. Morris was born in New York City on January 30, 1752, the son of Lewis Morris, Jr. and his second wife, Sarah Gouverneur. Morris' first name derived from his mother's surname. According to Abigail Adams, Morris' first name was pronounced "governeer". Morris' half-brother Lewis Morris was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Another half-brother, Staats Long Morris, was a loyalist and major-general in the British army during the American Revolution, his nephew, Lewis Richard Morris, served in the Vermont legislature and in the United States Congress. His grandnephew was William M. Meredith, United States Secretary of the Treasury under 12th U.
S. President Zachary Taylor. Morris' father, Lewis Morris, was a wealthy landowner and judge, thus allowing Morris, a gifted scholar, to enroll at King's College, now Columbia University in New York City, at age 12, he graduated in 1768 and received a Master's degree in 1771. He studied law with Judge William Smith and attained admission to the bar in 1775. On May 8, 1775, Morris was elected to represent his family household in southern Westchester County, in the New York Provincial Congress; as a member of the congress, he, along with most of his fellow delegates, concentrated on turning the colony into an independent state. However, his advocacy of independence brought him into conflict with his family, as well as with his mentor, William Smith, who had abandoned the patriot cause when it pressed toward independence. Morris was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1777–78. After the Battle of Long Island in August 1776, the British seized New York City, his mother, a loyalist, gave his family's estate, located across the Harlem River from Manhattan, to the British for military use.
Morris was appointed as a delegate to the Continental Congress and took his seat in Congress on 28 January 1778. He was selected to a committee in charge of coordinating reforms of the military with George Washington. After witnessing the army encamped at Valley Forge, he was so appalled by the conditions of the troops that he became the spokesman for the Continental Army in congress and subsequently helped enact substantial reforms in its training and financing, he signed the Articles of Confederation in 1778. In 1778, when the Conway Cabal was at its peak, some members of the Continental Congress attempted a no-confidence vote against George Washington. If it had succeeded George Washington would have been court-martialed and dismissed as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army. At that time, Gouverneur Morris cast the decisive tie-breaking vote in favor of keeping George Washington as Commander-in-Chief. In 1779, he was defeated for re-election to Congress because his advocacy of a strong central government was at odds with the decentralist views prevalent in New York.
Defeated in his home state, he moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to work as a lawyer and merchant. In 1780, Morris had a carriage accident in Philadelphia, his left leg was amputated below the knee. Despite an automatic exemption from military duty because of his handicap and his service in the legislature, he joined a special "briefs" club for the protection of New York City, a forerunner of the modern New York Guard. In Philadelphia, he was appointed assistant superintendent of finance of the United States, serving under Robert Morris, he was selected as a Pennsylvania delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. During the Convention, he was a friend and ally of George Washington and others who favored a strong central government. Morris was elected to serve on a committee of five who drafted the final language of the proposed constitution. Catherine Drinker Bowen, in Miracle at Philadelphia, called Morris the committee's "amanuensis," meaning that it was his pen, responsible for most of the draft, as well as its final polished form.
It is said by some that Morris was "an aristocrat to the core," who believed that "there never was, nor will be a civilized Society without an Aristocracy". It is alleged that he thought that common people were incapable of self-government because he feared that the poor would sell their vo
A gold certificate in general is a certificate of ownership that gold owners hold instead of storing the actual gold. It has both a historic meaning as a U. S. paper currency and a current meaning as a way to invest in gold. Banks may issue gold certificates for gold, allocated or unallocated. Unallocated gold certificates are a form of fractional-reserve banking and do not guarantee an equal exchange for metal in the event of a run on the issuing bank's gold on deposit. Allocated gold certificates should be correlated with specific numbered bars, although it is difficult to determine whether a bank is improperly allocating a single bar to more than one party; the gold certificate was used from 1863 to 1933 in the United States as a form of paper currency. Each certificate gave its holder title to a corresponding amount of gold coin at the statutory rate of $20.67 per troy ounce established by the Coinage Act of 1834. Therefore, this type of paper currency was intended to represent actual gold coinage.
