Anastasia of Kiev
Anastasia of Kiev was Queen of Hungary by marriage to King Andrew the White. She was the eldest daughter of Grand Prince Yaroslav I the Wise of Kiev and Ingigerd of Sweden, the older sister of Anne of Kiev, Queen consort of Henry I of France. Around 1039, Anastasia married to Duke Andrew of Hungary, who had settled down in Kiev after his father Vazul took part in a failed assassination attempt aimed at King Stephen I of Hungary. In 1046, her husband returned to Hungary and ascended the throne as King Andrew I after defeating King Peter I. Anastasia followed her husband to the kingdom, it was she who persuaded her husband to set up a lavra in Tihany for hermits who had come to Hungary from the Kievan Rus'. The royal couple did not have a son until 1053. However, Solomon's birth and coronation caused a bitter conflict between King Andrew I and his younger brother Duke Béla, the heir to the throne until the child's birth; when Duke Béla rose in open rebellion against King Andrew in 1060, the king sent his wife and children to the court of Adalbert, Margrave of Austria.
King Andrew was defeated and died shortly afterwards, his brother was crowned King of Hungary on 6 December 1060. Anastasia sought the help of King Henry IV of Germany, whose sister, Judith had been engaged to her child Solomon in 1058. By the time the German troops entered to Hungary to give assistance to Solomon against his uncle, King Béla I had died and his sons, Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert had fled to Poland; the young Solomon was crowned on 27 September 1063. On the occasion of her son's coronation, Anastasia presented what was believed to be the sword of Attila the Hun to Duke Otto II of Bavaria, the leader of the German troops. Between 1060 and 1073 King Solomon governed his kingdom in collaboration with his cousins, Dukes Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert who had returned to Hungary and accepted his rule. However, in 1074 the three brothers rebelled against their cousin, defeated him on 14 March 1074. King Solomon fled to the Western borders of Hungary where he was able to maintain his rule only over the counties of Moson and Pozsony.
Anastasia had followed Solomon. So she moved to Admont Abbey, she was buried in the Abbey. C. 1039: King Andrew I of Hungary Adelaide, wife of king Vratislaus II of Bohemia King Solomon of Hungary David of Hungary Raffensperger, Christian. Reimagining Europe:Kievan Rus in the Medieval World, 988-1146. Harvard University Press. Kristó, Gyula – Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói Korai Magyar Történeti Lexikon, főszerkesztő: Kristó, szerkesztők: Engel, Pál és Makk, Ferenc Magyarország Történeti Kronológiája I. – A kezdetektől 1526-ig, főszerkesztő: Benda, Kálmán
Euphrosyne of Kiev
Euphrosyne of Kiev was Queen consort of Hungary by marriage to King Géza II of Hungary. Euphrosyne was the first daughter of Grand Prince Mstislav I of Kiev and his second wife, Ljubava Saviditsch. In 1146, Euphrosyne married King Géza II of Hungary. During her husband's reign Euphrosyne did not intervene in the politics of the kingdom, but after his death on 31 May 1162, her influence strengthened over their son, King Stephen III; the young king had to struggle against his uncles Ladislaus and Stephen to save his throne, Euphrosyne took an active part in the struggles. She persuaded King Vladislaus II of Bohemia to give military assistance to her son against the invasion of the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. Euphrosyne's favourite son was Duke Géza of Hungary; when King Stephen III died on 4 March 1172, she was planning to ensure his succession against her older son, Béla, living in the court of the Emperor Manuel I Komnenos. However, Béla came back, he was crowned on 13 January 1173, although the Archbishop Lukács of Esztergom denied his coronation.
