Theme Hospital is a business simulation game developed by Bullfrog Productions and published by Electronic Arts in 1997 for the PC in which players design and operate a owned hospital with the goal of curing patients of fictitious comical ailments. The game is the thematic successor to Theme Park produced by Bullfrog, the second instalment in their Theme series, part of their Designer Series; the game is noted for its humour, contains numerous references to pop culture. Peter Molyneux and James Leach came up with the idea of creating a Theme game based on a hospital, but Molyneux was not directly involved in development due to his work on Dungeon Keeper. Designers planned to include four distinct gameplay modes corresponding to historical time periods, but this was dropped due to time pressures on the team. Multiplayer support with up to four players was added in a patch; the game received a positive reception, with reviewers praising the graphics and humour in particular. Theme Hospital was a commercial success, selling over 4 million copies worldwide, was ported to the PlayStation in 1998.
A Sega Saturn version cancelled. The game was re-released on GOG.com in 2012 and Origin in 2015, the PlayStation version was released on the PlayStation Network in Europe in 2008, Japan in 2009, North America in 2010. Revival attempts have been made with the development of open-source remakes such as CorsixTH; the player is required to build an environment that will attract patients with comical diseases and treat them while tending to their needs. The game has a somewhat dark sense of humour, similar to that of Theme Park. Diseases include Bloaty Head, King Complex, Alien DNA. Starting with an empty hospital, the player must build rooms and hire doctors, nurses and receptionists; each staff member has statistics that affect their performance, doctors can be trained so their statistics will increase. Rooms include GP's Offices, Psychiatric rooms, Operating Theatres and Pharmacies, are built by placing down a blueprint, assigning the location of doors and windows, placing down required and optional pieces of furniture.
The player may set up items such as benches, fire extinguishers, plants in the open corridor spaces provided. The player is given time to build the hospital at the start of each level before patients start coming. Patients see a GP in his office who either provides a diagnosis or sends them for further evaluation in a specialised diagnosis room. Once a diagnosis is made, the patient will be sent for treatment. While a few rooms are available at the start of the game, the rest must be researched; some rooms, such as the Inflator room—where patients with Bloaty Head are treated—contain machines which require regular maintenance by a handyman: if neglected for too long, they will explode, killing all occupants of the room. Doctors must have acquired certain specialist skills to practise in certain rooms, such as the Research room and Operating Theatre. There are rooms that only staff use, such as the Staff Room and the Training room, while patients require certain rooms such as toilet facilities.
Diagnosis and treatment cost patients money, the player can change hospital policy, including the amount of diagnosis patients require. This can be set to over 100 per cent to force patients to have further unnecessary diagnoses. Other policies include when staff can go on breaks and whether they can leave rooms, loans can be taken out. From time to time, events such as emergencies, epidemics occur. During the latter, the player can attempt to cover it up by curing all affected patients before a health inspector turns up. If the player fails, he or she is fined and must face a damaged reputation, a statistic that shows how well the hospital is doing and affects the flow of patients. VIPs may occasionally ask to tour the hospital. There is an advisor. Rats may infest the hospital, the player is able to shoot them with the cursor. Although the player has no direct control over the patients, they have some influence over whether to evict them from the hospital and in determining what to do with them when given a choice by the staff.
The player can pick up any staff member in the building and move them, or dismiss them if they argue about pay or are no longer required. The player may force patients to take a chance at a cure for their suspected disease before diagnosis is complete, rearrange queues; the player competes against computer rivals named after famous computers and fictional: these include Holly from Red Dwarf and Deep Thought from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. The game is timed with days of the year, at the end of each year, players are judged on their performances, may be given trophies, reputation increases, or cash bonuses; each level has set goals in the fields of financial attainment, hospital reputation, patients cured, hospital value. Holding negative funds or allowing sufficient patients to die will bring about losing requirements; when the goals have been met the player has the option to move on to a new, more elaborate hospital with tougher winning conditions and more diseases present, or stick with their current one.
Dungeon Keeper is a strategy video game developed by Bullfrog Productions and released by Electronic Arts in June 1997 for MS-DOS and Windows 95. In Dungeon Keeper, the player builds and manages a dungeon, protecting it from invading'hero' characters intent on stealing accumulated treasures, killing monsters, the player's demise; the ultimate goal is to conquer the world by destroying the heroic forces and rival dungeon keepers in each realm. A character known as the Avatar appears as the final hero. Dungeon Keeper uses Creative Technology's SoundFont technology to enhance its atmosphere. Multiplayer with up to four players is supported using a modem, or over a local network. Dungeon Keeper took over two years to develop, an expansion pack, a Direct3D version, a level editor were released. Midway through development, Molyneux decided to leave Bullfrog when the game was complete, the motivation for its success. Versions for the Sega Saturn and Sony PlayStation cancelled; the game received critical acclaim, with reviewers praising the depth.
