The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family. It consists of first and second violins, violas and double basses, it is the most numerous group in the typical Classical orchestra. In discussions of the instrumentation of a musical work, the phrase "the strings" or "and strings" is used to indicate a string section as just defined. An orchestra consisting of a string section is called a string orchestra. Smaller string sections are sometimes used in jazz and rock music and in the pit orchestras of musical theatre; the most common seating arrangement in the 2000s is with first violins, second violins and cello sections arrayed clockwise around the conductor, with basses behind the cellos on the right. The first violins are led by the concertmaster; the principal string players sit at the front of their section, closest to the conductor and on the row of performers, closest to the audience. In the 19th century it was standard to have the first and second violins on opposite sides, rendering obvious the crossing of their parts in, for example, the opening of the finale to Tchaikovsky's Sixth Symphony.
If space or numbers are limited and basses can be put in the middle and violas on the left and winds to the right. The seating may be specified by the composer, as in Béla Bartók's Music for Strings and Celesta, which uses antiphonal string sections, one on each side of the stage. In some cases, due to space constraints or other issues, a different layout may be used. In a typical stage set-up, the first and second violins and cellos are seated by twos, a pair of performers sharing a stand being called a "desk", Each principal is on the "outside" of the first desk, that is, closest to the audience; when the music calls for subdivision of the players the normal procedure for such divisi passages is that the "outside" player of the desk takes the upper part, the "inside" player the lower, but it is possible to divide by alternating desks, the favored method in threefold divisi. The "inside" player turns the pages of the part, while the "outside" player continues playing. In cases where a page turn occurs during an essential musical part, modern performers may photocopy some of the music to enable the page turn to take place during a less important place in the music.
There are more variations of set-up with the double bass section, depending on the size of the section and the size of the stage. The basses are arranged in an arc behind the cellos, either standing or sitting on high stools with two players sharing a stand. There are not as many basses as cellos, so they are either in one row, or for a larger section, in two rows, with the second row behind the first. In some orchestras, some or all of the string sections may be placed on wooden risers, which are platforms that elevate the performers; the size of a string section may be expressed with a formula of the type 10-10-8-10-6, designating the number of first violins, second violins, violas and basses. The numbers can vary widely: Wagner in Die Walküre specifies 16-16-12-12-8. In general, music from the Baroque music era and the Classical music period used smaller string sections. During the Romantic music era, string sections were enlarged to produce a louder, fuller string sound that could match the loudness of the large brass instrument sections used in orchestral music from this period.
During the contemporary music era, some composers requested smaller string sections. In some regional orchestras, amateur orchestras and youth orchestras, the string sections may be small, due to the challenges of finding enough string players; the music for a string section is not written in five parts. The role of the double-bass section evolved during the 19th century. In orchestral works from the classical era, the bass and cello would play from the same part, labelled "Bassi". Given the pitch range of the instruments, this means that if a double bassist and a cellist read the same part, the double bass player would be doubling the cello part an octave lower. While passages for cellos alone are common in Mozart and Haydn, independent parts for both instruments become frequent in Beethoven and Rossini and common in works of Verdi and Wagner. In Haydn's oratorio The Creation, the music to which God tells the newly created beasts to be fruitful and multiply achieves a rich, dark tone by its setting for divided viola and cello sections with violins omitted.
Famous works without violins include the 6th of the Brandenburg Concerti by Bach, Second Serenade of Brahms, the opening movement of Brahms's Ein Deutsches Requiem, Andrew Lloyd Webber's Requiem, Philip Glass's opera Akhnat
Oboes belong to the classification of double reed woodwind instruments. Oboes are made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials; the most common oboe plays in the soprano range. A soprano oboe measures 65 cm long, with metal keys, a conical bore and a flared bell. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed at a sufficient air pressure, causing it to vibrate with the air column; the distinctive tone is versatile and has been described as "bright". When the word oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family, such as the bass oboe, the cor anglais, or oboe d'amore A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. Today, the oboe is used in concert bands, chamber music, film music, some genres of folk music, as a solo instrument, heard in jazz, rock and popular music. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear and penetrating voice; the Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in 1695, describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, not much Inferior to the Trumpet."
