Indian national calendar
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar. It is used, alongside the Gregorian calendar, by The Gazette of India, in news broadcasts by All India Radio and in calendars and communications issued by the Government of India; the Saka calendar is used in Java and Bali among Indonesian Hindus. Nyepi, the "Day of Silence", is a celebration of the Saka new year in Bali. Nepal's Nepal Sambat evolved from the Saka calendar. Prior to colonization, the Philippines used to apply the Saka calendar as well as suggested by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; the term may ambiguously refer to the Hindu calendar. The historic Shalivahana era calendar is still used, it has years. The calendar months follow the signs of the tropical zodiac rather than the sidereal zodiac used with the Hindu calendar. Chaitra has 30 days and starts on March 22, except in leap years, when it has 31 days and starts on March 21; the months in the first half of the year all have 31 days, to take into account the slower movement of the sun across the ecliptic at this time.
The names of the months are derived from older, Hindu lunisolar calendars, so variations in spelling exist, there is a possible source of confusion as to what calendar a date belongs to. Years are counted in the Saka era. To determine leap years, add 78 to the Saka year – if the result is a leap year in the Gregorian calendar the Saka year is a leap year as well, its structure is just like the Persian calendar. Senior Indian Astrophysicist Meghnad Saha was the head of the Calendar Reform Committee under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. Other members of the Committee were: A. C. Banerjee, K. K. Daftari, J. S. Karandikar, Gorakh Prasad, R. V. Vaidya and N. C. Lahiri, it was Saha's effort. The task before the Committee was to prepare an accurate calendar based on scientific study, which could be adopted uniformly throughout India, it was a mammoth task. The Committee had to undertake a detailed study of different calendars prevalent in different parts of the country. There were thirty different calendars.
The task was further complicated by the fact that religion and local sentiments were integral to those calendars. India's first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in his preface to the Report of the Committee, published in 1955, wrote: “They represent past political divisions in the country.... Now that we have attained Independence, it is desirable that there should be a certain uniformity in the calendar for our civic and other purposes, this should be done on a scientific approach to this problem.” Usage started at 1 Chaitra 1879, Saka Era, or 22 March 1957. Report of the Calendar Reform Committee – online link. Mapping Time: The Calendar and its History by E. G. Richards, 1998, pp. 184–185. Calendars and their History Indian Calendars Positional astronomy in India Indian National Calendar abstract
University of Toronto
The University of Toronto is a public research university in Toronto, Canada, located on the grounds that surround Queen's Park. It was founded by royal charter in 1827 as King's College, the first institution of higher learning in the colony of Upper Canada. Controlled by the Church of England, the university assumed the present name in 1850 upon becoming a secular institution; as a collegiate university, it comprises eleven colleges, which differ in character and history, each with substantial autonomy on financial and institutional affairs. It has two satellite campuses in Mississauga; the university is ranked as the best Canadian university, according to various major publications. Academically, the University of Toronto is noted for influential movements and curricula in literary criticism and communication theory, known collectively as the Toronto School; the university was the birthplace of insulin and stem cell research, was the site of the first practical electron microscope, the development of deep learning, multi-touch technology, the identification of the first black hole Cygnus X-1, the development of the theory of NP-completeness.
By a significant margin, it receives the most annual scientific research funding of any Canadian university. It is one of two members of the Association of American Universities outside the United States, the other being McGill University in Montreal, Canada; the Varsity Blues are the athletic teams that represent the university in intercollegiate league matches, with long and storied ties to gridiron football and ice hockey. The earliest recorded college football game was played in the University of Toronto's University College in the 1860s; the university's Hart House is an early example of the North American student centre serving cultural and recreational interests within its large Gothic-revival complex. The University of Toronto has educated three Governors General of Canada, four Prime Ministers of Canada, four foreign leaders, fourteen Justices of the Supreme Court; as of March 2019, ten Nobel laureates, five Turing Award winners, 94 Rhodes Scholars, one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with the university.
