Conflict resolution is conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict and retribution. Committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group and by engaging in collective negotiation. Dimensions of resolution parallel the dimensions of conflict in the way the conflict is processed. Cognitive resolution is the way disputants understand and view the conflict, with beliefs, perspectives and attitudes. Emotional resolution is in the way disputants feel about the emotional energy. Behavioral resolution is reflective of, their behavior. A wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including negotiation, mediation-arbitration and creative peacebuilding; the term conflict resolution may be used interchangeably with dispute resolution, where arbitration and litigation processes are critically involved. The concept of conflict resolution can be thought to encompass the use of nonviolent resistance measures by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution.
The dual concern model of conflict resolution is a conceptual perspective that assumes individuals’ preferred method of dealing with conflict is based on two underlying themes or dimensions: concern for self and concern for others The leviathan of trap & release models. According to the model, group members balance their concern for satisfying personal needs and interests with their concern for satisfying the needs and interests of others in different ways; the intersection of these two dimensions leads individuals towards exhibiting different styles of conflict resolution. The dual model identifies five with number four being the target to complete the cycle & illuminate the issue at hand. Conflict resolution styles/strategies that individuals may use depending on their dispositions toward pro-self or pro-social goals. Avoidance conflict style Characterized by joking, changing or avoiding the topic, or denying that a problem exists,Strong dislike for following the rules the conflict avoidance style is used when an individual has withdrawn in dealing with the other party, when one is uncomfortable with conflict, or due to cultural contexts.
During conflict, these avoiders adopt a. By neglecting to address high-conflict situations. Yielding conflict style In contrast, yielding, “accommodating”, smoothing or suppression conflict styles are characterized by a high level of concern for others and a low level of concern for oneself; this passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships. When faced with conflict, individuals with a yielding conflict style tend to harmonize into others’ demands out of respect for the social relationship. Competitive conflict style The competitive, “fighting” or forcing conflict style maximizes individual assertiveness and minimizes empathy. Groups consisting of competitive members enjoy seeking domination over others, see conflict as a “win or lose” predicament. Fighters tend to force others to accept their personal views by employing competitive power tactics that foster intimidation.
Conciliation conflict style The conciliation, “compromising”, bargaining or negotiation conflict style is typical of individuals who possess an intermediate level of concern for both personal and others’ outcomes. Compromisers value fairness and, in doing so, anticipate mutual give-and-take interactions. By accepting some demands put forth by others, compromisers believe this agreeableness will encourage others to meet them halfway, thus promoting conflict resolution; this conflict style can be considered an extension of both “yielding” and “cooperative” strategies. Cooperation conflict style Characterized by an active concern for both pro-social and pro-self behavior, the cooperation, confrontation or problem-solving conflict style is used when an individual has elevated interests in their own outcomes as well as in the outcomes of others. During conflict, cooperators collaborate with others in an effort to find an amicable solution that satisfies all parties involved in the conflict. Individuals using this type of conflict style tend to be both assertive and empathetic.
By seeing conflict as a creative opportunity, collaborators willingly invest time and resources into finding a “win-win” solution. According to the literature on conflict resolution, a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others; this resolution may be achieved by lowering the aggressor's guard while raising the ego. There are many examples of conflict resolution in history, there has been a debate about the ways to conflict resolution: whether it should be forced or peaceful. Conflict resolution by peaceful means is always a better option; the conflict resolution curve derived from an analytical model offers a peaceful solution by motivating conflicting entities. Forced resolution of conflict might invoke another conflict in future. Conflict resolution curve separates conflict styles into two separate domains: domain of competing entities and domain of accommodating entities. There is a sort of agreement between targets and aggressors on this cu
National Assembly (Hungary)
The National Assembly is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 199 members elected to 4-year terms. Election of members is based on a complex system involving both list election; the Assembly includes 25 standing committees to debate and report on introduced bills and to supervise the activities of the ministers. The Constitutional Court of Hungary has the right to challenge legislation on the grounds of constitutionality; the assembly has met in the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 1902. The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period; the name of the legislative body was "Parlamentum" during the Middle Ages, the "Diet" expression gained in the Early Modern period. It convened at regular intervals with interruptions during the period of 1527 to 1918, again until 1946; the articles of the 1790 diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy, this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter.
