Symphony No. 9 (Dvořák)
The Symphony No. 9 in E minor, "From the New World", Op. 95, B. 178, popularly known as the New World Symphony, was composed by Antonín Dvořák in 1893 while he was the director of the National Conservatory of Music of America from 1892 to 1895. It is by far his most popular symphony, one of the most popular of all symphonies. In older literature and recordings, this symphony was – as for its first publication – numbered as Symphony No. 5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong took a tape recording of the New World Symphony along during the Apollo 11 mission, the first Moon landing, in 1969; the symphony was completed in the building. This symphony is scored for the following orchestra: 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets in B flat & A 2 bassoons 4 horns in E, C and F 2 trumpets in E, C and E♭ 2 tenor trombones Bass trombone Tuba Timpani Triangle Cymbals Strings The piece has four movements: Dvořák was interested in Native American music and the African-American spirituals he heard in North America. While director of the National Conservatory he encountered an African-American student, Harry T. Burleigh, who sang traditional spirituals to him.
Burleigh a composer himself, said that Dvořák had absorbed their'spirit' before writing his own melodies. Dvořák stated: I am convinced that the future music of this country must be founded on what are called Negro melodies; these can be the foundation of a serious and original school of composition, to be developed in the United States. These beautiful and varied themes are the product of the soil, they are the folk songs of America and your composers must turn to them. The symphony was commissioned by the New York Philharmonic, premiered on 16 December 1893, at Carnegie Hall conducted by Anton Seidl. A day earlier, in an article published in the New York Herald on 15 December 1893, Dvořák further explained how Native American music influenced his symphony: I have not used any of the melodies. I have written original themes embodying the peculiarities of the Indian music, using these themes as subjects, have developed them with all the resources of modern rhythms and orchestral colour. In the same article, Dvořák stated that he regarded the symphony's second movement as a "sketch or study for a work, either a cantata or opera... which will be based upon Longfellow's Hiawatha".
He wrote that the third movement scherzo was "suggested by the scene at the feast in Hiawatha where the Indians dance". In 1893, a newspaper interview quoted Dvořák as saying "I found that the music of the negroes and of the Indians was identical", that "the music of the two races bore a remarkable similarity to the music of Scotland". Most historians agree that Dvořák is referring to the pentatonic scale, typical of each of these musical traditions. In a 2008 article in The Chronicle of Higher Education, prominent musicologist Joseph Horowitz asserts that African-American spirituals were a major influence on Dvořák's music written in North America, quoting him from an 1893 interview in the New York Herald as saying, "In the negro melodies of America I discover all, needed for a great and noble school of music." Dvořák did, it seems, borrow rhythms from the music of his native Bohemia, as notably in his Slavonic Dances, the pentatonic scale in some of his music written in North America from African-American and/or Native American sources.
Statements that he borrowed melodies are made but supported by specifics. One verified example is the song of the Scarlet Tanager in the Quartet. Michael Steinberg writes that a flute solo theme in the first movement of the symphony resembles the spiritual "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot". Leonard Bernstein averred that the symphony was multinational in its foundations. Dvořák was influenced not only by what he had seen, in America, he wrote that he would not have composed his American pieces if he had not seen America. It has been said that Dvořák was inspired by the American "wide open spaces" such as prairies he may have seen on his trip to Iowa in the summer of 1893. Notices about several performances of the symphony include the phrase "wide open spaces" about what inspired the symphony and/or about the feelings it conveys to listeners. Dvořák was influenced by the style and techniques used by earlier classical composers including Beethoven and Schubert; the falling fourths and timpani strokes in the New World Symphony's Scherzo movement evokes the Scherzo of Beethoven's Choral Symphony.