In 1933 the practice of redeeming these notes for gold coins was ended by the U. S. government and until 1964 it was illegal to possess these notes. After the gold recall in 1933, gold certificates were withdrawn from circulation; as noted above, it was illegal to own them. That fact, public fear that the notes would be devalued and made obsolete, resulted in the majority of circulating notes being retired. In general, the notes are scarce and valuable examples in "new" condition; the early history of United States gold certificates is somewhat hazy. They were authorized under the Act of 3 March 1863, but unlike the United States Notes authorized, they were not printed until 1865, they did not have a series date, were hand-dated upon issue. "Issue" meant that the government took in the equivalent value in gold, the first several series of gold certificates promised to pay the amount only to the depositor, explicitly identified on the certificate itself. The first issue featured a vignette of an eagle uniformly across all denominations.
Several issues featured various portraits of historical figures. The reverse sides featured abstract designs; the only exception was the $20 of 1865. From 1862 to 1879, United States Notes were legal tender and the dominant paper currency but were not convertible at face value into gold and traded at a discount; however some transactions, such as customs duties and interest on the federal debt, were required to be made in gold. Thus the early gold certificates were acceptable in some transactions where United States Notes were not, but were not used in general circulation due to their premium value. After 1879, the government was willing to redeem United States Notes at face value in gold, bringing the United States Notes into parity with gold certificates, making the latter a candidate for general circulation; the Series of 1882 was the first series, payable to the bearer. This was the case with all gold certificate series from that point on, with the exception of 1888, 1900, 1934; the series of 1888 and 1900 were issued to specific depositors, as before.
The series of 1882 had the same portraits as the series of 1875, but a different back design, featuring a series of eagles, as well as complex border work. Gold certificates, along with all other U. S. currency, were made in two sizes—a larger size from 1865 to 1928, a smaller size from 1928 to 1934. The backs of all large-sized notes and the small-sized notes of the Series of 1934 were orange, resulting in the nickname "goldbacks"; the backs of the Series of 1928 bills were green, identical to the corresponding denomination of the more familiar Federal Reserve Notes, including the usual buildings on the $10 through $100 designs and the less-known abstract designs of denominations $500 and up. With the 1934 issue, the promise to pay was amended with the phrase "as authorized by law", as redemption was now restricted to only certain entities; the phrase "in gold coin" was changed to "in gold" as the physical amount of gold represented would vary with changes in the government price. Both large and small size gold certificates feature a gold treasury seal on the obverse, just as U.
S. Notes feature a red seal, silver certificates a blue seal, Federal Reserve Notes a green seal. Another interesting note is the Series of 1900. Along with the $5,000 and $10,000 of the Series of 1888, all 1900 bills have been redeemed, no longer have legal tender status. Most were destroyed, with the exception of a number of 1900 $10,000 bills that were in a box in a post office near the U. S. Treasury in Washington, D. C. There was a fire on 13 December 1935, employees threw burning boxes out into the street; the box of canceled high-denomination currency burst open. Much to everyone's dismay, they were worthless. There are several hundred outstanding, their ownership is technically illegal, as they are stolen property. However, due to their lack of intrinsic value, the government has not prosecuted any owners, citing more important concerns, they carry a collector value in the numismatic market and, as noted in Bowers and Sundermans' The 100 Greatest American Currency Notes, the only United States notes that can be purchased for less than their face value.
This is the only example of "circulating" U. S. cu
Richard Henry Lee
Richard Henry Lee was an American statesman and Founding Father from Virginia best known for the Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation, his "resolution for independency" of June 1776 led to the United States Declaration of Independence, which Lee signed, he served a one-year term as the President of the Congress of the Confederation, was a United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as the second President pro tempore of the upper house. He was a member of the Lee family, a influential family in Virginia politics, he was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia to Col. Thomas Lee and Hannah Harrison Ludwell Lee on January 20, 1732, he was raised and came from a line of military officers and legislators. His father, Thomas Lee, was the governor of Virginia before his death in 1750. Lee spent most of his early life in Virginia with his family at Stratford Hall.
Here he was tutored and taught in a variety of skills, witnessed the beginning of political career as his father sent him around to neighboring planters with the intention for Lee to become associated with neighboring men of like prominence. In 1748, at 16, Lee left Virginia for Yorkshire, England, to complete his formal education at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Wakefield. Both of his parents died in 1750 and, in 1753, after touring Europe, he returned to Virginia to help his brothers settle the estate his parents had left behind. In 1757, Lee was appointed justice of the peace in Westmoreland County. In 1758 he was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses. An early advocate of independence, Lee became one of the first to create Committees of Correspondence among the many independence-minded Americans in the various colonies. In 1766 ten years before the American Revolutionary War, Lee is credited with having authored the Westmoreland Resolution, publicly signed by prominent landowners who met at Leedstown, Westmoreland County, Virginia on February 27, 1766.
