Richard Russell Riordan Jr. is an American author. He is known for writing the Percy Jackson & the Olympians series, about a twelve-year-old Percy Jackson who discovers he is a son of Greek God Poseidon, his books have been translated into 42 languages and sold more than 30 million copies in the US. 20th Century Fox has adapted the first two books of his Percy Jackson series as part of a series of films. His books have spawned related media, such as graphic short story collections. Riordan's first full-length novel was Big Red Tequila, which became the first book in the Tres Navarre series, his big breakthrough was The Lightning Thief, the first novel in the five-volume Percy Jackson series, which placed a group of adolescents in a Greco-Roman mythological setting. Since Riordan has written The Kane Chronicles trilogy and The Heroes of Olympus series; the Kane Chronicles focused on Egyptian mythology. Riordan helped Scholastic Press develop The 39 Clues series and its spinoffs, penned its first book, The Maze of Bones.
His most recent publications are three books in the Magnus Chase and the Gods of Asgard series, based on Norse mythology. The first book of his The Trials of Apollo series based on Greek mythology, The Hidden Oracle, was released in May 2016. Riordan was raised in San Antonio, Texas, he graduated from Alamo Heights High School, first attended the music program at North Texas State, wanting to be a guitarist. He studied English and History, he taught Social Studies for eight years at Presidio Hill School in San Francisco. Rick married Becky Riordan from the East Coast, in 1985 on the couple's shared birthday, they have two sons and Patrick. It was Haley Riordan, they moved from San Antonio to Boston in June 2013, in conjunction with older son Haley starting college in Boston. Riordan has created several successful book series. Tres Navarre, an adult mystery series about a Texan private eye, won the Shamus and Edgar Awards, he conceived the idea for the Percy Jackson series as bedtime stories about ancient Greek heroes for his son Haley.
Haley had been diagnosed with ADHD and dyslexia, inspiring Riordan to make the titular protagonist ADHD and dyslexic. Riordan published the first novel in the series, The Lightning Thief, in 2005. Four sequels followed, with the last, The Last Olympian in 2009. Prior to Percy Jackson, Riordan had written the Tres Navarres series, a series of mystery novels for adult readers, his Percy Jackson and the Olympians series features the titular twelve-year-old who discovers he is the modern-day son of the ancient Greek god Poseidon. Twentieth Century Fox purchased the film rights and released a feature film in 2010. Following the success of Percy Jackson, Riordan created The Kane Chronicles, which features a modern-day Egyptian pantheon and two new sibling protagonists and Carter Kane. Riordan created a sequel series to Percy Jackson, The Heroes of Olympus. Riordan helped create the children's book series The 39 Clues, he wrote the introduction to the Puffin Classics edition of Roger Lancelyn Green's Tales of the Greek Heroes, in which he states that the book influenced him to write his Greek mythology series.
1998 Shamus Award for Best First PI Novel and Anthony Award for Best Paperback Original for Big Red Tequila 1999 Edgar Award for Best Paperback Original for The Widower's Two-Step 2008 Mark Twain Award for The Lightning Thief 2009 Mark Twain Award for The Sea of Monsters 2009 Rebecca Caudill Award for The Lightning Thief 2010 School Library Journal's Best Book for The Red Pyramid 2011 Children's Choice Book Awards: Author of the Year 2011 Children's Choice Book Awards: Fifth Grade to Sixth Grade Book of the Year for The Red Pyramid 2011 Wyoming Soaring Eagle Book Award for The Last Olympian 2011 Milner Award for Percy Jackson and the Olympians series 2012 Indian Paintbrush Award for The Red Pyramid 2013 Best Fiction Book for Children in Bulgaria for The Mark of Athena 2017 Stonewall Book Award for Children's literature for The Hammer of Thor Big Red Tequila The Widower's Two-Step The Last King of Texas The Devil Went Down to Austin Southtown Mission Road Rebel Island The Lightning Thief The Sea of Monsters The Titan's Curse The Battle of the Labyrinth The Last Olympian The Demigod Files The Ultimate Guide The Demigod Diaries Percy Jackson and the Singer of Apollo Percy Jackson's Greek Gods Percy Jackson's Greek Heroes Camp Half-Blood Confidential The Percy Jackson Coloring Book The Lightning Thief: Illustrated Edition The Lost Hero The Son of Neptune The Mark of Athena The House of Hades The Blood of Olympus Demigods of Olympus The Lightning Thief Graphic Novel The Red Pyramid Graphic Novel The Sea of Monsters Graphic Novel The Titan's Curse Graphic Novel (2013, in collabora
Traditional medicine comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization defines traditional medicine as "the sum total of the knowledge and practices based on the theories and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness". Traditional medicine is contrasted with scientific medicine. In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs; when adopted outside its traditional culture, traditional medicine is considered a form of alternative medicine. Practices known as traditional medicines include traditional European medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Korean medicine, traditional African medicine, Siddha medicine, ancient Iranian Medicine, Islamic medicine, Ifá.