Dungeon Keeper was re-released on GOG.com in 2011, on Origin in 2016. A fan-made mod, KeeperFX, was released, which fixes adds features. Dungeon Keeper was followed by a sequel, Dungeon Keeper 2, in 1999, influenced games such as Lego Rock Raiders and Ghost Master; the player constructs and manages a dungeon and catering for minions to run it and defend it from enemy invaders. The primary method of control is the hand, used to pick up creatures and objects in the dungeon, carry them around, drop them; the hand allows the player to'slap' creatures and objects, interact with them. Dungeon Keeper's gameplay exemplifies a dark sense of humour; the Dungeon Heart represents the Keeper's link to the world. If it is destroyed, the player loses. Along with the heart, the player begins with a small number of imps, the generic work force for dungeon activities: they dig tunnels into the surrounding soil, capture enemy rooms and Portals, mine gold and gems, set traps, attack when desperate or threatened. Imps are obtained by using the Create Imp spell.
Slapping creatures removes some of their health. Gold is obtained by digging Gold Seams, Gem Seams provide an unlimited supply, though take longer to accumulate. Gold is used to build rooms, cast spells, train creatures. To order the imps to dig a tile, the player need flag the tile. Throughout the game, a "mentor" will advise the player as to various happenings and problems within the dungeon. Once the Imps are working, the player must set up a basic infrastructure: Lairs for monsters, a Hatchery, a Treasury. After connecting the dungeon to a'Portal', minions will arrive. Minions include dragons and the horned reaper, as well as undead creatures such as vampires and skeletons; as the game progresses, the player moves along a technology tree, unlocking further rooms and spells. Rooms can only be built on tiles belonging to the player; the player is red and the tiles are coloured accordingly. Other keepers have different colours, the heroes are white. Unaligned creatures and rooms are multicoloured.
The player can build doors, created in the workshop. Traps include lightning and boulder traps, the latter killing creatures it comes into contact with; as with rooms, they can only be built on tiles. Traps are not built instantly; the Temple is a room where creatures are made happy, the player can sacrifice creatures to the dark gods. The gods may be indifferent depending on the sacrifice; the dungeon has a fleshed-out ecology: certain creatures are natural enemies. For example and Spiders are found at odds with one another. Common behaviours when a creature is angry include deserting the player; the creatures are varied in their statistics. Which creatures enter the dungeon depends on which rooms the player has and how large they are. Creatures require paying and when'Payday' comes, will head for the Treasure room to collect their wages. Other ways to obtain creatures include imprisoning and torturing them,'scavenging' from enemy keepers, performing certain sacrifices at the Temple. Creatures entering via the Portal are at the lowest experience level, must gain experience by training in the training room.
Training creatures increases their abilities. Such spells include lightning bolts, rebounding projectiles, increasing armour. Creatures will enter combat with heroes or creatures belonging to another keeper; each creature has a star of the colour of the keeper it belongs to above it, displaying its experience level. The star is a health meter; the player has the ability to possess a creature, seeing the dungeon from its first-person perspective and using its attacks and abilities. This is one of the spells. A world map is available and, at the beginning, the player is allocated one of the twenty regions of a fictional, idyllic country to destroy; as the player progresses through these regions, each representing a level, the areas conquered will appear ransacked and evil. The goals for each level are straightforward: they fall along the lines of elim
MS-DOS is an operating system for x86-based personal computers developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS". MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface, in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system. MS-DOS was the result of the language developed in the seventies, used by IBM for its mainframe operating system. Microsoft acquired the rights to meet IBM specifications. IBM re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Although MS-DOS and PC DOS were developed in parallel by Microsoft and IBM, the two products diverged after twelve years, in 1993, with recognizable differences in compatibility and capabilities. During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
MS-DOS was targeted at Intel 8086 processors running on computer hardware using floppy disks to store and access not only the operating system, but application software and user data as well. Progressive version releases delivered support for other mass storage media in greater sizes and formats, along with added feature support for newer processors and evolving computer architectures, it was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming language company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUI, it is a flexible operating system, consumes negligible installation space. MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson. Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was a clone of Digital Research's CP/M, ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M.