The use of flashbacks to prior movements in the New World Symphony's last movement is reminiscent of Beethoven quoting prior movements in the opening Presto of the Choral Symphony's final movement. At the premiere in Carnegie Hall, the end of every movement was met with thunderous clapping and Dvořák felt obliged to stand up and bow; this was one of the greatest public triumphs of Dvořák's career. When the symphony was published, several European orchestras soon performed it. Alexander Mackenzie conducted the London Philharmonic Society in the European premiere on 21 June 1894. Clapham says the symphony became "one of the most popular of all time" and at a time when the composer's main works were being welcomed in no more than ten countries, this symphony reached the rest of the musical world and has become a "universal favorite." It had been performed more "than any other symphony at the Royal Festival Hall, London" and is in "tremendous demand in Japan." The theme from the Largo was adapted into the spiritual-like song "Goin'
Michael Tilson Thomas
Michael Tilson Thomas is an American conductor and composer. He is music director of the San Francisco Symphony, artistic director of the New World Symphony, an American orchestral academy based in Miami Beach, Florida. Tilson Thomas was born in Los Angeles, California, to Ted and Roberta Thomas, a Broadway stage manager and a middle school history teacher respectively, he is the grandson of noted Yiddish theater stars Boris and Bessie Thomashefsky, who performed in the Yiddish Theater District in Manhattan. The family talent goes back to Tilson Thomas's great-grandfather, Pincus, an actor and playwright, before that to a long line of cantors, he was a prodigy. Tilson Thomas studied piano with John Crown and composition and conducting under Ingolf Dahl at the University of Southern California; as a student of Friedelind Wagner, Tilson Thomas was a Musical Assistant and Assistant Conductor at the Bayreuth Festival. Tilson Thomas is gay and lives in San Francisco with his partner of thirty years, Joshua Robison.
The couple married on November 2, 2014. Tilson Thomas has conducted a wide variety of music and is a particular champion of modern American works, he is renowned for his interpretation of the works of Gustav Mahler. These recordings have been released on the high-resolution audio format Super Audio CD on the San Francisco Symphony's own recording label. Tilson Thomas is known as a premier interpreter of the works of Aaron Copland, Charles Ives, Steve Reich. A sampling of Tilson Thomas's own compositions include From the Diary of Anne Frank, Shówa/Shoáh, Poems of Emily Dickinson and Urban Legend. Tilson Thomas has been devoted to music education, he leads a series of education programs titled Keeping Score which offers insight into the lives and works of great composers, led a series of Young People's Concerts with the New York Philharmonic. Tilson Thomas founded the New World Symphony in Miami in 1987. Most Tilson Thomas has led two incarnations of the YouTube Symphony Orchestra, which brings young musicians from around the world together for a week of music making and learning.
Presently, Tilson Thomas is connecting tangibly with his past. He is president of the Tomashefsky Project, a $2 million undertaking formed in 2017 that will record and preserve his grandparents' theatrical achievements. "There are 2,000 to 3,000 documents out there on Boris and Bessie and Yiddish theater" says Linda Steinberg, founding executive director of the project. In the New York Public Library alone there are 700 - and nobody's looked at them." Other major collections are in the library of Congress and the University of California at Berkeley, Harvard and Brandeis. These include original manuscripts, sheet music, playbills, photographs, as well as costumes and props" From 1968 to 1994, Tilson Thomas was the Music Director of the Ojai Music Festival seven different times. After winning the Koussevitzky Prize at Tanglewood in 1969, Tilson Thomas was named Assistant Conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra; that same year, he made his conducting debut with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, replacing an unwell William Steinberg mid-concert and thereby coming into international recognition at the age of 24.
He stayed with the Boston Symphony as an assistant conductor until 1974 and made several recordings with the orchestra for Deutsche Grammophon. He was music director of the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra from 1971 to 1979, recorded for Columbia Records with the orchestra. Between 1971 and 1977, he conducted the series of Young People's Concerts with the New York Philharmonic. From 1981 to 1985, he was principal guest conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra. During a performance of Mahler's Eighth Symphony at the Hollywood Bowl, a helicopter flew over the venue, disrupting the concert; this is. In 2007, he returned to the Hollywood Bowl leading the Los Angeles Philharmonic again in Mahler 8, announcing jokingly, "Now where were we?". He returned in 2013 with Mahler's Second Symphony. Tilson Thomas stopped the orchestra, but resumed the performance. In 1987, Tilson Thomas founded the New World Symphony in Miami Beach, Florida, an orchestral academy for gifted young musicians whose stated mission is "to prepare highly-gifted graduates of distinguished music programs for leadership roles in orchestras and ensembles around the world."