Scientific disciplines which study traditional medicine include herbalism, ethnomedicine and medical anthropology. The WHO notes, that "inappropriate use of traditional medicines or practices can have negative or dangerous effects" and that "further research is needed to ascertain the efficacy and safety" of several of the practices and medicinal plants used by traditional medicine systems; the World Health Organization has implemented a nine year strategy to "support Member States in developing proactive policies and implementing action plans that will strengthen the role traditional medicine plays in keeping populations healthy." In the written record, the study of herbs dates back 5,000 years to the ancient Sumerians, who described well-established medicinal uses for plants. In Ancient Egyptian medicine, the Ebers papyrus from c. 1552 BC records a list of folk remedies and magical medical practices. The Old Testament mentions herb use and cultivation in regards to Kashrut. Many herbs and minerals used in Ayurveda were described by ancient Indian herbalists such as Charaka and Sushruta during the 1st millennium BC.
The first Chinese herbal book was the Shennong Bencao Jing, compiled during the Han Dynasty but dating back to a much earlier date, augmented as the Yaoxing Lun during the Tang Dynasty. Early recognised Greek compilers of existing and current herbal knowledge include Pythagoras and his followers, Aristotle, Theophrastus and Galen. Roman sources included Pliny the Elder's Natural History and Celsus's De Medicina. Pedanius Dioscorides drew on and corrected earlier authors for his De Materia Medica, adding much new material. Latin manuscripts of De Materia Medica were combined with a Latin herbal by Apuleius Platonicus and were incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon codex Cotton Vitellius C. III; these early Greek and Roman compilations became the backbone of European medical theory and were translated by the Persian Avicenna, the Persian Rhazes and the Jewish Maimonides. Some fossils have been used in traditional medicine since antiquity. Arabic indigenous medicine developed from the conflict between the magic-based medicine of the Bedouins and the Arabic translations of the Hellenic and Ayurvedic medical traditions.
Spanish indigenous medicine was influenced by the Arabs from 711 to 1492. Islamic physicians and Muslim botanists such as al-Dinawari and Ibn al-Baitar expanded on the earlier knowledge of materia medica; the most famous Persian medical treatise was Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, an early pharmacopoeia and introduced clinical trials. The Canon was translated into Latin in the 12th century and remained a medical authority in Europe until the 17th century; the Unani system of traditional medicine is based on the Canon. Translations of the early Roman-Greek compilations were made into German by Hieronymus Bock whose herbal, published in 1546, was called Kreuter Buch; the book was translated into Dutch as Pemptades by Rembert Dodoens, from Dutch into English by Carolus Clusius, published by Henry Lyte in 1578 as A Nievve Herball. This became John Gerard's General Hiftorie of Plantes; each new work was a compilation of existing texts with new additions. Women's folk knowledge existed in undocumented parallel with these texts.