Shortly after, King Béla III arrested his brother, which increased the tension between Euphrosyne and her son. Duke Géza soon managed to escape with Euphrosyne's help, but in 1177 he was again arrested. In 1186, Euphrosyne tried to release her younger son again. King Béla III kept her confined in the fortress of Barancs. Shortly after, Euphrosyne was set free. From Constantinople she moved to Jerusalem where she lived as a nun in the convent of the Hospitallers, in the Basilian monastery of Saint Sabbas, she had the following children: King Stephen III of Hungary. King Béla III of Hungary. Elisabeth. Géza. Árpád, died in infancy. Odola. Helena. Margaret, married firstly Isaac Dukas "Makrodukas" and secondly Andrew, Ispán of Somogy. Soltész, István: Árpád-házi királynék Kristó, Gyula – Makk, Ferenc: Az Árpád-ház uralkodói Encyclopædia Britannica Geza II of Hungary
Margaret of Durazzo
Margaret of Durazzo was Queen of Naples and Hungary and Princess of Achaea as the spouse of Charles III of Naples. She was regent of Naples from 1386 until 1393 during the minority of her son Ladislaus of Naples, she was the fourth daughter of Charles, Duke of Durazzo and Maria of Calabria, but the only one to have children. In February, 1369, Margaret married her paternal first cousin Charles of Durazzo, he was a son of Louis of Durazzo, another son of John, Duke of Durazzo and his second wife Agnes de Périgord. The bride was twenty-two years old and the groom twenty-four. Charles managed to depose her maternal aunt Queen Joanna I of Naples in 1382, he succeeded. Charles succeeded James of Baux as Prince of Achaea in 1383 with Margaret still as his consort. By becoming the senior Angevin male, Charles was offered the Crown of Hungary. Margaret did not support the idea of deposing Queen Mary of Hungary and discouraged her husband from doing so. Nonetheless, he deposed Mary in December 1385 and himself crowned.
She was daughter of his deceased cousin Louis I of Elizabeth of Bosnia. However, Mary's formidable mother Elizabeth arranged his assassination at Visegrád on 24 February 1386. In the meantime relationships with Pope Urban VI became strained, as he suspected that Charles was plotting against him. In January 1385 he had six cardinals arrested, one, under torture, revealed Charles' conjure, he thus excommunicated Charles, his wife Margaret and raised an interdict over the Kingdom of Naples. Margaret became a queen dowager and the regent of Naples as the guardian of her minor son from 1386 until 1393, she survived her husband by twenty-six years but never remarried. Their son Ladislaus succeeded to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples while Mary of Hungary was restored to her throne. Margaret insisted that her husband's death be revenged and Elizabeth was murdered; the heads of her defenders were sent to console Margaret. Pope Boniface IX and Margarethe came to a peace agreement, her excommunication was lifted and with the help of Cardinal Angelo Acciaioli Margarethe could continue to serve as regent until July 1393.
In the last years of her life, the queen dowager retired first to Salerno and to Acquamela, where she died of plague in 1412. She had become a devout Catholic and a member of a Franciscan Third Order in her last years and requested to be buried as such. Mary of Durazzo. Joanna II of Naples Ladislaus of Naples Marek, Miroslav. "A listing of descendants of Charles I of Sicily". Genealogy. EU
Isabella Jagiellon was the oldest child of Polish King Sigismund I the Old, the Grand Duke of Lithuania and his Italian wife Bona Sforza. In 1539, she married John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania and King of Hungary, becoming Queen consort of Hungary. At the time Hungary was contested between Archduke Ferdinand of Austria who wanted to add it to the Habsburg domains, local nobles who wanted to keep Hungary independent, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent who saw it as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. While Isabella's marriage lasted only a year and a half, it did produce a male heir – John Sigismund Zápolya born just two weeks before his father's death in July 1540, she spent the rest of her life embroiled in succession disputes on behalf of her son. Her husband's death sparked renewed hostilities but Sultan Suleiman established her as a regent of the eastern regions of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary on behalf of her infant son; the region developed. Ferdinand, never renounced his claims to reunite Hungary and conspired with Bishop George Martinuzzi who forced Isabella to abdicate in 1551.
