The Symphony No. 5 in C minor of Ludwig van Beethoven, Op. 67, was written between 1804 and 1808. It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music and one of the most played symphonies, it is considered one of the cornerstones of western music. First performed in Vienna's Theater an der Wien in 1808, the work achieved its prodigious reputation soon afterward. E. T. A. Hoffmann described the symphony as "one of the most important works of the time"; as is typical of symphonies in the classical period, Beethoven's Fifth Symphony is in four movements. It begins with a distinctive four-note "short-short-short-long" motif: The symphony, the four-note opening motif in particular, are known worldwide, with the motif appearing in popular culture, from disco versions to rock and roll covers, to uses in film and television. Like Beethoven's Eroica and Pastorale, Symphony No. 5 was given an explicit name besides the numbering, though not by Beethoven himself. It became popular under "Schicksals-Sinfonie", the famous five bar theme was coined "Schicksals-Motiv".
This name is used in translations. The Fifth Symphony had a long development process, as Beethoven worked out the musical ideas for the work; the first "sketches" date from 1804 following the completion of the Third Symphony. Beethoven interrupted his work on the Fifth to prepare other compositions, including the first version of Fidelio, the Appassionata piano sonata, the three Razumovsky string quartets, the Violin Concerto, the Fourth Piano Concerto, the Fourth Symphony, the Mass in C; the final preparation of the Fifth Symphony, which took place in 1807–1808, was carried out in parallel with the Sixth Symphony, which premiered at the same concert. Beethoven was in his mid-thirties during this time. In the world at large, the period was marked by the Napoleonic Wars, political turmoil in Austria, the occupation of Vienna by Napoleon's troops in 1805; the symphony was written at his lodgings at the Pasqualati House in Vienna. The final movement quotes from a revolutionary song by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.
The Fifth Symphony was premiered on 22 December 1808 at a mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna consisting of Beethoven premieres, directed by Beethoven himself on the conductor's podium. The concert lasted for more than four hours; the two symphonies appeared on the programme in reverse order: the Sixth was played first, the Fifth appeared in the second half. The programme was as follows: The Sixth Symphony Aria: Ah! perfido, Op. 65 The Gloria movement of the Mass in C major The Fourth Piano Concerto The Fifth Symphony The Sanctus and Benedictus movements of the C major Mass A solo piano improvisation played by Beethoven The Choral Fantasy Beethoven dedicated the Fifth Symphony to two of his patrons, Prince Franz Joseph von Lobkowitz and Count Razumovsky. The dedication appeared in the first printed edition of April 1809. There was little critical response to the premiere performance, which took place under adverse conditions; the orchestra did not play well—with only one rehearsal before the concert—and at one point, following a mistake by one of the performers in the Choral Fantasy, Beethoven had to stop the music and start again.
The auditorium was cold and the audience was exhausted by the length of the programme. However, a year and a half publication of the score resulted in a rapturous unsigned review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, he described the music with dramatic imagery: Radiant beams shoot through this region's deep night, we become aware of gigantic shadows which, rocking back and forth, close in on us and destroy everything within us except the pain of endless longing—a longing in which every pleasure that rose up in jubilant tones sinks and succumbs, only through this pain, while consuming but not destroying love and joy, tries to burst our breasts with full-voiced harmonies of all the passions, we live on and are captivated beholders of the spirits. Apart from the extravagant praise, Hoffmann devoted by far the largest part of his review to a detailed analysis of the symphony, in order to show his readers the devices Beethoven used to arouse particular affects in the listener. In an essay titled "Beethoven's Instrumental Music", compiled from this 1810 review and another one from 1813 on the op. 70 string trios, published in three installments in December 1813, E.