Forty-four drugs, flavouring agents and emollients mentioned by Dioscorides are still listed in the official pharmacopoeias of Europe. The Puritans took Gerard's work to the United States where it influenced American Indigenous medicine. Francisco Hernández, physician to Philip II of Spain spent the years 1571–1577 gathering information in Mexico and wrote Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, many versions of which have been published including one by Francisco Ximénez. Both Hernandez and Ximenez fitted Aztec ethnomedicinal information into the European concepts of disease such as "warm", "cold", "moist", but it is not clear that the Aztecs used these categories. Juan de Esteyneffer's Florilegio medicinal de todas las enfermedas compiled European texts and added 35 Mexican plants. Martín de la Cruz wrote an herbal in Nahuatl, translated into Latin by Juan Badiano as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis or Codex Barberini, Latin 241 and given to King Carlos V of Spain in 1552, it was written in haste and influenced by the European occupation of the previous 30 year
Sauron is the title character and main antagonist of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. In the same work, he is identified as the Necromancer, mentioned in Tolkien's earlier novel The Hobbit. In Tolkien's The Silmarillion, he is described as the chief lieutenant of the first Dark Lord, Morgoth. Tolkien noted that the Ainur, the "angelic" powers of his constructed myth, "were capable of many degrees of error and failing", but by far the worst was "the absolute Satanic rebellion and evil of Morgoth and his satellite Sauron"; the Ainulindalë, the cosmological myth prefixed to The Silmarillion, explains how the supreme being Eru initiated his creation by bringing into being innumerable spirits, "the offspring of his thought", who were with him before anything else had been made. The being known as Sauron originated among these as an "immortal spirit". In his origin, Sauron therefore perceived the Creator directly; as Tolkien noted: "Sauron could not, of course, be a'sincere' atheist. Though one of the minor spirits created before the world, he knew Eru, according to his measure."In the terminology of Tolkien's invented language of Quenya, these angelic spirits were called Ainur.
Those who entered the physical world were called Valar the most powerful ones. The lesser Ainur who entered the world, of whom Sauron was one, were called Maiar. In Tolkien's letters, the author noted that Sauron "was of course a'divine' person". Tolkien noted that he was of a "far higher order" than the Maiar who came to Middle-earth as the Wizards Gandalf and Saruman; as created by Eru, the Ainur were all good and uncorrupt, as Elrond stated in The Lord of the Rings: "Nothing is evil in the beginning. Sauron was not so."Rebellion originated with the Vala Melkor. According to a story meant as a parable of events beyond Elvish comprehension, Eru let his spirit-children perform a great Music, the Music of the Ainur, developing a theme revealed by Eru himself. For a while the cosmic choir made wondrous music, but Melkor tried to increase his own glory by weaving into his song thoughts and ideas that were not in accordance with the original theme. "Straightway discord arose around him, many that sang nigh him grew despondent... but some began to attune their music to his rather than to the thought which they had at first."The discord Melkor created would have dire consequences, as this singing was a kind of template for the world: "The evils of the world were not at first in the great Theme, but entered with the discords of Melkor."
However, "Sauron was not a beginner of discord. Sauron was not one of the spirits that began to attune their music to that of Melkor, since it is noted elsewhere that his fall occurred later; the cosmic Music now represented the conflict between evil. Eru abruptly brought the Song of Creation to an end. To show the spirits, faithful or otherwise, what they had done, Eru gave independent being to the now-marred Music; this resulted in the manifestation of the material World, Eä, where the drama of good and evil would play out and be resolved. Entering Eä at the beginning of time, the Valar and Maiar tried to build and organize the world according to the will of Eru; each Maia was associated with one of the powerful Valar. As a result, Sauron came to possess great knowledge of the physical substances of the world and all manner of craftsmanship—emerging as "a great craftsman of the household of Aulë". Sauron would always retain the "scientific" knowledge he derived from the great Vala of Craft: "In his beginning he was of the Maiar of Aulë, he remained mighty in the lore of that people."
Sauron's original Elvish name in Valinor was Mairon, but this name was not used anymore after he joined Melkor. In Beleriand, he was called in Sindarin Gorthu "Mist of Fear" and Gorthaur "The Cruel". However, during the Second Age, Sauron continued to call himself Tar-Mairon. Melkor opposed the other Valar, who remained faithful to Eru and tried to carry out the Creator's designs. Within the larger universe, they focused on developing the world of Arda. Around this time, Sauron fell victim to Melkor's corrupting influence: "In the beginning of Arda, Melkor seduced him to his allegiance."As for Sauron's motives, Tolkien noted that "it had been his virtue that he loved order and coordination, disliked all confusion and wasteful friction". Thus, "it was the apparent will and power of Melkor to effect his designs and masterfully that had first attracted Sauron to him". For a while, Sauron kept up the pretence that he was a faithful servant of the Valar, all the while feeding Melkor information about their doings.