The founding of a colonial college had long been the desire of John Graves Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. As an Oxford-educated military commander who had fought in the American Revolutionary War, Simcoe believed a college was needed to counter the spread of republicanism from the United States; the Upper Canada Executive Committee recommended in 1798 that a college be established in York, the colonial capital. On March 15, 1827, a royal charter was formally issued by King George IV, proclaiming "from this time one College, with the style and privileges of a University... for the education of youth in the principles of the Christian Religion, for their instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature... to continue for to be called King's College." The granting of the charter was the result of intense lobbying by John Strachan, the influential Anglican Bishop of Toronto who took office as the college's first president. The original three-storey Greek Revival school building was built on the present site of Queen's Park.
Under Strachan's stewardship, King's College was a religious institution aligned with the Church of England and the British colonial elite, known as the Family Compact. Reformist politicians opposed the clergy's control over colonial institutions and fought to have the college secularized. In 1849, after a lengthy and heated debate, the newly elected responsible government of Upper Canada voted to rename King's College as the University of Toronto and severed the school's ties with the church. Having anticipated this decision, the enraged Strachan had resigned a year earlier to open Trinity College as a private Anglican seminary. University College was created as the nondenominational teaching branch of the University of Toronto. During the American Civil War, the threat of Union blockade on British North America prompted the creation of the University Rifle Corps, which saw battle in resisting the Fenian raids on the Niagara border in 1866; the Corps was part of the Reserve Militia lead by Professor Henry Croft.
Established in 1878, the School of Practical Science was precursor to the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, nicknamed Skule since its earliest days. While the Faculty of Medicine opened in 1843, medical teaching was conducted by proprietary schools from 1853 until 1887, when the faculty absorbed the Toronto School of Medicine. Meanwhile, the university continued to confer medical degrees; the university opened the Faculty of Law in 1887, followed by the Faculty of Dentistry in 1888, when the Royal College of Dental Surgeons became an affiliate. Women were first admitted to the university in 1884. A devastating fire in 1890 gutted the interior of University College and destroyed 33,000 volumes from the library, but the university restored the building and replenished its library within two years. Over the next two decades, a collegiate system took shape as the university arranged federation with several ecclesiastical colleges, including Strachan's Trinity College in 1904; the university operated the Royal Conservatory of Music from 1896 to 1991 and the Royal Ontario Museum from 1912 to 1968.
The University of Toronto Press was founded in 1901 as Canada's first academic publishing house. The Faculty of Forestry, founded in 1907 with Bernhard Fernow as dean, was Canada's first university faculty devoted to forest science. In 1910, the Faculty of Education opened its laboratory school, the University of Toro
The twelve Earthly Branches or Terrestrial Branches are an ordering system used throughout East Asia in various contexts, including its ancient dating system, astrological traditions, zodiac. This system was built from observations of the orbit of Jupiter. Chinese astronomers divided the celestial circle into 12 sections to follow the orbit of 歲星 Suìxīng. Astronomers rounded the orbit of Suixing to 12 years. Suixing sometimes called Sheti. In correlative thinking, the 12 years of the Jupiter cycle identify the 12 months of the year, 12 animals, directions and Chinese hour in the form of double hours; when a Branch is used for a double hour, the listed periods are meant. When used for an exact time of a day, it is the center of the period. For instance, 马 means a period from 11 am to 1 pm. Chinese seasons stars. Many Chinese calendrical systems have started the new year on the second new moon after the winter solstice; the Earthly Branches are today used with the Heavenly Stems in the current version of the "traditional Chinese calendar" and in Taoism.