He is the academy's artistic director. He played an instrumental role in the development of the Frank Gehry-designed New World Center in Miami Beach, which opened in 2011. From 1988 to 1995, Tilson Thomas was principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra, recorded with them for such labels as Columbia, including the Symphony No 3 of Mahler. From 1995, he held the title of principal guest conductor with the LSO, became conductor laureate in 2016. Tilson Thomas became the San Francisco Symphony's 11th Music Director in 1995, he made his debut with the orchestra in January 1974 conducting Mahler's Symphony No. 9. During his first season with the San Francisco Symphony, Tilson Thomas included a work by an American composer on nearly every one of his programs, including the first performances by the orchestra of music by Lou Harrison, and
A paraphrase is a restatement of the meaning of a text or passage using other words. The term itself is derived via Latin paraphrasis from Greek παράφρασις, meaning "additional manner of expression"; the act of paraphrasing is called "paraphrasis". A paraphrase explains or clarifies the text, being paraphrased. For example, "The signal was red" might be paraphrased as "The train was not allowed to pass because the signal was red". A paraphrase is introduced with verbum dicendi—a declaratory expression to signal the transition to the paraphrase. For example, in "The signal was red, that is, the train was not allowed to proceed," the, signals the paraphrase that follows. A paraphrase does not need to accompany a direct quotation, the paraphrase serves to put the source's statement into perspective or to clarify the context in which it appeared. A paraphrase is more detailed than a summary. One should add the source at the end of the sentence, for example: When the light was red, trains could not go.
Paraphrase may attempt to preserve the essential meaning of the material being paraphrased. Thus, the reinterpretation of a source to infer a meaning, not explicitly evident in the source itself qualifies as "original research," and not as paraphrase. Unlike a metaphrase, which represents a "formal equivalent" of the source, a paraphrase represents a "dynamic equivalent" thereof. While a metaphrase attempts to translate a text a paraphrase conveys the essential thought expressed in a source text, if necessary, at the expense of literality. For details, see dynamic and formal equivalence; the term is applied to the genre of Biblical paraphrases, which were the most circulated versions of the Bible available in medieval Europe. Here, the purpose was not to render an exact rendition of the meaning or the complete text, but to present material from the Bible in a version, theologically orthodox and not subject to heretical interpretation, or, in most cases, to take from the Bible and present to a wide public material, interesting and spiritually meaningful, or to abridge the text.
The phrase "in your own words" is used within this context to imply that the writer has rewritten the text in their own writing style - how they would have written it if they had created the idea. Nowadays, there are some models to recognize paraphrase on natural language texts. Sentences can be automatically paraphrased using text simplification software. Automated paraphrasing Text simplification Rogeting
Three Places in New England
The Three Places in New England is a composition for orchestra in three movements by American composer Charles Ives. It was written between 1911 and 1914, but with sketches dating as far back as 1903 and last revisions made in 1929; the work is celebrated for its use of musical paraphrasing. The movements are: Lasting just under twenty minutes, Three Places in New England has become one of Ives's most performed compositions, it exhibits signature traits of his style: layered textures with multiple, sometimes simultaneous melodies, many of which are recognizable hymn or marching tunes. Each “place” is in New England; each is intended to make the listener experience a unique atmosphere, as if there. To this end, the paraphrasing of American folk tunes is an important device, providing tangible reference points and making the music accessible despite its avant-garde chromaticism. Three Places in New England aims to paint a picture of American ideals and patriotism at the turn of the 20th century.