She returned to her native Poland to live with her family. Sultan Suleiman retaliated and threatened to invade Hungary in 1555–56 forcing nobles to invite Isabella back to Transylvania, she returned in October 1556 and ruled as her son's regent until her death in September 1559. Born in Kraków, Isabella was the oldest child of King Sigismund I the Old and his Italian wife Bona Sforza, she spent most of her childhood at hunting castle in Niepołomice. She lived in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1527–29 and 1533–36. During the latter visit her three younger sisters were left in Kraków; this episode foreshadowed future family relationships: Bona Sforza favored her oldest daughter, arranging her marriage early, while the other three daughters were neglected and married late. Isabella received a good education, including from humanist Johannes Honter, she could speak and write four languages: Polish, Latin and Italian. In March 1519, when Isabella was just a two-month-old baby, French envoys proposed to marry Isabella with a future son of Francis I of France in exchange for Sigismund's support in the upcoming elections for the Holy Roman Emperor.
Sigismund supported Charles V. She hoped that King of France would install his son and Isabella in the Duchy of Milan which Bona claimed as her inheritance. In 1524, Hieronymus Łaski negotiated an anti-Turkish alliance with the French, but this alliance failed. Bona pursued an Italian marriage. Isabella of Naples, Isabella's grandmother, sent envoys to Poland to propose marriage to Francesco II Sforza, newly installed Duke of Milan. However, Sigismund refused as the duchy was contested and Francesco's hold was tenuous. Bona proposed Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, but he chose Margaret Paleologa as she brought March of Montferrat as her inheritance. Sigismund wanted a Habsburg marriage. In 1530, he proposed Maximilian, eldest son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, but they refused as Isabella was eight years older than the groom; when Habsburgs wanted to stop the proposed marriage between Isabella and John Zápolya, they proposed Ludovico, eldest son of Charles III, Duke of Savoy, but he died in 1536.
Around 1531, a plan emerged to wed Isabella to John Zápolya, Voivode of Transylvania and King of Hungary. When Louis II of Hungary was killed in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was divided between pro-Habsburg Royal Hungary and pro-Zápolya Eastern Hungarian Kingdom; the parties were engaged in the Little War in Hungary. Zápolya had sustained his claim only by gaining support from and becoming vassal of the Ottoman Empire. Bona Sforza, ardent opponent of the Habsburgs, supported Zápolya and tried to convince her husband Sigismund to provide military support and Isabella's hand. Sigismund, whose first wife was Zápolya's sister Barbara, refused not wanting to upset the Habsburgs and doubting Zápolya's ability to hold onto his throne. Sigismund relented on a condition that a peace treaty is concluded between Zápolya and the Habsburgs; the Treaty of Nagyvárad was signed in February 1538 in part due to Sigismund's requirement. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and Zápolya agreed to divide Hungary between themselves and that Ferdinand was to inherit Zápolya's territory since at that time he was childless.
In April 1538, just two months after the Treaty of Nagyvárad, Bishop Stjepan Brodarić arrived to Kraków to negotiate timing and conditions for the wedding of Isabella and John Zápolya. Polish nobles considered the wedding to be ill-conceived and not beneficial. On 15 January 1539, five hundred Hungarian knights arrived to Kraków; the betrothal took place on 26 January. The per procura wedding date is not known but it was between 28 January and 2 February. After the ceremony, Isabella departed towards Hungary, her dowry was 32,000 ducats in cash plus property worth another 6,000 ducats. Through Buda she reached Székesfehérvár where she met John Zápolya for the first time on 22 February, he granted her the towns of Iňačovce, Deva, Číčov, parts of Debrecen and Regéc castles. The next day the wedding ceremony took Isabella was crowned as Queen of Hungary; the wedding feast continued for a week in Buda. The married life was not happy. 20-year-old Isabell
Gisela of Hungary
Blessed Gisela of Hungary was the first queen consort of Hungary by marriage to Saint Stephen of Hungary, the sister of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. She has been beatified by the Roman Catholic church. Gisela was Duke of Bavaria and Gisela of Burgundy. Gisela was raised devout, most with bishop Wolfgang of Regensburg as her mentor and governor, she married King Stephen I of Hungary in 996 as a part of Hungary's policy of opening up to the West. The couple had Saint Emeric, who died on 2 September 1031, while hunting boar; the wedding of Stephen and Gisela marked a turning point in Hungary's history. Queen Gisela played a fundamental role in spreading the Christian faith and Western culture in Hungary; when Edmund Ironside of England died, he was succeeded by Cnut. Edmund's infant sons were ended up under the protection of King Stephen of Hungary. One of the twins died young, but the other, Edward Atheling, was brought up as a protégé of Queen Gisela, regarded in that foreign court as the heir to the Anglo-Saxon throne.