Thus, when the Valar made Almaren as their first physical abode in the world, "Melkor knew of all, done. They still did not perceive Sauron's treachery, for he too became "a being of Valinor". At some point, Sauron left the Blessed Realm and went to Middle-earth
In fantasy fiction, a lich is a type of undead creature. Such a creature is the result of a transformation, as a powerful magician skilled in necromancy or a king striving for eternal life using spells or rituals to bind his intellect and soul to his'phylactery' and thereby achieving a form of immortality. Liches are depicted as being cadaverous, bodies desiccated or skeletal. Liches are depicted as holding power over hordes of lesser undead creatures, using them as soldiers and servants. Unlike zombies, which are depicted as mindless, a lich is sapient, retaining independent thought and is as intelligent as it was prior to its transformation. Various works of fantasy fiction, such as Clark Ashton Smith's "Empire of the Necromancers", had used lich as a general term for any corpse, animated or inanimate, before the term's specific use in fantasy role-playing games; the more recent use of the term lich for a specific type of undead creature originates from the 1976 Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game booklet Greyhawk, written by Gary Gygax and Rob Kuntz.
Lich is an old English word for "corpse". This gate was quite covered by a small roof where part of the funerary service could be carried out; the lich developed from monsters found in earlier classic sword and sorcery fiction, filled with powerful sorcerers who use their magic to triumph over death. Many of Clark Ashton Smith's short stories feature powerful wizards whose magic enables them to return from the dead. Several stories by Robert E. Howard, such as the novella Skull-Face and the short story "Scarlet Tears", feature undying sorcerers who retain a semblance of life through mystical means, their bodies reduced to shriveled husks with which they manage to maintain inhuman mobility and active thought. Gary Gygax, one of the cocreators of Dungeons & Dragons, stated that he based the description of a lich included in the game on the short story "The Sword of the Sorcerer" by Gardner Fox; the term lich, used as an archaic word for corpse, is used in these stories. Ambrose Bierce's tale of possession "The Death of Halpin Frayser" features the word in its introduction, referring to a corpse.
H. P. Lovecraft used the word in "The Thing on the Doorstep" where the narrator refers to the corpse of his friend possessed by a sorcerer. Other imagery surrounding demiliches, in particular that of a jeweled skull, is drawn from the early Fritz Leiber story "Thieves' House". In the 1997 animated film Anastasia, the character of Rasputin is an example of a lich. Rasputin lives beyond death by storing his soul in Phylactery described as an "unholy reliquary," which must be destroyed by the film's protagonist at the conclusion of the film. In Mysticons, the undead sorceress, her power is suggested to originate from something called the spectral hand, the nature of, as of yet unknown. In the film The Black Cauldron, the character of The Horned King is hinted at being a lich with his skeleton-like appearance and immense magical power. In the novel Taran Wanderer, Book 4 of the Chronicles of Prydain by Lloyd Alexander, the title character Taran meets a wizard named Morda who placed his soul into a finger and hid it.
Taran is unable to harm Morda, nor Morda him, until Taran recognizes and destroys Morda's phylactery. In Gothic story "The Death of Halpin Frayser". In the light novel series KonoSuba, as well as its manga and anime adaptations, the supporting character Wiz is a lich, she has a human-like appearance, unlike many other liches in fiction. In the Harry Potter book series, the primary antagonist, Voldemort, is a dark wizard who separates his soul from his body using magic, imbues these soul fragments into various objects and people, he is thereafter unkillable until said vessels are destroyed, making him and his horcruxes similar to the concept of a lich and its phylactery. The demilich, a more powerful subtype of a lich in Dungeons & Dragons, can store portions of its soul into eight or more different phylacteries. In the novel Monster Hunter Memoirs: Grunge by Larry Correia and John Ringo, Chad Gardenier and the company he works for, Monster Hunter International, destroy a lich in Seattle, sacrificing virgins to create strong undead for sale to the highest bidder.
In Ready Player One, a novel by Ernest Cline, main character Parzival first earned the Copper Key by defeating a lich two games out of three at the arcade game Joust. In the Adventure Time television series, the main antagonist is an evil, undead being known as "The Lich", he describes himself as an ancient, cosmic being, the manifestation of the inevitable death of all things, while Finn is his opposite, a being of life and goodwill. Both are manifestations of Catalyst Comets, colored comets that broke off the Cosmic Comet, the source of life; the Lich is born of the Green Comet. At least in physical appearance, from the animated fantasy series Masters of the Universe, might be considered a lich given his yellow cadaverous face, his present ram-headed staff. In the Dungeons & Dragons game a lich is a spellcaster or someone assisted by a spellcaster who seeks to defy death by magical means. In the Balance Arc of D&D-based podcast and fantasy series The Adventure Zone the characters of Lup and Barry Bluejeans as well as antagonists Lydia and Edward are all known liches.