In the play Angels in America the sound is described as like "that of a duck if the duck were a songbird". The rich timbre is derived from its conical bore; as a result, oboes are easier to hear over other instruments in large ensembles due to its penetrating sound. The highest note is a semitone lower than the nominally highest note of the B♭ clarinet. Since the clarinet has a wider range, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Music for the standard oboe is written in concert pitch, the instrument has a soprano range from B♭3 to G6. Orchestras tune to a concert A played by the first oboe. According to the League of American Orchestras, this is done because the pitch is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning; the pitch of the oboe is affected by the way. The reed has a significant effect on the sound. Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch. German and French reeds, for instance, differ in many ways.
Weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch. Skilled oboists adjust their embouchure to compensate for these factors. Subtle manipulation of embouchure and air pressure allows the oboist to express timbre and dynamics. Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can control factors such as tone color and responsiveness. Novice oboists may begin with a Fibrecane reed, made of a synthetic material. Commercially available cane reeds are available in several degrees of hardness; these reeds, like clarinet and bassoon reeds, are made from Arundo donax. As oboists gain more experience, they may start making their own reeds after the model of their teacher or buying handmade reeds and using special tools including gougers, pre-gougers, guillotines and other tools to make the reed to their liking. According to the late John Mack, former principal oboist of the Cleveland Orchestra, an oboe student must fill a laundry basket with finished reeds in order to master the art.
"Making good reeds requires years of practice, the amateur is well advised not to embark on making his own reeds... Orchestral musicians sometimes do this, co-principals in particular earn a bit on the side in this way.... Many professional musicians import their reed cane... directly from the growers in southern France and split it vertically into three parts themselves. Oboes require thicknesses of about 10 millimeters." This allows each oboist to adjust the reeds for individual embouchure, oral cavity, oboe angle, air support. The reed is considered the part of oboe playing that makes it so difficult because slight variations in temperature, altitude and climate will change a working reed into an unplayable collection of cane. In English, prior to 1770, the standard instrument was called a "hautbois", "hoboy", or "French hoboy"; the spelling of oboe was adopted into English c. 1770 from the Italian oboè, a transliteration of the 17th-century pronunciation of the French name. The regular oboe first appeared in the mid-17th century.
This name was used for its predecessor, the shawm, from which the basic form of the hautbois was derived. Major differences between the two instruments include the division of the hautbois into three sections, or joints, the elimination of the pirouette, the wooden ledge below the reed which allowed players to rest their lips; the exact date and place of origin of the hautbois are obscure, as are the individuals who were responsible. Circumstantial evidence, such as the statement by the flautist composer Michel de la Barre in his Memoire, points to members of the Philidor and Hotteterre families; the instrument may in fact have had multiple inventors. The hautbois spread throughout Europe, including Great Britain, where it was called "hautboy", "hoboy", "hautboit", "howboye", similar variants of the French name, it was the
In music, hemiola is the ratio 3:2. The equivalent Latin term is sesquialtera. In pitch, hemiola refers to the interval of a perfect fifth. In rhythm, hemiola refers to three beats of equal value in the time occupied by two beats; the word hemiola comes from the Greek adjective ἡμιόλιος, meaning "containing one and a half," "half as much again," "in the ratio of one and a half to one, as in musical sounds." The words "hemiola" and "sesquialtera" both signify the ratio 3:2, in music were first used to describe relations of pitch. Dividing the string of a monochord in this ratio produces the interval of a perfect fifth. Beginning in the 15th century, both words were used to describe rhythmic relationships the substitution of three imperfect notes for two perfect ones in tempus perfectum or in prolatio maior. Hemiola can be used to describe the ratio of the lengths of two strings as three-to-two, that together sound a perfect fifth; the early Pythagoreans, such as Hippasus and Philolaus, used this term in a music-theoretic context to mean a perfect fifth.