This resolution was signed by four brothers of George Washington as well as Gilbert Campbell. In August 1774, Lee was chosen as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia. In Lee's Resolution on June 7, 1776 during the Second Continental Congress, Lee put forth the motion to the Continental Congress to declare Independence from Great Britain, which read: Resolved: That these United Colonies are, of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, ought to be dissolved. Lee had returned to Virginia by the time Congress voted on and adopted the Declaration of Independence, but he signed the document when he returned to Congress. Lee was elected the sixth President of Congress under the Articles of Confederation on November 30, 1784, in the French Arms Tavern, New Jersey. On January 11, 1785, Congress convened in the old New York City Hall and Lee presided over that Congress until November 23, 1785.
Although, he was not paid a salary for his office as president, his household expenses were paid by Congress in the amount of $12,203.13. Lee's Congress was most active in 1784, passing numerous legislation, including establishing a United States dollar tied to the Spanish dollar as the national currency, his most pressing issue, was to settle the states' territorial disputes over the Northwest Territory. Throughout his term, Lee remained steadfast that the release of states' territorial claims on the Northwest Territory would enable the federal government to fund itself with land sales, he believed that the urgency of this measure was paramount because borrowing more foreign money was no longer prudent, he abhorred the movement to establish federal taxes. The sale of these vast federal lands, he concluded, was the nation's only hope to pay off the war debt and adequately fund federal government. Debate began on the expansion of the Ordinance of 1784 and Thomas Jefferson's survey method "hundreds of ten geographical miles square, each mile containing 6086 and 4-10ths of a foot" and "sub-divided into lots of one mile square each, or 850 and 4-10ths of an acre" on April 14.
On May 3, 1785, William Grayson of Virginia made a motion seconded by James Monroe to change "seven miles square" to "six miles square", the current US Survey system was born. Lee wrote to his friend and colleague Samuel Adams: I hope we shall shortly finish our plan for disposing of the western Lands to discharge the oppressive public debt created by the war & I think that if this source of revenue be rightly managed, that these republics may soon be discharged from that state of oppression and distress that an indebted people must invariably feel; the states relinquished their right to this "test tract" of land, the Land Ordinance of 1785 was passed on May 20, 1785. The federal government, lacked the resources to manage the newly surveyed lands because Native Americans refused to relinquish a large percentage of the platted land, most of the territory remained too dangerous for settlement; this either required troops to eject the Native Americans or capital to purchase their land "fairly", insuring the peaceful sale and settlement.
Additionally the small amount of federal land, not in dispute by the Native Americans was enthusiastically being occupied by western settlers that had no faith in or respect for the Congress as a federal authority. The settlers claimed the land as squatters, the Congress was unable to muster the capital to send magistrates let a
Hawaii overprint note
A Hawaii overprint note is one of a series of banknotes issued during World War II as an emergency issue after the attack on Pearl Harbor. The intent of the overprints was to distinguish US currency captured by Japanese forces in the event of an invasion of Hawaii and render the bills useless. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, military officials surmised that in the event of an invasion of Hawaii, Japanese forces would have access to a considerable amount of US currency that could be seized from financial institutions or private individuals. Faced with this scenario, on January 10, 1942, Military Governor Delos Carleton Emmons issued an order to recall all regular US paper money in the islands, save for set caps on how much money both individuals and businesses could possess at any time. On June 25, 1942, new overprinted notes were first issued. Series 1935A $1 silver certificate, Series 1934 $5 and $20 Federal Reserve Notes, Series 1934A $5, $10, $20 Federal Reserve Notes from the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco were issued with brown treasury seals and serial numbers.
Overprints of the word HAWAII were made. The hope was that should there have been a Japanese invasion, the US government could declare any Hawaii-stamped notes worthless, due to their easy identification. With this issue, military officials made the use of non-overprinted notes redundant and ordered all Hawaii residents to turn in unstamped notes for Hawaii-stamped notes by July 15. Starting from August 15, 1942, no other paper currency could be used except under special permission. Faced with a $200 million stockpile of US currency, military officials opted to destroy all the recalled currency instead of overcoming the logistical problems of shipping the currency back to the mainland. At first, a local crematorium was pressed into service to burn the notes. To ensure complete destruction, a fine mesh was placed on the top of the smokestacks to catch and recirculate unburnt scraps of currency escaping the fire. Progress on the destruction was slow, pressed with time, the bigger furnaces of the Aiea sugar mill were requisitioned to help burn the currency.