King Stephen died in 1038. In 1046 Gisela, her attendants, a number of many Bavarian settlers left Hungary to return to Bavaria, where she joined Niederburg convent in Passau and became the abbess, she lived in the nunnery of Niedernburg in Passau. Her canonisation failed, she was declared Blessed in 1975. Her memorial days are May 7 and February 1. Gisela and her husband were not buried together. On May 4, 1996, the remains of King Stephen’s right hand was preserved, it was brought back together with a bone taken from the arm of Gisela. Both are now safely protected in glass and gold cases, are displayed in the basilica in the western Hungarian town of Veszprém, where Gisela once lived, her grave is a well-known, regarded as a holy place. The cross was commissioned by Queen Gisela for the tomb of her mother, who died in 1006 and was buried in the Niedermünster in Regensburg. Blessed Gisela is depicted on a white limestone panel by Hungarian artist Sandor Kiss on the wall of the Chapel of Our Lady – Queen of Hungary in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome.
Butler, Alban. "Bd Giselle of Bavaria". Butler's Lives of the Saints. London: Burns & Oates. P. 39. ISBN 0-86012-254-9. Györffy, György. "Gisela, erste Königin von Ungarn". Bd 17, Hefte zur Bayerischen Geschichte und Kultur. Augsburg: Haus der Bayerischen Geschichte. P. 15. ISBN 3-927233-45-5
Gertrude of Merania
Gertrude of Merania was Queen of Hungary as the first wife of Andrew II from 1205 until her assassination. She was regent during her husband's absence, she was the daughter of the Bavarian Count Berthold IV of Andechs, elevated to the title Duke of Merania by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, his wife Agnes from the Saxon House of Wettin. Gertrude's elder sister was Agnes of a famous beauty, who married King Philip II of France, her younger sister was St. Hedwig of Silesia, wife of the Piast duke Henry I the Bearded, the High Duke of Poland, their brother was Otto. Her parents wanted their daughters to all make important political marriages, which would create alliances for Duke Berthold IV. Gertrude married the Árpád prince Andrew II, younger son of late King Béla III of Hungary, before 1203. Andrew thereby took sides in the conflict over the German throne, joining his father-in-law in his support of Duke Philip of Swabia, while his elder brother King Emeric of Hungary backed King Otto IV of Germany.
The couple had five children: Anna Maria of Hungary, wife of Tzar Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria King Béla IV of Hungary Saint Elisabeth of Hungary, wife of Landgraf Louis IV of Thuringia King Coloman of Galicia-Lodomeria Prince Andrew II of Halych Ambitious Gertrude exerted much political influence over her husband. It was she who persuaded Andrew to conspire against his brother again, but when King Emeric, who had realised that Andrew's troops outnumbered his armies, went unarmed, wearing only the crown and the sceptre, to Andrew's camp near Varasd, Andrew surrendered voluntarily on the spur of the scene; the king had his brother arrested. During this time, Gertrude was sent back to her father. Things improved for her, when Prince Andrew took over the government of the Hungarian kingdom upon the death of King Emeric in 1204 as regent for his minor nephew Ladislaus III, who died driven in exile one year later. Gertrude was killed in 1213, by Hungarian noblemen, who were jealous over the advancement of her German relatives at court.