T. A. Hoffmann further praised the "indescribably profound, magnificent symphony in C minor": How this wonderful composition, in a climax that climbs on and on, leads the listener imperiously forward into the spirit world of the infinite!... No doubt the whole rushes like an ingenious rhapsody past many a man, but the soul of each thoughtful listener is assuredly stirred and intimately, by a feeling, none other than that unutterable portentous longing, until the final chord—indeed in the moments that follow it—he will be powerless to step out of that wondrous spirit realm where grief and joy embrace him in the form of sound.... The symphony soon acquired its status as a central item in the orchestral repertoire, it was played in the inaugural concerts of the New York Philharmonic on 7 December 1842, the National Symphony Orchestra on 2 November 1931. It was first recorded by the Odeon Orchestra under Friedrich Kark in 1910; the First Movement was featured on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds and music of Earth, sent into o
Friedrich Gottlob Koenig was a German inventor best known for his high-speed steam-powered printing press, which he built together with watchmaker Andreas Friedrich Bauer. This new style of printing press could print up to 1,100 sheets per hour, printing on both sides of the paper at the same time, he moved to London in 1804 and in 1810 was granted a patent on his press, which produced its first trial run in April 1812. The machine was set up in their workshop, invitations sent out to potential customers, notably John Walter of The Times. Amidst much secrecy, for fear of upsetting the existing pressmen, trials were carried out with great success; the first issue of The Times printed with the new presses was published on 29 November 1814. In August 1817 Koenig returned to Germany because of a disagreement with Thomas Bensley, a London book printer partner, who Koenig believed sought sole rights to the new machine. After consideration he chose an abandoned monastery in Würzburg for the premises of the factory.
The firm was called Bauer. Bolza, Hans, "Friedrich Koenig und die Erfindung der Druckmaschine", Technikgeschichte, 34: 79–89 Wolf, Hans-Jürgen, Geschichte der Druckpressen, Frankfurt/Main: Interprint Koenig's press History of Koenig & Bauer
Tyske Ludder is a German EBM band. Their members include Olaf A. Reimers and Ralf Homann. In 2008 they appeared at the Infest in Bradford, and in May 2009 they appeared at the Wave-Gotik-Treffen in Leipzig and the M'era Luna Festival in Hildesheim, Germany. The phrase Tyske Ludder directly translated means "German whores" in Danish and Norwegian and was used in those countries to describe a native woman, romantically involved with a German soldier during World War II. Tyske Ludder, Line-up live at Nocturnal Culture Night 2018 in Deutzen 1994: Bombt die Mörder? – KM-MUSIK 1995: Dalmarnock – KM-MUSIK 2006: Союз – Black Rain 2006: Bombt die Mörder? – Re-Release with many remixes at Black Rain 2006: Dalmarnock – Re-Release with many remixes at Black Rain 2009: Anonymous - Black Rain 2011: Diaspora - Black Rain 2015: Evolution - Golden Core 1996: Creutzfeld E. P. – EP at KM-MUSIK 2006: Creutzfeld E. P. – Re-Release of the EP with many remixes at Black Rain 2008: SCIENTific technOLOGY E. P. - EP at Black Rain 2013: Bambule E.
P. – E. P. at Black Rain 2006: In Sedens – Remix for Grandchaos – God Is Dead – Deathkon Media 2007: Methods To Madness – Remix for – Brain Leisure – Defect – Vendetta Music 2007: When Angels Die – Remix for E-Craft – FunnyStuff & Violence – COP International 2008: Blasphemous Radicals E. P. – Remix for Nurzery – My Babylon – COP International Demo Compilation Vol. 3 – A. I. D. S. – KM-Musik, Sounds Of Delight 1993: Art & Dance 4 – Zu Viel, Barthalomäus – Gothic Arts Records / Lost Paradise 1993: Take Off Music Volume 1 – Energie – KM-Musik 1994: Demo Compilation Vol. 1 – Wie Der Stahl Gehärtet – KM-Musik, Sounds Of Delight 1995: An Ideal For Living 2 – Blutrausch – Gothic Arts Records / Lost Paradise 1998: Electrocity Level X – Monotonie – Ausfahrt 1999: Wellenreiter In Schwarz Vol. 3 – Grelle Farben – Credo, Nova Tekk 2005: Bodybeats – Innenraum – COP International 2006: Hymns Of Steel – Betrayal – Machineries Of Joy 2006: Interbreeding VIII: Elements Of Violence – Betrayal – BLC Productions 2006: Orkus Compilation 16 – Canossa – Orkus 2007: A Compilation 2 – Canossa – Black Rain 2007: Dark Visions 2 – Canossa – Zillo 2007: ElektroStat 2007 – Bionic Impression Oslo Synthfestival 2008: Zillo – New Signs & Sounds – Thetanen – Zillo 2008: A Compilation 3 – Thetanen – Black Rain 2009: 12.