The justly tuned pitch ratio of a perfect fifth means that the upper note makes three vibrations in the same amount of time that the lower note makes two. In the cent system of pitch measurement, the 3:2 ratio corresponds to 702 cents, or 2% of a semitone wider than seven semitones; the just perfect fifth can be heard when a violin is tuned: if adjacent strings are adjusted to the exact ratio of 3:2, the result is a smooth and consonant sound, the violin sounds in tune. Just perfect fifths are the basis of Pythagorean tuning, are employed together with other just intervals in just intonation; the 3:2 just perfect fifth arises in the justly tuned C major scale between C and G. Play Later Greek authors such as Aristoxenus and Ptolemy use the word to describe smaller intervals as well, such as the hemiolic chromatic pyknon, one-and-a-half times the size of the semitone comprising the enharmonic pyknon. In rhythm, hemiola refers to three beats of equal value in the time occupied by two beats; the Oxford Dictionary of Music illustrates hemiola with a superimposition of three notes in the time of two and vice versa.
One textbook states that, although the word "hemiola" is used for both simultaneous and successive durational values, describing a simultaneous combination of three against two is less accurate than for successive values and the "preferred term for a vertical two against three … is sesquialtera." The New Harvard Dictionary of Music states that in some contexts, a sesquialtera is equivalent to a hemiola. Grove's Dictionary, on the other hand, has maintained from the first edition of 1880 down to the most recent edition of 2001 that the Greek and Latin terms are equivalent and interchangeable, both in the realms of pitch and rhythm, although David Hiley, E. Thomas Stanford, Paul R. Laird hold that, though similar in effect, hemiola properly applies to a momentary occurrence of three duple values in place of two triple ones, whereas sesquialtera represents a proportional metric change between successive sections. A repeating vertical hemiola is known as polyrhythm, or more cross-rhythm; the most basic rhythmic cell of sub-Saharan Africa is the 3:2 cross-rhythm.
Novotney observes: "The 3:2 relationship is the foundation of most typical polyrhythmic textures found in West African musics." Agawu states: " resultant rhythm holds the key to understanding... There is no independence here, because 2 and 3 belong to a single Gestalt."In the following example, a Ghanaian gyil plays a hemiola as the basis of an ostinato melody. The left hand sounds the two main beats. In compound time. Where a regular pattern of two beats to a measure is established at the start of a phrase; this changes to a pattern of three beats at the end of the phrase. The minuet from J. S. Bach's keyboard Partita No. 5 in G major articulates groups of 2 times 3 quavers that are in 68 time, despite the 34 metre stated in the initial time-signature. The latter time is restored only at the cadences: Later in the same piece, Bach creates a conflict between the two metres: Hemiola is found in many Renaissance pieces in triple rhythm. One composer who exploited this characteristic was the 16th-century French composer Claude Le Jeune, a leading exponent of musique mesurée à l'antique.
One of his best-known chansons is "Revoici venir du printemps", where the alternation of compound-duple and simple-triple metres with a common counting unit for the beat subdivisions can be heard: The hemiola was used in baroque music in dances, such as the courante and minuet. Other composers who have used the device extensively include Corelli, Handel and Beethoven. A spectacular example from Beethoven comes in the scherzo from his String Quartet No. 6. As Philip Radcliffe puts it, "The constant cross-rhythms shifting between 34 and 68, commoner at certain earlier and periods, were far from usual in 1800, here they are made to sound eccentric owing to frequent sforzandi on the last quaver of the bar... it looks ahead to works and must have sounded disconcerting to contemporary audiences." In the nineteenth century, Tchaikovsky used hemiolas in his waltzes, as did Richard Strauss in the waltzes from Der Rosenkavalier, the third movement of Robert Schumann's Piano Concerto is noted for the ambiguity of its rhythm.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are always scored for an orchestra consisting of a string section, brass and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30 to 100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score. Orchestral musicians play from parts; some symphonies contain vocal parts. The word symphony is derived from the Greek word συμφωνία, meaning "agreement or concord of sound", "concert of vocal or instrumental music", from σύμφωνος, "harmonious"; the word referred to a variety of different concepts before settling on its current meaning designating a musical form. In late Greek and medieval theory, the word was used for consonance, as opposed to διαφωνία, the word for "dissonance".