While the king was in battle, Gertrude gave out Hungarian land as "gifts" to her favorites. According to medieval chroniclers, one third of the country was given away but the magnates got it back after the queen's death. Thus, Hungary did not prosper. During the frequent absence of her husband, the queen was regent and, as Dietrich of Apolda states, conducted the affairs of the kingdom "like a man". In 1206 her younger brother Berthold was installed as Archbishop of Kalocsa, in 1212 he was appointed Voivode of Transylvania. While King Andrew was campaigning in Galicia, the Hungarian nobles, led by Peter, son of Töre decided to get rid of the queen and in 1213 on a hunt with Berthold and their guest Duke Leopold VI of Austria in the Pilis Mountains, she was killed. Gertrude's body was torn to her brother and Duke Leopold narrowly escaped with their lives. Due to the current political situation most of her murderers remained unpunished during the rule of Andrew II. Only Gertrude's son King Béla IV took revenge after his accession to the throne.
Gertrude's tomb was of a Gothic style. Her tomb was excavated between 1967 and 1980. On Gertrude's death, Andrew married Yolanda de Courtenay, she is the main character in Bánk bán. It is based on a true fact: Lord Bánk, a nobleman went touring the country on Gertrude's order, while the king was on crusade, his young wife stayed at home. Gertrude's brother fell in love with the young woman but she was afraid of him. Gertude encouraged her brother; when Lord Bánk heard of this, he was angry and he was leader of the group of men that killed the queen. Her brother fled for his life
Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary
Margaret of France was queen of England by marriage to Henry the Young King, queen of Hungary and Croatia by marriage to Béla III of Hungary. She was the eldest daughter of Louis VII of France by his second wife Constance of Castile, her older half-sisters and Alix, were older half-sisters of her future husband. She was betrothed to Henry the Young King on 2 November 1160. Henry was the second of five sons born to King Henry II of Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was five years old at the time of this agreement. Margaret's dowry was the much disputed territory of Vexin, her husband became co-ruler with his father in 1170. Because Archbishop Thomas Becket was in exile, Margaret was not crowned along with her husband on 14 July 1170; this omission and the coronation being handled by a surrogate angered her father. To please the French King, Henry II had his son and Margaret crowned together in Winchester Cathedral on 27 August 1172; when Margaret became pregnant, she held her confinement in Paris, where she gave birth prematurely to their only son William on 19 June 1177, who died three days on 22 June.
She had no further children. She was accused in 1182 of having a love affair with William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, although contemporary chroniclers doubted the truth of these accusations. Henry may have started the process to have their marriage annulled ostensibly due to her adultery, but in reality, because she could not conceive an heir. Margaret was sent back to France, according to E. Hallam and Amy Kelly, to ensure her safety during the civil war with Young Henry's brother Richard the Lionheart, her husband died in 1183 while on campaign in the Dordogne region of France. By virtue of her marriage to Young King Henry, Duke of Anjou, she was installed as the Duchess; the coronet he and she would have worn was chronicled in about 1218 as "the traditional ring-of-roses coronet of the house of Anjou". Margaret may have taken her coronet to Hungary in 1186 when she married King Bela III. A ring-of-roses coronet was discovered in a convent grave in Budapest in 1838, which may be the same one.
After receiving a substantial pension in exchange for surrendering her dowry of Gisors and the Vexin, she became the second wife of Béla III of Hungary in 1186. She was widowed for a second time in 1196 and died on pilgrimage to the Holy Land at St John of Acre in 1197, having only arrived eight days prior to her death, she was buried at the Cathedral of Tyre, according to Ernoul, the chronicler who continued the chronicles of William of Tyre. Margaret was portrayed by Lucy Durham-Matthews and Tracey Childs in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devil's Crown, which dramatised the reigns of Henry II, Richard I and John