The Ganzhi combination is a new way to mark time. The Branches are as old as the Stems, but the Stems were tied to the ritual calendars of Chinese kings, they were not part of the calendrical systems for the majority of Chinese people. Some cultures assign different animals: Vietnam replaces the Ox and Rabbit with the water buffalo and cat, respectively. In the traditional Kazakh version of the 12 year animal cycle, the Dragon is substituted by a snail, the Tiger appears as a leopard. Though Chinese has words for the four cardinal directions, Chinese mariners and astronomers/astrologers preferred using the 12 directions of the Earthly Branches, somewhat similar to the modern-day practice of English-speaking pilots using o'clock for directions. Since 12 points were not enough for sailing, 12 midpoints were added. Instead of combining two adjacent direction names, they assigned new names: For the four diagonal directions, appropriate trigram names of I Ching were used. For the rest, the Heavenly Stems were used.
According to the Five Elements theory, east is assigned to wood, the Stems of wood are 甲 and 乙. Thus, they were assigned clockwise to the two adjacent points of the east; the 24 directions are: Advanced mariners such as Zheng. An additional midpoint was called by a combination of its two closest basic directions, such as 丙午 for the direction of 172.5°, the midpoint between 丙, 165°, 午, 180°. Sexagesimal cycle Sheng Xiao Celestial stem Chinese calendar "Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches". Hong Kong Observatory. Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-04
Adherents of Zoroastrianism use three distinct versions of traditional calendars for liturgical purposes, all derived from medieval Iranian calendars based on the Babylonian calendar as used in the Achaemenid empire. "Qadimi" is a traditional reckoning introduced in 1006. "Shahanshahi" is a calendar. "Fasli" is a term for a 1906 adaptation of the 11th-century Jalali calendar, following a proposal by Kharshedji Rustomji Cama made in the 1860s. A number of Calendar eras are in use: A tradition of counting years from the birth of Zoroaster was reported from India in the 19th century. There was a dispute between factions variously preferring an era of 389 BCE, 538 BCE or 637 BCE; the "Yazdegerdi era" counts from the accession of the last Sassanid ruler, Yazdegerd III. This convention was proposed by Cama in the 1860s but has since been used in conjunctions with "Qadimi" or "Shahanshahi" reckoning. An alternative "Magian era" was set at the date of Yazdegerd's death, in 652. "Z. E. R." or "Zarathushtrian Religious Era" is a convention introduced in 1990 by the "Zarathushtrian Assembly of California", set at vernal equinox of 1737 BCE.
The Babylonian calendar was used in the Achaemenid Empire by the 4th century BCE for civil purposes. The earliest Zoroastrian calendar follows the Babylonian in relating the seventh and other days of the month to Ahura Mazda. Like all ancient calendar, the Babylonian calendar was lunisolar, it used an intercalary month once every six years. In the civil calendar, intercalations did not always follow a regular pattern, but during the reign of Artaxerxes II astronomers utilised a 19 year cycle which required the addition of a month called Addaru II in years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14 and 19, the month Ululu II in year 17 of the cycle; the first known intercalation is recorded for 309 BCE. The first month of the year was called Frawardin, the first day of Frawardin was the'New Year's Day' or Nawruz, from which all other religious observances were reckoned – this day being, in theory, the day of the northern vernal equinox. A 365 day calendar, with months identical to the Egyptian calendar, was introduced shortly after the conquest of Egypt by the Achaemenid ruler Cambyses.
Scholars are divided on whether this 365 day calendar was in fact preceded by a 360 day calendar of Zoroastrian observances. Following Alexander's conquest of Persia in 330 BCE, the Seleucids instituted the Hellenic practice of counting years from the start of a fixed era, as opposed using regnal years; the regnal era of Alexander is now referred to as the Seleucid era. The Parthians, who succeeded the Seleucids, continued the Seleucid/Hellenic tradition. In 224 CE, when the Babylonian calendar was replaced by the Zoroastrian, 1 Frawardin and the New Year celebration of Nawruz had drifted to 1 October; the older custom of counting regnal years from the monarch's coronation was reinstated. At this point the calendar was realigned with the seasons by delaying the epagemonai by eight months and adjusting the dates of the gahanbar accordingly; this caused confusion, since the new year now fell five days earlier than before, some people continued to observe the old date. After 46 years, with 1 Frawardin now on 19 September, another calendar reform was implemented by Ardashir's grandson Hormazd I.