Three Places in New England was composed between 1903 and 1929. The set was completed in 1914, but was revised for performance in 1929; the second piece, Putnam’s Camp, Connecticut was created from two short theater orchestra pieces composed by Ives in 1903. These pieces, "Country Band" March and Overture & March: "1776", were completed in 1904. Lyman Brewster, Ives' uncle, had asked him to compose the pieces for his play Major John Andre, never performed due to Brewster's untimely death. In the early fall of 1912, Ives began tinkering with these compositions again; the satisfaction that Ives derived from working on the Fourth of July, in which he used the trio section of 1776, may have been the catalyst for inspiring him to reuse these lost songs and create a longer piece. By October, Ives had completed an ink score-sketch of Putnam's Camp; the final version of the piece resembles its source materials, but many of the complex musical jokes that littered the originals had been replaced with simpler alternatives.
The Housatonic at Stockbridge, the third piece in the set, was composed in 1911 along with the opening piece, The "St.-Gaudens" in Boston Common. By 1912, after finishing Putnam's Camp, Ives had settled on the form of a three-movement orchestral set, had written the majority of it. In 1929 Nicolas Slonimsky, conductor of the Boston Chamber Orchestra at that time, contacted Ives about the possibility of performing Three Places. Slonimsky had been urged by American composer Henry Cowell, Ives' contemporary, to program an Ives piece for some time, Three Places caught his attention; the thorough reworking required to transform Three Places from an orchestral score to one that could be performed by a much smaller chamber orchestra renewed Ives' interest in the work. Slonimsky required that the piece be re-scored for: 1 flute, 1 oboe, 1 English horn, 1 clarinet, 1 bassoon, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 1 trombone, 1 percussionist, 1 piano, 7 violins, 2 violas, 2 cellos and 1 string bass – a much smaller orchestra than the original.
Ives was glad to have his piece played, but his comments on the re-scoring include, on the full score of The Housatonic at Stockbridge, "piano may be used for Bassoons throughout... a poor substitute..." Three Places was first performed on February 16, 1930 under Slonimsky's direction before the American Committee of the International Society for Contemporary Music, in New York City. Although it had been rehearsed only once, the Committee was sufficiently impressed to recommend the work to the International Society, which turned it down for performance at its festival; the first public performance was scheduled for January 10, 1931. Ives himself attended – in fact, he was funding the concert himself; the performance received mild applause, Ives congratulated the performers backstage – "Just like a town meeting – every man for himself. Wonderful how it came out!". After the mild success of the first performance and Ives were inspired to take Three Places abroad: Ives is one of the first American composers to have been played outside America.
Slonimsky conducted Three Places in Paris on June 6, at a concert he described as "absolutely extraordinary" because so many important composers and critics of the time were in the audience. Their first experience of Ives left them impressed: Ives' music was not just interesting because it was composed by an American, it fascinated them because the music described America. Although the listeners didn't understand all the cultural references, Ives was calling attention to American ideals, issues and perspectives. For instance, in The St. Gaudens', Ives paraphrases ragtime, slave plantation songs such as Old Black Joe and patriotic American Civil War tunes such as Marching through Georgia; the combination of such songs conjured up images of the fight for freedom in America. International recognition solidified the image of Ives as an American composer strengthened by his use of borrowing from American sounding pieces. Three Places in New England became the first of Ives' compositions to be commercially published.
Slonimsky was in touch with C. C. Birchard on Ives’ behalf, by 1935 the two had negotiated a deal. Ives and Slonimsky both painstakingly proofread the score, note by note, to make sure the engravings were correct. In 1935, Ives held a copy of his first work in his hands, he had requested that the binding bear his name in as small a font as possible, so as to not appear egotistical. For m
The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family. As with all brass instruments, the sound is produced by lip vibration into a large mouthpiece, it first appeared in the mid-19th century, making it one of the newer instruments in the modern orchestra and concert band. The tuba replaced the ophicleide. Tuba is Latin for'trumpet'. In America, a person who plays the tuba is known as a tubist. In the United Kingdom, a person who plays the tuba in an orchestra is known as a tuba player. Prussian Patent No. 19 was granted to Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz on September 12, 1835 for a "bass tuba" in F1. The original Wieprecht and Moritz instrument used five valves of the Berlinerpumpen type that were the forerunners of the modern piston valve; the first tenor tuba was invented in 1838 by son of Johann Gottfried Moritz. The addition of valves made it possible to play low in the harmonic series of the instrument and still have a complete selection of notes.