Elektrisch Festival - Wie der Stahl gehärtet wurde,Khaled Aker - Black A$2009: Extreme Lustlieder 3 - Bastard 2009: Black Snow - Fairytale of the North - Black Rain DAF review, Osnabrueck, 2012 metal.de review DAF review, Krefeld, 2009 alternativmusik.de review interview Official Website Tyske Ludder at Discogs Tyske Ludder at NME Black Rain record label Tyske Ludder at Sideline Magazine, 18 September 2009
BiCE Ristorante was an Italian restaurant located in New York City. Opening in 1987, the restaurant was popular with an upscale New York City clientele, it was described, soon after opening, by The New York Times as being "too chic, too crowded, too self-consciously European—yet everyone wants to visit." The restaurant closed in 2011 due to financial troubles. Crain's New York Business called BiCE an "institution". BiCE closed permanently in 2014. BiCE was founded, in 1987, by Roberto Ruggeri. Ruggeri was inspired by his mother's restaurant in Milan, Italy, founded in 1926, where he worked with his brother, Remo Ruggeri. Both brothers are still involved in BiCE today; the restaurant is the same name as their mother's restaurant, her nickname, short for Beatrice Mungai Ruggeri. The restaurant, its international sister restaurants, suffered due to the Great Recession. In 2011, the restaurant closed due to debt, it was remained under the Ruggeri name. The restaurant had its interior updated and a restaurant manager and a marketing executive were hired.
Famous customers included Bill Blass. Their head chef was Silverio Chavez, born in Mexico. BiCE closed permanently in 2014. In January 2013, BiCE added a prix fixe meal which cost patrons $2,013 to purchase, gratuity included, for the restaurants 25th anniversary; the meal comes with calamari, a veal dish, the main dish, set on a Versace designed plate and consists of tagliolini, made in house, two pounds of lobster and black truffles. Chocolate mousse was served for dessert. Customers were given the Versace plate as a take home gift, which sold at the time at retail for $350. Gianni Versace used to dine at the Milan restaurant, before his death in 1997, he created a chinaware design for the restaurant. 800 plates were created and as of January 45 remained. The meal was sold for a limited time, until February 15, 2013. Italian food List of Italian restaurants Official website
Borkum is an island and a municipality in the Leer District in Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany. It is situated east of west of Juist. Borkum is bordered to the west by the Westerems strait, to the east by the Osterems strait, to the north by the North Sea, to the south by the Wadden Sea, it is the largest and westernmost of the East Frisian Islands in the North Sea, due north of the Dutch province of Groningen. The island was formed in 1863 by two separate islands which were still separated by a shallow water; the seam between the former eastern and western parts is called Tüskendör. Mentioned as Burchana fabaria by both Strabo and Pliny the elder, Borkum by the time of Charlemagne was part of a larger island called Bant, which consisted of the present day islands of Borkum and the western part of Norderney. In 1484, Bant passed to the Earls of East Frisia, who developed trade, the island became known as a centre of piracy and whaling. By 1781, violent storms in the 18th century divided Bant into three islands.
As whaling decreased, the inhabitants became impoverished, many left, with the island's population falling from 852 in 1776 to 406 by 1811. The first tourists arrived on the island in 1834, the local economy improved as a tourist resort. In Mexico as I saw it, published by Thomas Nelson, Mrs Alec Tweedie, writing in 1911 about a trip of 1900 to Mexico, compares the brick roads of Monterrey with those of Borkum, "the one spot on earth from which Jews are banished"; this had to do with the aggressive and successful campaign of German tourists to keep Borkum free from Jewish visitors, as celebrated in the antisemitic "Borkum-Lied". In 1910, British officers Captain Bernard Frederick Trench and Lieutenant Vivian H. Brandon were imprisoned for espionage for photographing the military installations on the island. On 19 and 20 December 1934, Wernher von Braun launched "Max" and "Moritz", the two prototypes of the A2-rocket; the island was the site of Nazi war crimes prosecuted in the Borkum Island war crimes trial.