During the first years after implementation of the new Gatha days, the population had not universally adopted the new dates for religious festivals, resulting in "official" celebrations takings place five days earlier than popular celebrations. In years the population had observed the Gatha days, but the original five day discrepancy persisted. Hormazd's reform was to link the popular and official observance dates to form continual six-day feasts. Nawruz was an exception: the first and the sixth days of the month were celebrated as different occasions. Lesser Nawruz was observed on 1 Frawardin. 6 Frawardin became a day of special festivity. Around the 10th century CE, the Greater Nawruz was associated with the return of the legendary king, Jamsed. Mary Boyce has argued that sometime between 399 CE and 518 CE the six-day festivals were compressed to five days; the major feasts, or gahambars, of contemporary Zoroastrian practice, are still kept as five-day observances today. The Bundahishn, a pseudo-Avestan treatise written in the early Islamic period replaces the "Age of Alexander" with an "Ageo of Zoroaster", placed "258 years before Alexander".
By the reign of Yazdegird III, the religious celebrations were again somewhat adrift with respect to their proper seasons. The calendar had continued to slip against the Julian calendar since the previous reform at the rate of one day every four years. Therefore, in 632, the new year was celebrated on 16 June. By the 9th century, the Zoroastrian theologian Zadspram had noted that the state of affairs was less than optimal, estimated that at the time of Final Judgement the two systems would be out of sync by four years; the current mainstream Zoroastrian reckoning of years’ start date is on 16 June 632 CE. Yazdegird III was the last monarch of the Sasanian dynasty, since the custom at that time was to count regnal years since the monarch ascended the throne, the reckoning of years was continued, in the absence of a Zoroastrian monarch, under Islamic rule. Zo
The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca; the civil calendar of all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents and similar regular commitments are paid by the civil calendar; the Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib and established the first Muslim community, an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are denoted AH in parallel with the Christian and Jewish eras. In Muslim countries, it is sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form. In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH.
The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019. For central Arabia Mecca, there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system. Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs; the Islamic tradition is unanimous in stating that Arabs of Tihamah and Najd distinguished between two types of months and forbidden months. The forbidden months were four months during which fighting is forbidden, listed as Rajab and the three months around the pilgrimage season, Dhu al-Qa‘dah, Dhu al-Hijjah, Muharram. Information about the forbidden months is found in the writings of Procopius, where he describes an armistice with the Eastern Arabs of the Lakhmid al-Mundhir which happened in the summer of 541 AD/CE.
However, Muslim historians do not link these months to a particular season. The Qur'an links the four forbidden months with Nasī’, a word that means "postponement". According to Muslim tradition, the decision of postponement was administered by the tribe of Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas of Kinanah and his descendants. Different interpretations of the concept of Nasī’ have been proposed; some scholars, both Muslim and Western, maintain that the pre-Islamic calendar used in central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar. According to this view, Nasī’ is related to the pre-Islamic practices of the Meccan Arabs, where they would alter the distribution of the forbidden months within a given year without implying a calendar manipulation; this interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham, Ibn Manzur, the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. This is corroborated by an early Sabaic inscription, where a religious ritual was "postponed" due to war.
According to the context of this inscription, the verb ns'’ has nothing to do with intercalation, but only with moving religious events within the calendar itself. The similarity between the religious concept of this ancient inscription and the Qur'an suggests that non-calendaring postponement is the Qur'anic meaning of Nasī’; the Encyclopaedia of Islam concludes "The Arabic system of can only have been intended to move the Hajj and the fairs associated with it in the vicinity of Mecca to a suitable season of the year. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be observed." The term "fixed calendar" is understood to refer to the non-intercalated calendar. Others concur that it was a lunar calendar, but suggest that about 200 years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant; this interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, by al-Biruni, al-Mas'udi, some western scholars.