The notes and issuance continued in use until October 21, 1944. Many notes were saved as souvenirs by servicemen. Of the series, the $5 note is considered the most desirable, as a little over 9 million examples were printed. Over 35 million $1 notes were made, making them the most common of the series. Star notes exist for all the notes, command a sizable premium. Budnick, Rich. Hawaii's Forgotten History: the good...the bad...the embarrassing. Aloha Press. ISBN 0-944081-04-5. Friedberg, Arthur L. & Ira S. The Official Red Book. A Guide Book Of United States Paper Money: Complete Source for History and Prices Whitman Publishing ISBN 0-7948-2362-9 Simpson, MacKinnon. Hawaii Homefront: Life in the Islands during World War II. Bess Press. ISBN 978-1-57306-281-7
Fractional currency referred to as shinplasters, was introduced by the United States federal government following the outbreak of the Civil War. These fractional notes were in use between 21 August 1862 and 15 February 1876, issued in 3, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 cent denominations across five issuing periods; the complete type set below is part of the National Numismatic Collection, housed at the National Museum of American History, part of the Smithsonian Institution. The Civil War economy catalyzed a shortage of United States coinage—gold and silver coins were hoarded given their intrinsic bullion value relative to irredeemable paper currency at the time. In late 1861, to help finance the Civil War, the U. S. government borrowed gold coin from New York City banks in exchange for Seven-thirties treasury notes and the New York banks sold them to the public for gold to repay the loan. In December 1861, the Trent Affair shook public confidence with the threat of war on a second front; the United States Department of the Treasury suspended specie payments and banks in New York City stopped redeeming paper money for gold and silver.
In the absence of gold and silver coin, the premium for specie began to devalue paper currency. After the New York banks suspended specie payments the premium on gold rose from 1–3% over paper in early January 1862 to 9% over paper in June 1862, by which time one paper dollar was worth 91.69 cents in gold. This fueled currency speculation, created significant disruption across businesses and trade. Alternate methods of providing small change included the reintroduction of Spanish quarter dollars in Philadelphia, cutting dollar bills in quarters or halves, refusing to provide change, or the issuance of locally issued shinplasters, forbidden by law in many states. Treasurer of the United States Francis E. Spinner has been credited with finding the solution to the shortage of coinage: he created postage currency. Postage currency was the first of five issues of US Post Office fractional paper money printed in 5-cent, 10-cent, 25-cent, 50-cent denominations and issued from 21 August 1862 through 27 May 1863.
Spinner proposed using postage stamps, affixed to Treasury paper, with his signature on the bottom. Based on this initiative, Congress supported a temporary solution involving fractional currency and on 17 July 1862 President Lincoln signed the Postage Currency Bill into law; the intent, was not that stamps should be a circulating currency. The design of the First Issue was directly based on Spinner’s original handmade examples; some varieties had perforated stamp-like edge. While not legal tender, postage currency could be exchanged for United States Notes in $5 lots and were receivable in payment of all dues to the United States, up to $5. Subsequent issues would no longer include images of stamps and were referred to as Fractional Currency. Despite the July 1862 legislation, postage stamps remained a form of currency until postage currency gained momentum in the spring of 1863. In 1863, Secretary Chase asked for a new fractional currency, harder to counterfeit than the postage currency; the new fractional currency notes were different from the 1862 postage currency issues.
They were more colorful with printing on the reverse, several anti-counterfeiting measures were employed: experimental paper, adding surcharges, blue end paper, silk fibers, watermarks to name a few. Fractional currency shields which had single sided specimens were sold to banks to provide a standard for comparison for detecting counterfeits. Postage and fractional currency remained in use until 1876, when Congress authorized the minting of fractional silver coins to redeem the outstanding fractional currency. Inspiration and proof for the First Issue Three people were depicted on fractional currency during their lifetime: Francis E. Spinner, William P. Fessenden, Spencer M. Clark. Both Spinner and Clark decided to have their portrait depicted on currency, which created controversy. Republican Representative Martin R. Thayer of Pennsylvania was an outspoken critic, suggesting that the Treasury's privilege of portrait selection for currency was being abused. On 7 April 1866, led by Thayer, Congress enacted legislation stating "that no portrait or likeness of any living person hereafter engraved, shall be placed upon any of the bonds, notes, fractional or postal currency of the United States."