The island is car-free. Off-season, driving by car, otherwise there are car-free zones; the only town on the island is called Borkum. There is an airfield in the Tüskendör area. Borkum is served by ferries from Emden and Eemshaven, the Netherlands; the Borkumer Kleinbahn narrow-gauge railway connects the town of Borkum. List of ferry boats of the East Frisian Islands "Borkum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. 1911. Official site Web-Directory with the topic Borkum Web-Directory with the topic Borkum's summer residence
The Soomra dynasty were rulers from the Indian subcontinent, based at Thatta, located in present-day Pakistan. Their origins are variously claimed to be indigenous Sindhi people or from Rajputs. Beginning with the reign of Soomar, the dynasty ruled in the Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent from 1026 to 1356. Despite their fall, Soomra culture and traditions continued to impact Sindh for the next several centuries. In 711 CE, Muhammad Bin Qasim extended Umayyad rule to Sindh, making it the easternmost province of the Umayyad empire based in Damascus. Under Umayyad rule, the Arab Habbari dynasty was established as a vassal state of the Umayyads, before ruling semi independently between the 9th and 11th centuries from their capital at Mansura; the Umayyad Caliphate was overthrown by the Abbasids of Baghdad in 850, the Habbari state continued to rule independently, despite nominal recognition from the Abbasids. The Arab Habbari state was invaded in 1010 by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, who believed the Abbasids of to be the rightful caliphs and sought to extinguish any remnants of Umayyad influence in Sindh by sacking Mansura.
Ghaznavi was unable to hold Sindh following his sacking of Mansura. In place of him, the local Soomro tribe established the Soomra Dynasty, began to govern Sindh as a vassal state of the Abbasid Caliphate. Soomro historians regarded their first sultan to be Khafif, although modern research suggests that Khafif was the last Habbari sultan, rather than the first Soomra sultan; the Soomro tribe were one of the first tribes in Sindh to convert to Islam, had become wealthy at Mansura. Their origins were claimed to be Arab, although they were most indigenous Sindhis, with a ruling elite that had mixed origins from Arab officers who were encouraged to intermarry with local Sindhis under Umayyad rule, their name, in fact, may be derived from the city of Samarra in Iraq. They sometimes are claimed to be of Rajput descent, although no definitive evidence exists which corroborates that claim. Despite conversion to Islam, they continued to maintain several Hindu traditions. Under the rule of the second Soomra sultan, Soomra rule was extended northward until Uch.
During the early 11th century, an Ismaili missionary from the Fatimid Caliphate named Abdullah visited Sindh to spread Isma'ilism, resulting the Sindh and Uch becoming centers of Ismaili Shi'ism. Around the same time, large numbers of Sunni Sufi missionaries from Persia and Central Asia entered Sindh, would lead to large numbers of Sindhis converting to Islam. Both the Shia and Sunni traditions peacefully coexisted in Sindh. In the late 1000s-early 1100s, Soomra control was extended southwards to the regions of Kutch and Kathiawar in the modern-day Indian state of Gujarat under the rule of Sanghar, under his son Khafif-ll. Following his death, Sanghar's wife Hamoon attempted to usurp the Soomra throne for herself, though her efforts were crushed by Soomra nobles. In the late 1100s, Muhammad Ghori invaded Sindh, leading to struggles over Kutch with the neighboring Samma dynasty. In the 1220s, Jalaluddin Mingburnu of Khwarezm sacked Sindh, occupied the Soomra port of Debal; the Soomros ruled as Abbasid vassals until the Siege of Baghdad, after which they began to rule independently.
Soomro rule over Sindh was weakened in the 1330s as the River Indus shifted course, disturbing Sindh's economy. The Soomra dynasty's rule over Sindh ended when the last Soomra king was defeated by Alauddin Khalji, the second king of the Khalji dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate, they continued to rule pockets of territory in the Thar desert around Umerkot until the mid 1400s. Soomro historians regarded their first sultan to be Khafif, although he may have been in fact the last Habbari sultan. Consensus lists the following as Soomro rulers: Sardar Soomar. First three years under the care of his sister Tari who acted as regent Khafif-ll, son of Dodo-ll.