As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. The Latin term Natio Hungarica was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility, the Catholic clergy, a few enfranchised burghers, regardless of language or ethnicity. Natio Hungarica was a geographic and juridico-political category; the democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of the communist dictatorship in 1989. Today's parliament is still called Országgyűlés just like in royal times, but is called the'National Assembly' to distance itself from the historical royal diet. At the sixth parliamentary elections, four parties or party alliances passed the minimum threshold: the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union in alliance with the Christian Democratic People's Party. Fidesz-KDNP candidates won enough seats to achieve a two-thirds majority required to modify major laws and the country's constitution.
The Hungarian Socialist Party won 59 seats, while its former coalition party Alliance of Free Democrats failed to win any seats and became extra-parliamentary after 20 years. There were two newcomers to the Országgyűlés: Jobbik and Politics Can Be Different. 1 independent got into the Parliament. The other prestigious party, the Hungarian Democratic Forum lost all its seats; the heads of the factions are: Fidesz: Lajos Kósa MSZP: Bertalan Tóth Jobbik: Gábor Vona KDNP: Péter Harrach LMP: Erzsébet SchmuckThe new parliamentary session hold the inaugural session on 14 May 2010. The President of Fidesz and Prime Minister is Viktor Orbán. Pál Schmitt served as Speaker of the National Assembly until August 2010 when he became President of Hungary, he was replaced by László Kövér. After the 2010 local elections, held on 3 October, Katalin Szili founded the Social Union and became its first chairperson; as a result, she quit their parliamentarian group. Continuing the parliamentarian work as formally independent MP.
At parliamentary elections in 2006, four parties or party alliances passed the minimum threshold: the Hungarian Socialist Party, the coalition party Alliance of Free Democrats, the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union in alliance with the Christian Democratic People's Party, the Hungarian Democratic Forum and 1 independent got into the Parliament, winning a constituency in Somogy county. The heads of the factions were: MSZP: Ildikó Lendvai, Attila Mesterházy Fidesz: Tibor Navracsics KDNP: Zsolt Semjén SZDSZ: Gábor Kuncze, Mátyás Eörsi, János Kóka. MDF: Károly Herényi; the faction of MDF broke up in 2009. The head of the allied faction Fidesz-KDNP was Viktor Orbán; the head of the minority government was Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány Gordon Bajnai. The speaker of the Assembly was Katalin Szili Béla Katona of the MSZP; the numbers come from the legislature's inaugural session. Changes may occur: Vacancies from party list MPs do not change the make-up of the Assembly, as they are replaced by another member of the party list.
But a vacancy in a district seat triggers a by-election, won by another party. See List of Hungarian by-elections. New factions may appear in 1993, the nationalist-radicalist members of MDF quit the party and founded the MIÉP, which took part in the next three elections, it crossed the threshold only in 1998. in 2011, the DK faction led by former socialist prime minister Ferenc Gyurcsány, split from the MSZP and became a party of its own. In 2011 8 MPs from LMP left the party to set up Dialogue for Hungary Official website Official website
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more extreme elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time, thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues.
Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959: "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". In contrast to the tradition-based definition of conservatism, some political theorists such as Corey Robin define conservatism in terms of a general defense of social and economic inequality. From this perspective, conservatism is less an attempt to uphold traditional institutions and more, "a meditation on—and theoretical rendition of—the felt experience of having power, seeing it threatened, trying to win it back". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy.
Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation. Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances; as these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings. The term referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values, it contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres. Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism.
This is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous; the liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism. A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism.
Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or more the right-wing of the liberal movement. The roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism; until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy. Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies within the United States and Canada which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They differ from paleoconservatives, in that they are in favor of more personal and economic freedom. Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism.
In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations. They are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention. Many conservatives in the United States, be
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government. One of the two parties holds a majority in the legislature and is referred to as the majority or governing party while the other is the minority or opposition party. Around the world, the term has different senses. For example, in the United States and Malta, the sense of two-party system describes an arrangement in which all or nearly all elected officials belong to one of the only two major parties, third parties win any seats in the legislature. In such arrangements, two-party systems are thought to result from various factors like winner-takes-all election rules. In such systems, while chances for third-party candidates winning election to major national office are remote, it is possible for groups within the larger parties, or in opposition to one or both of them, to exert influence on the two major parties. In contrast, in the United Kingdom and Australia and in other parliamentary systems and elsewhere, the term two-party system is sometimes used to indicate an arrangement in which two major parties dominate elections but in which there are viable third parties which do win seats in the legislature, in which the two major parties exert proportionately greater influence than their percentage of votes would suggest.