In the Middle Ages and the Latin form symphonia was used to describe various instruments those capable of producing more than one sound simultaneously. Isidore of Seville was the first to use the word symphonia as the name of a two-headed drum, from c. 1155 to 1377 the French form symphonie was the name of the organistrum or hurdy-gurdy. In late medieval England, symphony was used in both of these senses, whereas by the 16th century it was equated with the dulcimer. In German, Symphonie was a generic term for spinets and virginals from the late 16th century to the 18th century. In the sense of "sounding together," the word begins to appear in the titles of some works by 16th- and 17th-century composers including Giovanni Gabrieli's Sacrae symphoniae, Symphoniae sacrae, liber secundus, published in 1597 and 1615, respectively. 16, published in 1607. 18, published in 1610. 6, Symphoniarum sacrarum secunda pars, op. 10, published in 1629 and 1647, respectively. Except for Viadana's collection, which contained purely instrumental and secular music, these were all collections of sacred vocal works, some with instrumental accompaniment.
In the 17th century, for most of the Baroque period, the terms symphony and sinfonia were used for a range of different compositions, including instrumental pieces used in operas and concertos—usually part of a larger work. The opera sinfonia, or Italian overture had, by the 18th century, a standard structure of three contrasting movements: fast, slow and dance-like, it is this form, considered as the direct forerunner of the orchestral symphony. The terms "overture", "symphony" and "sinfonia" were regarded as interchangeable for much of the 18th century. In the 17th century, pieces scored for large instrumental ensemble did not designate which instruments were to play which parts, as is the practice from the 19th century to the current period; when composers from the 17th century wrote pieces, they expected that these works would be performed by whatever group of musicians were available. To give one example, whereas the bassline in a 19th-century work is scored for cellos, double basses and other specific instruments, in a 17th-century work, a basso continuo part for a sinfonia would not specify which instruments would play the part.
A performance of the piece might be done with a basso continuo group as small as a single cello and harpsichord. However, if a bigger budget was available for a performance and a larger sound was required, a basso continuo group might include multiple chord-playing instruments and a range of bass instruments, including cello, double bass, bass viol or a serpent, an early bass woodwind instrument. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson write in the second edition of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians that "the symphony was cultivated with extraordinary intensity" in the 18th century, it played a role in many areas of public life, including church services, but a strong area of support for symphonic performances was the aristocracy. In Vienna the most important location in Europe for the composition of symphonies, "literally hundreds of noble families supported musical establishments dividing their time between Vienna and their ancestral estate ". Since the normal size of the orchestra at the time was quite small, many of these courtly establishments were capable of performing symphonies.
The young Joseph Haydn, taking up his first job as a music director in 1757 for the Morzin family, found that when the Morzin household was in Vienna, his own orchestra was only part of a lively and competitive musical scene, with multiple aristocrats sponsoring concerts with their own ensembles. LaRue, Bonds and Wilson's article traces the gradual expansion of the symphonic orchestra through the 18th century. At first, symphonies were string symphonies, written in just four parts: first violin, second violin and bass; the early symphonists dispensed with the viola part, thus creating three-part symphonies. A basso continuo part including a bassoon together with a harpsichord or other chording instrument was pos
A minuet is a social dance of French origin for two people in 34 time. The word was adapted from Italian minuetto and French menuet from the French menu meaning slender, referring to the small steps, or from the early 17th-century popular group dances called branle à mener or amener; the term describes the musical form that accompanies the dance, which subsequently developed more often with a longer musical form called the minuet and trio, was much used as a movement in the early classical symphony. The name may refer to the short steps, pas menus, taken in the dance, or else be derived from the branle à mener or amener, popular group dances in early 17th-century France; the minuet was traditionally said to have descended from the bransle de Poitou, though there is no evidence making a clear connection between these two dances. The earliest treatise to mention the possible connection of the name to the expression pas menus is Gottfried Taubert's Rechtschaffener Tantzmeister, published in Leipzig in 1717, but this source does not describe the steps as being small or dainty.