Prior to the invention of valves, brass instruments were limited to notes in the harmonic series, were thus played high with respect to their fundamental pitch. Harmonics starting three octaves above the fundamental pitch are about a whole step apart, making a useful variety of notes possible; the ophicleide used a bowl-shaped brass instrument mouthpiece but employed keys and tone holes similar to those of a modern saxophone. Another forerunner to the tuba was the serpent, a bass instrument, shaped in a wavy form to make the tone holes accessible to the player. Tone holes changed the pitch by providing an intentional leak in the bugle of the instrument. While this changed the pitch, it had a pronounced effect on the timbre. By using valves to adjust the length of the bugle the tuba produced a smoother tone that led to its popularity. Adolphe Sax, like Wieprecht, was interested in marketing systems of instruments from soprano to bass, developed a series of brass instruments known as saxhorns; the instruments developed by Sax were pitched in E♭ and B♭, while the Wieprecht "basstuba" and the subsequent Cerveny contrabass tuba were pitched in F and C.
Sax's instruments gained dominance in France, in Britain and America, as a result of the popularity and movements of instrument makers such as Gustave Auguste Besson and Henry Distin. An orchestra has a single tuba, though an additional tuba may be requested, it serves as the bass of the orchestral brass section and it can reinforce the bass voices of the strings and woodwinds. It provides the bass of brass choirs, it is the principal bass instrument in concert bands, brass bands and military bands, those ensembles have two to four tubas. It is a solo instrument. Tubas are used in marching bands and bugle corps and in many jazz bands. In British style brass bands, two E ♭ and two B ♭ tubas are referred to as basses. Well known and influential parts for the tuba include: Modest Mussorgsky: Pictures at an Exhibition - Bydło, Night On Bald Mountain Richard Strauss: Also sprach Zarathustra, Eine Alpensinfonie, Till Eulenspiegel Shostakovich: All Symphonies, except for the Fourteenth symphony Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring, Petroushka Edgard Varèse: Déserts Richard Wagner: Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Ride of the Valkyries, Faust Overture Sergei Prokofiev: Fifth Symphony George Gershwin: An American in Paris Silvestre Revueltas: Sensemayá, La noche de los mayas, Homenaje a Federico García Lorca Gustav Holst: The Planets Gustav Mahler: First Symphony, Second Symphony, Fifth Symphony, Sixth Symphony, Eighth Symphony Ottorino Respighi: Fountains of Rome, Pines of Rome Hector Berlioz: Symphonie fantastique, Hungarian March Paul Hindemith: Symphonic MetamorphosisConcertos have been written for the tuba by many notable composers, including Ralph Vaughan Williams, Edward Gregson, John Williams, Alexander Arutiunian, Eric Ewazen, James Barnes, Joseph Hallman, Martin Ellerby, Philip Sparke, Kalevi Aho, Josef Tal, Bruce Broughton and David Carlson.
Tubas are found in various pitches, most in F, E♭, C, or B♭. The main tube of a B♭ tuba is 18 feet long, while that of a C tuba is 16 feet, of an E♭ tuba 13 feet, of an F tuba 12 feet; the instrument has a conical bore, meaning the bore diameter increases as a function of the tubing length from the mouthpiece to the bell. The conical bore. A tuba with its tubing wrapped for placing the instrument on the player's lap is called a concert tuba or a tuba. Tubas with the bell pointing forward instead of upward are called recording tubas because of their popularity in the early days of recorded music, as their sound could more be directed at the recording microphone; when wrapped to surround the body for cavalry bands on horseback or marching, it is traditionally known as a hélicon. The modern sousaphone, named after American bandmaster John Philip Sousa, resembles a hélicon with the bell pointed up and curved to point forward; some ancestors of the tuba, such as the military bombardon, had unusual valve and bore arrangements compared to modern tubas.