Explanations for why a country with free elections may evolve into a two-party system have been debated. A leading theory, referred to as Duverger's law, states that two parties are a natural result of a winner-take-all voting system. In countries such as Britain, two major parties emerge which have strong influence and tend to elect most of the candidates, but a multitude of lesser parties exist with varying degrees of influence, sometimes these lesser parties are able to elect officials who participate in the legislature. In political systems based on the Westminster system, a particular style of parliamentary democracy based on the British model and found in many commonwealth countries, a majority party will form the government and the minority party will form the opposition, coalitions of lesser parties are possible. Sometimes these systems are described as two-party systems but they are referred to as multi-party systems. There is not always a sharp boundary between a multi-party system.
A two-party system becomes a dichotomous division of the political spectrum with an ostensibly right-wing and left-wing party: the Nationalist Party vs. the Labour Party in Malta, Liberal/National Coalition vs. Labor in Australia, Republicans vs. Democrats in the United States and the Conservative Party vs. the Labour Party in the United Kingdom. Other parties in these countries may have seen candidates elected to local or subnational office, however. Historian John Hicks claims that the United States has never possessed for any considerable period of time the two party system in its pure and undefiled form. In some governments, certain chambers may resemble a two-party system and others a multi-party system. For example, the politics of Australia are two-party for the Australian House of Representatives, elected by instant-runoff voting, known within Australia as preferential voting. However, third parties are more common in the Australian Senate, which uses a proportional voting system more amenable to minor parties.
In the politics of Canada, while having a multiparty system federally and in the largest provinces of British Columbia, Quebec, Manitoba as well as the smaller New Brunswick, Newfoundland And Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Yukon Territory many of the provinces have become two-party systems in which only two parties get members elected. Examples include British Columbia, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; the English speaking countries of the Caribbean while inheriting their basic political system from Great Britain have become two party systems. The politics of Jamaica are between the People's National Party and the Jamaica Labour Party; the politics of Guyana are between the People's Progressive Party and APNU, a coalition of smaller parties. The politics of Trinidad and Tobago are between the People's National Movement and the People's Partnership, a coalition; the Politics of Belize are between the People's United Party. The Politics of the Bahamas are between the Progressive Liberal Party and the Free National Movement.
The politics of Barbados are between the Barbados Labour Party. The politics of Zimbabwe are a two party system between the Robert Mugabe founded Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front and the opposition coalition Movement for Democratic Change. India has a multi-party system but shows characteristics of a two party system with the United Progressive Alliance and National Democratic Alliance as the two main players, it is to be noted that both UPA and NDA are not two political parties but alliances of several smaller parties. Other smaller parties not aligned with either NDA or UPA exist, overall command about 20% of the 2009 seats in the
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought. Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several discrete traditions in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. Syncretism occurs in expressions of arts and culture as well as politics; the English word is first attested in the early 17th century, from Modern Latin syncretismus, drawing on Greek συγκρητισμός meaning "Cretan federation", but this is a spurious etymology from the naive idea in Plutarch's 1st-century AD essay on "Fraternal Love" in his collection Moralia. He cites the example of the Cretans, who compromised and reconciled their differences and came together in alliance when faced with external dangers. "And, their so-called Syncretism ". More as an etymology is sun- plus kerannumi and its related noun, "krasis," "mixture." Erasmus coined the modern usage of the Latin word in his Adagia, published in the winter of 1517–1518, to designate the coherence of dissenters in spite of their differences in theological opinions.