This interpretation considers Nasī’ to be a synonym to the Arabic word for "intercalation". The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews; the Jewish Nasi was the official. Some sources say that the Arabs followed the Jewish practice and intercalated seven months over nineteen years, or else that they intercalated nine months over 24 years. Postponement of one ritual in a particular circumstance does not imply alteration of the sequence of months, scholars agree that this did not happen. Al-Biruni says this did not happen, the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, he says that, in terms of the fixed calendar, not introduced until 10 AH, the first intercalation was, for example, of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram, the second of a month between Muharram and Safar, the third of a month between Safar and Rabi'I, so on. The intercalations were arranged.
The notice of interca
Friday the 13th
Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition. It occurs when the 13th day of the month in the Gregorian calendar falls on a Friday, which happens at least once every year but can occur up to three times in the same year,for example in 2015, on 13 February, 13 March and 13 November. In 2017, it occurred twice, on 13 October. In 2018, it occurred twice, on 13 April and 13 July. There will be two Friday the 13ths every year until 2020. A Friday the 13th occurs during any month; the fear of the number 13 has been given a scientific name: "triskaidekaphobia". The superstition surrounding this day may have arisen in the Middle Ages, "originating from the story of Jesus' last supper and crucifixion" in which there were 13 individuals present in the Upper Room on the 13th of Nisan Maundy Thursday, the night before his death on Good Friday. While there is evidence of both Friday and the number 13 being considered unlucky, there is no record of the two items being referred to as unlucky in conjunction before the 19th century.
An early documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards' 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th: He was surrounded to the last by admiring friends. It is possible that the publication in 1907 of Thomas W. Lawson's popular novel Friday, the Thirteenth, contributed to disseminating the superstition. In the novel, an unscrupulous broker takes advantage of the superstition to create a Wall Street panic on a Friday the 13th. A suggested origin of the superstition—Friday, 13 October 1307, the date Philip IV of France arrested hundreds of the Knights Templar—may not have been formulated until the 20th century, it is mentioned in the 1955 Maurice Druon historical novel The Iron King, John J. Robinson's 1989 work Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry, Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code and Steve Berry's The Templar Legacy. In Spanish-speaking countries, instead of Friday, Tuesday the 13th is considered a day of bad luck; the Greeks consider Tuesday an unlucky day.
Tuesday is considered dominated by the influence of the god of war. The fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade occurred on Tuesday, April 13, 1204, the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans happened on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, events that strengthen the superstition about Tuesday. In addition, in Greek the name of the day is Triti meaning the third, adding weight to the superstition, since bad luck is said to "come in threes". Tuesday the 13th occurs in a month. In Italian popular culture, Friday the 17th is considered a day of bad luck; the origin of this belief could be traced in the writing of number 17, in Roman numerals: XVII. By shuffling the digits of the number one can get the word VIXI, an omen of bad luck. In fact, in Italy, 13 is considered a lucky number. However, due to Americanization, young people consider Friday the 13th unlucky as well; the 2000 parody film Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth was released in Italy with the title Shriek – Hai impegni per venerdì 17?.
Friday the 17th occurs on a month starting on Wednesday. According to the Stress Management Center and Phobia Institute in Asheville, North Carolina, an estimated 17 to 21 million people in the United States are affected by a fear of this day, making it the most feared day and date in history; some people are so paralyzed by fear that they avoid their normal routines in doing business, taking flights or getting out of bed. "It's been estimated that $800 or $900 million is lost in business on this day". Despite this, representatives for both Delta Air Lines and Continental Airlines have stated that their airlines do not suffer from any noticeable drop in travel on those Fridays. In Finland, a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental organizations led by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health promotes the National Accident Day to raise awareness about automotive safety, which always falls on a Friday the 13th; the event is coordinated by the Finnish Red Cross and has been held since 1995.