At the period when it was most fashionable it was controlled and graceful. The name of this dance is given to a musical composition written in the same time and rhythm, though when not accompanying an actual dance the pace was quicker. Stylistically refined minuets, apart from the social dance context, were introduced—to opera at first—by Jean-Baptiste Lully, who included no fewer than 92 of them in his theatrical works and in the late 17th century the minuet was adopted into the suite, such as some of the suites of Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Händel. Among Italian composers the minuet was considerably quicker and livelier and was sometimes written in 38 or 68 time; because the tempo of a minuet was not standard, the tempo direction tempo di minuetto was ambiguous unless qualified by another direction, as it sometimes was. Before its adoption in contexts other than social dance, the minuet was in binary form, with two repeated sections of eight bars each, but the second section expanded, resulting in a kind of ternary form.
The second minuet provided form of contrast by means of different orchestration. On a larger scale, two such minuets might be further combined, so that the first minuet was followed by a second one and by a repetition of the first; the whole form might in any case be repeated as long. Around Lully's time it became a common practice to score this middle section for a trio; as a result, this middle section came to be called the minuet's trio when no trace of such an orchestration remains. The overall structure is called rounded binary or minuet form: After these developments by Lully, composers inserted a modified repetition of the first section or a section that contrasted with both the A section and what was thereby rendered the third or C section, yielding the form A–A′–B–A or A–B–C–A, respectively. A livelier form of the minuet developed into the scherzo; this term came into existence from Beethoven onwards, but the form itself can be traced back to Haydn. The minuet and trio became the standard third movement in the four-movement classical symphony, Johann Stamitz being the first to employ it thus with regularity.
An example of the true form of the minuet is to be found in Don Giovanni. A famous example of a more recent instrumental work in minuet form is Ignacy Jan Paderewski's Minuet in G. Scherzo, a musical form derived from the minuet Blatter, Alfred. 2007. Revisiting Music Theory: A Guide to the Practice. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-97440-2; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Minuet". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 564. Little, Meredith Ellis. 2001. "Minuet". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Rosen, Charles. 1988. Sonata Forms, revised edition. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-30219-9. Russell, Tilden A. 2001. "Tempo di minuetto". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Russell, Tilden. 2006. "The Minuet According to Taubert".
Dance Research: The Journal of the Society for Dance Research 24, no. 2: 138–62. Sutton, Julia. 1985. "The Minuet: An Elegant Phoenix". Dance Chronicle, no. 8:119–52. Caplin, William Earl. 1998. Classical Form: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn and Beethoven. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510480-3. Elson, Louis Charles. 1908. The Theory of Music as Applied to the Teaching and Practice of Voice and Instruments, 21st edition. Boston: New England Conservatory of Music.. Example of a Minuet Choreography: "Menuet à deux pour un homme et une femme", Raoul Auger Feuillet: Recueil de Dances
Franz Joseph Haydn was an Austrian composer of the Classical period. He was instrumental in the development of chamber music such as the piano trio, his contributions to musical form have earned him the epithets "Father of the Symphony" and "Father of the String Quartet". Haydn spent much of his career as a court musician for the wealthy Esterházy family at their remote estate; until the part of his life, this isolated him from other composers and trends in music so that he was, as he put it, "forced to become original". Yet his music circulated and for much of his career he was the most celebrated composer in Europe, he was a friend and mentor of Mozart, a tutor of Beethoven, the older brother of composer Michael Haydn. Joseph Haydn was born in Rohrau, Austria, a village that at that time stood on the border with Hungary, his father was Mathias Haydn, a wheelwright who served as "Marktrichter", an office akin to village mayor. Haydn's mother Maria, née Koller, had worked as a cook in the palace of Count Harrach, the presiding aristocrat of Rohrau.