In a letter to Melanchthon of April 22, 1519, Erasmus adduced the Cretans of Plutarch as an example of his adage "Concord is a mighty rampart". Overt syncretism in folk belief may show cultural acceptance of an alien or previous tradition, but the "other" cult may survive or infiltrate without authorized syncresis nevertheless. For example, some Conversos developed a sort of cult for martyr-victims of the Spanish Inquisition, thus incorporating elements of Catholicism while resisting it. Syncretism was common during the Hellenistic period, with rulers identifying local deities in various parts of their domains with the relevant god or goddess of the Greek Pantheon, as a means of increasing the cohesion of the Kingdom; this practice was accepted in most locations, but vehemently rejected by the Jews who considered the identification of Yahwe with the Greek Zeus as the worst of blasphemy. The Roman Empire continued this practice - first by the identification of traditional Roman deities with Greek ones, producing a single Graeco-Roman Pantheon and identifying members of that pantheon with the local deities of various Roman provinces.
An undeclared form of Syncretism was the transfer of many attributes of the goddess Isis - whose worship was widespread in the Later Roman Empire - to the Christian Virgin Mary. Some religious movements have embraced overt syncretism, such as the case of melding Shintō beliefs into Buddhism or the amalgamation of Germanic and Celtic pagan views into Christianity during its spread into Gaul, the British Isles and Scandinavia. In times, Christian missionaries in North America identified Manitou - the spiritual and fundamental life force in the traditional beliefs of the Algonquian groups - with the God of Christianity. Similar identifications were made by missionaries at other locations in the Americas and Africa, whenever encountering a local belief in a Supreme God or Supreme Spirit of some kind. Indian influences are seen in the practice of Shi'i Islam in Trinidad. Others have rejected it as devaluing and compromising precious and genuine distinctions. Syncretism tends to facilitate coexistence and unity between otherwise different cultures and world-views, a factor that has recommended it to rulers of multi-ethnic realms.
Conversely, the rejection of syncretism in the name of "piety" and "orthodoxy", may help to generate, bolster or authenticate a sense of un-compromised cultural unity in a well-defined minority or majority. Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system, or the incorporation into a religious tradition of beliefs from unrelated traditions; this can occur for many reasons, the latter scenario happens quite in areas where multiple religious traditions exist in proximity and function in a culture, or when a culture is conquered, the conquerors bring their religious beliefs with them, but do not succeed in eradicating the old beliefs or practices. Religions may have syncretic elements to their beliefs or history, but adherents of so-labeled systems frown on applying the label adherents who belong to "revealed" religious systems, such as the Abrahamic religions, or any system that exhibits an exclusivist approach; such adherents sometimes see syncretism as a betrayal of their pure truth.
By this reasoning, adding an incompatible belief corrupts the original religion, rendering it no longer true. Indeed, critics of a specific syncretistic trend may sometimes use the word "syncretism" as a disparaging epithet, as a charge implying that those who seek to incorporate a new view, belief, or practice into a religious system distort the original faith. Non-exclusivist systems of belief, on the other hand, may feel quite free to incorporate other traditions into their own. Keith Ferdinando notes that the term "syncretism" is an elusive one, can apply to refer to substitution or modification of the central elements of a religion by beliefs or practices introduced from elsewhere; the consequence under such a definition, according to Ferdinando, can lead to a fatal "compromise" of the original religion's "integrity". In modern secular society, religious innovators sometimes construct new religions syncretically as a mechanism to reduce inter-religious tension and enmity with the effect of offend
Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left. The term has been used to describe ideologies such as: communism, anarcho-communism, left-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, Marxism–Leninism and Maoism. Since 2016, the term Alt-left has been used as a pejorative to refer to political views at the extreme end of this spectrum, to those who adhere to such views. Luke March of the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh defines the far-left in Europe as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which they see as insufficiently left-wing; the two main sub-types are called the radical left, who desire fundamental changes to the capitalist system yet remain accepting of liberal democracy, the extreme left, who are more hostile to liberal democracy and denounce any compromise with capitalism. March specifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics: communists, democratic socialists, populist socialists and social populists.
Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček add secondary characteristics to those identified by March and Mudde, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and rejection of European integration. In France, the term extrême-gauche is a accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, such as Trotskyists, anarcho-communists and New Leftists. Some, such as political scientist Serge Cosseron, limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party, but there is no real consensus. There were many far-left militant organizations formed from existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction; these groups aimed to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes. Anarchism Hard left List of anti-capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation Moonbat Alt-right Media related to Far-left politics at Wikimedia Commons