A study in the British Medical Journal, published in 1993, attracted some attention from popular science-literature, as it concluded that "'the risk of hospital admission as a result of a transport accident may be increased by as much as 52 percent' on the 13th". Subsequent studies have disproved any correlation between the rate of accidents. On the contrary, the Dutch Centre for Insurance Statistics on 12 June 2008 stated that "fewer accidents and reports of fire and theft occur when the 13th of the month falls on a Friday than on other Fridays, because people are preventatively more careful or just stay home. Statistically speaking, driving is safer on Friday the 13th, at least in the Netherlands.
Solar Hijri calendar
The Solar Hijri calendar called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the March equinox as determined by astronomical calculation for the Iran Standard Time meridian and has years of 365 or 366 days, its determination of the start of each year is astronomically accurate year-to-year as opposed to the more fixed Gregorian calendar or "Common Era calendar" which, averaged out, has the same year length, achieving the same accuracy. The start of the year and its number of days remain fixed to one of the two equinoxes, the astronomically important days which have the same duration of day as night, it results in less variability of all celestial bodies when comparing a specific calendar date from one year to others. Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign; the first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox.
On 21 February 1911, the second Iranian parliament adopted as the official calendar of Iran the Jalālī sidereal calendar with months bearing the names of the twelve constellations of the zodiac and the years named for the animals of the duodecennial cycle. The present Iranian calendar was adopted on 31 March 1925, under the early Pahlavi dynasty; the law said that the first day of the year should be the first day of spring in "the true solar year", "as it has been" so. It fixed the number of days in each month, which varied by year with the sidereal zodiac, it revived the ancient Persian names. It specified the origin of the calendar to be the Hegira of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE, it deprecated the 12-year cycles of the Chinese-Uighur calendar which were not sanctioned but were used. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, the last month has 29 days or 30 days in leap years; this is a simplification of the Jalali calendar, in which the commencement of the month is tied to the sun's passage from one zodiacal sign to the next.
The sun is travelling slowest in early July. The current time between the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox is about 186 days and 10 hours, the opposite duration about 178 days, 20 hours; the Solar Hijri calendar produces a five-year leap year interval after about every seven four-year leap year intervals. It follows a 33-year subcycle with occasional interruptions by a single 29-year subcycle; the reason for this behaviour is. By contrast, some less accurate predictive algorithms are suggested based on confusion between the average tropical year and the mean interval between spring equinoxes. Earlier starting year In 1976, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi changed the origin of the calendar to the beginning of Cyrus the Great's reign as its first year, rather than the Hejra of Muhammad. Overnight, the year changed from 1355 to 2535; the change lasted until the revolution in 1979. Afghanistan adopted the official Jalali calendar in 1922 but with different month names. Afghanistan uses Arabic names of the zodiacal signs.
The Solar Hijri calendar is the official calendar of the government of Afghanistan, all national holidays and administrative issues are fixed according to the Solar Hijri calendar. The Solar Hijri calendar year begins at the start of spring in the Northern Hemisphere: on the midnight between the two consecutive solar noons, which include the instant of the March equinox, when the sun enters the Northern Hemisphere. Hence, the first noon is on the last day of one calendar year and the second noon is on the first day of the next year; the first day of the calendar year, Nowruz, is the greatest festival of the year in Iran and surrounding regions. The celebration is filled with many festivities and runs a course of 13 days, the last day of, called siz-dah bedar; the Afghan Persian month names are the signs of Zodiac. They were used in Iran in early 20th century; the names are in fact the Arabic names for signs of Zodiac, please see دائرة البروج. In the Iranian calendar, every week ends on Friday.
The names of the days of the week are as follows: shambe, doshambe, seshambe, chæharshambe and jom'e. The name for Friday, jom'e, is Arabic. Jom'e is sometimes referred to by the native Persian name, adineh. In some Islamic countries, Friday is the weekly holiday. Calculating the day of the week is easy, using an anchor date. One good such date is Sunday, 1 Farvardin 1372, which equals 21 March 1993. Assuming the 33-year cycle approximation, move back by one weekday to jump ahead by one 3