Neither parent could read music. According to Haydn's reminiscences, his childhood family was musical, sang together and with their neighbours. Haydn's parents had noticed that their son was musically gifted and knew that in Rohrau he would have no chance to obtain serious musical training, it was for this reason that, around the time Haydn turned six, they accepted a proposal from their relative Johann Matthias Frankh, the schoolmaster and choirmaster in Hainburg, that Haydn be apprenticed to Frankh in his home to train as a musician. Haydn therefore went off with Frankh to Hainburg and he never again lived with his parents. Life in the Frankh household was not easy for Haydn, who remembered being hungry and humiliated by the filthy state of his clothing, he began his musical training there, could soon play both harpsichord and violin. The people of Hainburg heard. There is reason to think that Haydn's singing impressed those who heard him, because in 1739 he was brought to the attention of Georg von Reutter, the director of music in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, who happened to be visiting Hainburg and was looking for new choirboys.
Haydn passed his audition with Reutter, after several months of further training moved to Vienna, where he worked for the next nine years as a chorister. Haydn lived in the Kapellhaus next to the cathedral, along with Reutter, Reutter's family, the other four choirboys, which after 1745 included his younger brother Michael; the choirboys were instructed in Latin and other school subjects as well as voice and keyboard. Reutter was of little help to Haydn in the areas of music theory and composition, giving him only two lessons in his entire time as chorister. However, since St. Stephen's was one of the leading musical centres in Europe, Haydn learned a great deal by serving as a professional musician there. Like Frankh before him, Reutter did not always bother to make sure; as he told his biographer Albert Christoph Dies, Haydn was motivated to sing well, in hopes of gaining more invitations to perform before aristocratic audiences—where the singers were served refreshments. By 1749, Haydn had matured physically to the point that he was no longer able to sing high choral parts.
Empress Maria Theresa herself complained to Reutter about his singing, calling it "crowing". One day, Haydn carried out a prank; this was enough for Reutter: Haydn was first caned summarily dismissed and sent into the streets. He had the good fortune to be taken in by a friend, Johann Michael Spangler, who shared his family's crowded garret room with Haydn for a few months. Haydn began his pursuit of a career as a freelance musician. Haydn struggled at first, working at many different jobs: as a music teacher, as a street serenader, in 1752, as valet–accompanist for the Italian composer Nicola Porpora, from whom he said he learned "the true fundamentals of composition", he was briefly in Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz's employ, playing the organ in the Bohemian Chancellery chapel at the Judenplatz. While a chorister, Haydn had not received any systematic training in music composition; as a remedy, he worked his way through the counterpoint exercises in the text Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux and studied the work of Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, whom he acknowledged as an important influence.
As his skills increased, Haydn began to acquire a public reputation, first as the composer of an opera, Der krumme Teufel, "The Limping Devil", written for the comic actor Johann Joseph Felix Kurz, whose stage name was "Bernardon". The work was premiered in 1753, but was soon closed down by the censors due to "offensive remarks". Haydn noticed without annoyance, that works he had given away were being published and sold in local music shops. Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn worked freelance for the court in Vienna, he was among several musicians who were paid for services as supplementary musicians at balls given for the imperial children during carnival season, as supplementary singers in the imperial chapel in Lent and Holy Week. With the increase in his reputation, Haydn obtained aristocratic patronage, crucial for the career of a composer in his day. Countess Thun, having seen one of Haydn's compositions, summoned him and engaged him as her singing an