In Magic: The Gathering, several cards represent liches. in Yu-Gi-Oh! “Number 4
Uganda the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken including Runyoro, Rukiga and Lusoga. The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential term limits and the presidential age limit, becoming president for life. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms.
Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.
Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.
The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that had roots in the Catholic Church. The bitterness between these two parties was intense especiall
Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France. Over 600 parietal wall paintings cover the interior ceilings of the cave; the paintings represent large animals, typical local and contemporary fauna that correspond with the fossil record of the Upper Paleolithic time. The drawings are the combined effort of many generations, with continued debate, the age of the paintings is estimated at around 17,000 years. Lascaux was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in 1979, as element of the Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley. On September 12, 1940, the entrance to the Lascaux Cave was discovered by 18-year-old Marcel Ravidat when his dog fell in a hole. Ravidat returned to the scene with three friends, Jacques Marsal, Georges Agnel, Simon Coencas, they entered the cave through a 15 metres deep shaft that they believed might be a legendary secret passage to the nearby Lascaux Manor. The teenagers discovered.
Galleries that suggest continuity, context or represent a cavern were given names. Those include the Hall of the Bulls, the Passageway, the Shaft, the Nave, the Apse, the Chamber of Felines, they returned along with the Abbé Henri Breuil on the 21st September 1940. Breuil was accompanied by Jean Bouyssonie and Dr Cheynier; the cave complex was opened to the public on July 14, 1948, initial archaeological investigations began a year focusing on the Shaft. By 1955, carbon dioxide, heat and other contaminants produced by 1,200 visitors per day had visibly damaged the paintings; as air condition deteriorated and lichen infested the walls. The cave was closed to the public in 1963, the paintings were restored to their original state, a monitoring system on a daily basis was introduced. Lascaux II, an exact copy of the Great Hall of the Bulls and the Painted Gallery was displayed at the Grand Palais in Paris, before being displayed from 1983 in the cave's vicinity, a compromise and attempt to present an impression of the paintings' scale and composition for the public without harming the originals.
A full range of Lascaux's parietal art is presented a few kilometres from the site at the Centre of Prehistoric Art, Le Parc du Thot, where there are live animals representing ice-age fauna. The paintings for this site were duplicated with the same type of materials as iron oxide and ochre which were believed to be used 19 thousand years ago. Other facsimiles of Lascaux have been produced over the years. Part of the cave has been recreated around a unique set of five exact replicas of the Nave and the Shaft and is displayed in various museums around the world. Lascaux IV is a new copy that forms part of the International Centre for Parietal Art and integrates digital technology into the display. In May 2018 Ochroconis lascauxensis, a species of fungus of the Ascomycota phylum, was described and named after the place of its first emergence and isolation, the Lascaux cave; this followed on from the discovery of another related species Ochroconis anomala, first observed inside the cave in 2000.
The following year black spots began to appear among the cave paintings. No official announcement on the effect and/or progress of attempted treatments has been made; as of 2008, the cave contained black mold. In January 2008, authorities closed the cave for three months to scientists and preservationists. A single individual was allowed to enter the cave for 20 minutes once a week to monitor climatic conditions. Now only a few scientific experts are allowed to work inside the cave and just for a few days a month but the efforts to remove the mold have taken a toll, leaving dark patches and damaging the pigments on the walls. In 2009 it was announced: Mold problem "stable". In 2011 the fungus seemed to be in retreat after the introduction of an additional stricter conservation program. Two research programs have been instigated at the CIAP concerning how to best treat the problem, the cave now possesses a powerful climatisation system designed to reduce the introduction of bacteria. In its sedimentary composition, the Vézère drainage basin covers one fourth of the département of the Dordogne, the northernmost region of the Black Périgord.