During the Am
The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening. According to the instrument classification of Hornbostel–Sachs, flutes are categorized as edge-blown aerophones. A musician who plays the flute can be referred to as a flute player, flutist or, less fluter or flutenist. Flutes are the earliest extant musical instruments, as paleolithic instruments with hand-bored holes have been found. A number of flutes dating to about 43,000 to 35,000 years ago have been found in the Swabian Jura region of present-day Germany; these flutes demonstrate that a developed musical tradition existed from the earliest period of modern human presence in Europe. The word flute first entered the English language during the Middle English period, as floute, or else flowte, flote from Old French flaute and from Old Provençal flaüt, or else from Old French fleüte, flaüte, flahute via Middle High German floite or Dutch fluit.
The English verb flout has the same linguistic root, the modern Dutch verb fluiten still shares the two meanings. Attempts to trace the word back to the Latin flare have been pronounced "phonologically impossible" or "inadmissable"; the first known use of the word flute was in the 14th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, this was in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Hous of Fame, c.1380. Today, a musician who plays any instrument in the flute family can be called a flutist, or flautist, or a flute player. Flutist dates back to at least 1603, the earliest quotation cited by the Oxford English Dictionary. Flautist was used in 1860 by Nathaniel Hawthorne in The Marble Faun, after being adopted during the 18th century from Italy, like many musical terms in England since the Italian Renaissance. Other English terms, now obsolete, are fluter and flutenist; the oldest flute discovered may be a fragment of the femur of a juvenile cave bear, with two to four holes, found at Divje Babe in Slovenia and dated to about 43,000 years ago.
However, this has been disputed. In 2008 another flute dated back to at least 35,000 years ago was discovered in Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany; the five-holed flute is made from a vulture wing bone. The researchers involved in the discovery published their findings in the journal Nature, in August 2009; the discovery was the oldest confirmed find of any musical instrument in history, until a redating of flutes found in Geißenklösterle cave revealed them to be older with an age of 42,000 to 43,000 years. The flute, one of several found, was found in the Hohle Fels cavern next to the Venus of Hohle Fels and a short distance from the oldest known human carving. On announcing the discovery, scientists suggested that the "finds demonstrate the presence of a well-established musical tradition at the time when modern humans colonized Europe". Scientists have suggested that the discovery of the flute may help to explain "the probable behavioural and cognitive gulf between" Neanderthals and early modern human.
A three-holed flute, 18.7 cm long, made from a mammoth tusk was discovered in 2004, two flutes made from swan bones excavated a decade earlier are among the oldest known musical instruments. A playable 9,000-year-old Gudi was excavated from a tomb in Jiahu along with 29 defunct twins, made from the wing bones of red-crowned cranes with five to eight holes each, in the Central Chinese province of Henan; the earliest extant Chinese transverse flute is a chi flute discovered in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng at the Suizhou site, Hubei province, China. It dates from 433 BC, of the Zhou Dynasty, it is fashioned of lacquered bamboo with closed ends and has five stops that are at the flute's side instead of the top. Chi flutes are mentioned in Shi Jing and edited by Confucius, according to tradition; the earliest written reference to a flute is from a Sumerian-language cuneiform tablet dated to c. 2600–2700 BCE. Flutes are mentioned in a translated tablet of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem whose development spanned the period of 2100–600 BCE.
Additionally, a set of cuneiform tablets knows as the "musical texts" provide precise tuning instructions for seven scale of a stringed instrument. One of those scales is named embūbum, an Akkadian word for "flute"; the Bible, in Genesis 4:21, cites Jubal as being the "father of all those who play the ugab and the kinnor". The former Hebrew term is believed by some to refer to some wind instrument, or wind instruments in general, the latter to a stringed instrument, or stringed instruments in general; as such, Jubal is regarded in the Judeo-Christian tradition as the inventor of the flute. Elsewhere in the Bible, the flute is referred to as "chalil", in particular in 1 Samuel 10:5, 1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12 and 30:29, Jeremiah 48:36. Archeological digs in the Holy Land have discovered flutes from both the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, the latter era "witness the creation of the Israelite kingdom and its separation into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judea."Some early flutes were made out of tibias.