On the date of passage, the plates for the 15-cent note depicting William Tecumseh Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant had not been completed and thus fell under the scope of the new law; the Sherman-Grant notes exist only as specimens. Federal Reserve System List of people on United States banknotes Shinplaster Treasury Note United States postal notes
United States Mint
The United States Mint is a unit of the Department of Treasury responsible for producing coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion. It does not produce paper money; the Mint was created in Philadelphia in 1792, soon joined by other centers, whose coins were identified by their own mint marks. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, placed within the Department of State. Per the terms of the Coinage Act, the first Mint building was in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States. Today, the Mint's headquarters are in Washington D. C.. It operates mint facilities in Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point, New York and a bullion depository at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Official Mints were once located in Carson City, Nevada. Part of the State Department, the Mint was made an independent agency in 1799, it converted precious metals into standard coin for anyone's account with no seigniorage charge beyond the refining costs.
Under the Coinage Act of 1873, the Mint became part of the Department of the Treasury. It was placed under the auspices of the Treasurer of the United States in 1981. Legal tender coins of today are minted for the Treasury's account; the first Director of the United States Mint was renowned scientist David Rittenhouse from 1792 to 1795. The position was held most by Edmund C. Moy until his resignation effective January 9, 2011; the position was left vacant until April 2018. Henry Voigt was the first Superintendent and Chief Coiner, is credited with some of the first U. S. coin designs. Another important position at the Mint is that of Chief Engraver, held by such men as Frank Gasparro, William Barber, Charles E. Barber, James B. Longacre, Christian Gobrecht; the Mint has operated several branch facilities throughout the United States since the Philadelphia Mint opened in 1792, in a building known as "Ye Olde Mint". With the opening of branch mints came the need for mint marks, an identifying feature on the coin to show its facility of origin.
The first of these branch mints were the Charlotte, North Carolina, Dahlonega and New Orleans, Louisiana branches. Both the Charlotte and Dahlonega Mints were opened to facilitate the conversion of local gold deposits into coinage, minted only gold coins; the Civil War closed both these facilities permanently. The New Orleans Mint closed at the beginning of the Civil War and did not re-open until the end of Reconstruction in 1879. During its two stints as a minting facility, it produced both gold and silver coinage in eleven different denominations, though only ten denominations were minted there at one time. A new branch facility was opened in Carson City, Nevada, in 1870. Like the Charlotte and Dahlonega branches, the Carson City Mint was opened to take advantage of local precious metal deposits, in this case, a large vein of silver. Though gold coins were produced there, no base metal coins were. In 1911 the Mint had a female acting director, Margaret Kelly, at that point the highest paid woman on the government's payroll.
She stated that women were paid within the bureau. A branch of the U. S. mint was established in 1920 in Manila in the Philippines, a U. S. territory. To date, the Manila Mint is the only U. S. mint established outside the continental U. S. and was responsible for producing coins. This branch was in production from 1920 to 1922, again from 1925 through 1941. Coins struck by this mint bear either the M mintmark or none at all, similar to the Philadelphia mint at the time. A branch mint in The Dalles, was commissioned in 1864. Construction was halted in 1870, the facility never produced any coins, although the building still stands. There are four active coin-producing mints: Philadelphia, San Francisco, West Point; the Mint's largest facility is the Philadelphia Mint. The current facility, which opened in 1969, is the fourth Philadelphia Mint; the first was built in 1792, when Philadelphia was still the U. S. capital, began operation in 1793. Until 1980, coins minted at Philadelphia bore no mint mark, with the exceptions of the Susan B.
Anthony dollar and the wartime Jefferson nickel. In 1980, the P mint mark was added to all U. S. coinage except the cent. Until 1968, the Philadelphia Mint was responsible for nearly all official proof coinage. Philadelphia is the site of master die production for U. S. coinage, the engraving and design departments of the Mint are located there. The Denver branch began life in 1863 as the local assay office, just five years after gold was discovered in the area. By the turn of the century, the office was bringing in over $5 million in annual gold and silver deposits, in 1906, the Mint opened its new Denver branch. Denver uses a D mint mark and strikes coinage only for circulation, although it did strike, along with three other mints, the $10 gold 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Com