Before joining the Dordogne River near Limeuil, the Vézère flows in a south-westerly direction. At its centre point, the river's course is marked by a series of meanders flanked by high limestone cliffs that determine the landscape. Upstream from this steep-sloped relief, near Montignac and in the vicinity of Lascaux, the contours of the land soften considerably; the Lascaux valley is located some distance from the major concentrations of decorated caves and inhabited sites, most of which were discovered further downstream. In the environs of the village of Eyzies-de-Tayac Sireuil, there are no fewer than 37 decorated caves and shelters, as well as an greater number of habitation sites from the Upper Paleolithic, located in the open, beneath a sheltering overhang, or at the entrance to one of the area's karst cavities; this is the highest concentration in western Europe. T
The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer. The Golden Bough was first published in two volumes in 1890, it has been published in several different one-volume abridgments. The work was aimed at a wide literate audience raised on tales as told in such publications as Thomas Bulfinch's The Age of Fable, or Stories of Gods and Heroes; the influence of The Golden Bough on contemporary European literature and thought was substantial. Frazer attempted to define the shared elements of religious belief and scientific thought, discussing fertility rites, human sacrifice, the dying god, the scapegoat, many other symbols and practices whose influences had extended into 20th-century culture, his thesis is that old religions were fertility cults that revolved around the worship and periodic sacrifice of a sacred king. Frazer proposed. Frazer's thesis was developed in relation to J. M. W. Turner's painting of The Golden Bough, a sacred grove where a certain tree grew day and night.
It was a transfigured landscape in a dream-like vision of the woodland lake of Nemi, "Diana's Mirror", where religious ceremonies and the "fulfillment of vows" of priests and kings were held. The king was the incarnation of a dying and reviving god, a solar deity who underwent a mystic marriage to a goddess of the Earth, he was reincarnated in the spring. Frazer claims that this legend of rebirth is central to all of the world's mythologies. Frazer based his thesis on the pre-Roman priest-king at the fane of Nemi, ritually murdered by his successor: When I first put pen to paper to write The Golden Bough I had no conception of the magnitude of the voyage on which I was embarking; the book's title was taken from an incident in the Aeneid, illustrated by Turner, in which Aeneas and the Sibyl present the golden bough to the gatekeeper of Hades to gain admission. Frazer wrote in a preface to the third edition of The Golden Bough that while he had never studied Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, his friend James Ward, the philosopher J. M. E. McTaggart, had both suggested to him that Hegel had anticipated his view of "the nature and historical relations of magic and religion".
Frazer saw the resemblance as being that "we both hold that in the mental evolution of humanity an age of magic preceded an age of religion, that the characteristic difference between magic and religion is that, whereas magic aims at controlling nature directly, religion aims at controlling it indirectly through the mediation of a powerful supernatural being or beings to whom man appeals for help and protection." Frazer included an extract from Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion. The Golden Bough scandalized the British public when first published, as it included the Christian story of Jesus and the Resurrection in its comparative study. Critics thought this treatment invited an agnostic reading of the Lamb of God as a relic of a pagan religion. For the third edition, Frazer placed his analysis of the Crucifixion in a speculative appendix. Frazer himself accepted that his theories were speculative and that the associations he made were circumstantial and based only on resemblance.
He wrote: "Books like mine speculation, will be superseded sooner or by better induction based on fuller knowledge." In 1922, at the inauguration of the Frazer Lectureship in Anthropology, he said: "It is my earnest wish that the lectureship should be used for the disinterested pursuit of truth, not for the dissemination and propagation of any theories or opinions of mine." Godfrey Lienhardt notes that during Frazer's lifetime, social anthropologists "had for the most part distanced themselves from his theories and opinions", that the lasting influence of The Golden Bough and Frazer's wider body of work "has been in the literary rather than the academic world."Robert Ackerman writes that, for British social anthropologists, Frazer is still "an embarrassment" for being "the most famous of them all" while they now dissociate themselves "from much that he wrote." While The Golden Bough achieved wide "popular appeal" and exerted a "disproportionate" influence "on so many creative writers", Frazer's ideas played "a much smaller part" in the history of academic social anthropology.
Lienhardt himself dismissed Frazer's interpretations of primitive religion as "little more than plausible constructs of own Victorian rationalism", while Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his Remarks on Frazer's Golden Bough, wrote: "Frazer is much more savage than most of his'savages' his explanations of observances are much cruder than the sense of the observances themselves." The book's influence on the emerging discipline of anthropology was pervasive. For example, the Polish anthropologist Bronisław Malinowski read Frazer's work in the original English, afterwards wrote: "No sooner had I read this great work than I became immersed in it and enslaved by it. I realized that anthropology, as presented by Sir James Frazer, is a great science, worthy of as much devotion as any of her elder and more exact studies and I became bound to the service of Frazerian anthropology." However, by the 1920s, Frazer's ideas "began to belong to the p