This first version was shipped in August 1980. Microsoft, which needed an operating system for the IBM Personal Computer hired Tim Paterson in May 1981 and bought 86-DOS 1.10 for $75,000 in July of the same year. Microsoft kept the version number, but renamed it MS-DOS, they licensed MS-DOS 1.10/1.14 to IBM, who, in August 1981, offered it as PC DOS 1.0 as one of three operating systems for the IBM 5150, or the IBM PC. Within a year Microsoft licensed MS-DOS to over 70 other companies, it was designed to be an OS. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS, similar to the situation that existed for CP/M, with MS-DOS emulating the same solution as CP/M to adapt for different hardware platforms. To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers, minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
The OEM would use a development kit provided by Microsoft to build a version of MS-DOS with their basic I/O drivers and a standard Microsoft kernel, which they would supply on disk to end users along with the hardware. Thus, there were many different versions of "MS-DOS" for different hardware, there is a major distinction between an IBM-compatible machine and an MS-DOS machine; some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture. This design would have worked well for compatibility, if application programs had only used MS-DOS services to perform device I/O, indeed the same design philosophy is embodied in Windows NT. However, in MS-DOS's early days, the greater speed attainable by programs through direct control of hardware was of particular importance for games, which pushed the limits of their contemporary hardware. Soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, before long all 8086-family computers emulated IBM's hardware, only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
This version is the version of MS-DOS, discussed here, as the dozens of other OEM versions of "MS-DOS" were only relevant to the systems they were designed for, in any case were similar in function and capability to some standard version for the IBM PC—often the same-numbered version, but not always, since some OEMs used their own proprietary version numbering schemes —with a few notable exceptions. Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, was multi-user; the company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, the LSI-11. Microsoft advertised MS-DOS and Xenix together, listing the shared features of its "single-user OS" and "the multi-user, multi-tasking, UNIX-derived operating system", promising easy
Electronic Arts Inc. is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and market capitalization after Activision Blizzard and ahead of Take-Two Interactive and Ubisoft as of March 2018. Founded and incorporated on May 27, 1982, by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer games industry and was notable for promoting the designers and programmers responsible for its games. EA published numerous games and productivity software for personal computers and experimented on techniques to internally develop games, leading to the 1987 release of Skate or Die!. The company would decide in favor of abandoning their original principles and acquiring smaller companies that they see profitable, as well as annually releasing franchises to stay profitable. EA develops and publishes games including EA Sports titles FIFA, Madden NFL, NHL, NBA Live, UFC. Other EA established franchises includes Battlefield, Need for Speed, The Sims, Medal of Honor, Command & Conquer, as well as newer franchises such as Dead Space, Mass Effect, Dragon Age, Army of Two and Star Wars: The Old Republic.
Their desktop titles appear on self-developed Origin, an online gaming digital distribution platform for PCs and a direct competitor to Valve's Steam. EA owns and operates major gaming studios, EA Tiburon in Orlando, EA Vancouver in Burnaby, BioWare in Edmonton as well as Austin, DICE in Sweden and Los Angeles. Trip Hawkins had been an employee of Apple Inc. since 1978, at a time when the company had only about fifty employees. Over the next four years, the market for home personal computers skyrocketed. By 1982, Apple had completed its initial public offering and become a Fortune 500 company with over one thousand employees. In February 1982, Trip Hawkins arranged a meeting with Don Valentine of Sequoia Capital to discuss financing his new venture, Amazin' Software. Valentine encouraged Hawkins to leave Apple, where Hawkins served as Director of Product Marketing, allowed Hawkins use of Sequoia Capital's spare office space to start the company. On May 27, 1982, Trip Hawkins incorporated and established the company with a personal investment of an estimated US$200,000.
For more than seven months, Hawkins refined his Electronic Arts business plan. With aid from his first employee, Rich Melmon, the original plan was written by Hawkins, on an Apple II in Sequoia Capital's office in August 1982. During that time, Hawkins employed two of his former staff from Apple, Dave Evans and Pat Marriott, as producers, a Stanford MBA classmate, Jeff Burton from Atari for international business development; the business plan was again refined in September and reissued on October 8, 1982. By November, employee headcount rose to 11, including Tim Mott, Bing Gordon, David Maynard, Steve Hayes. Having outgrown the office space provided by Sequoia Capital, the company relocated to a San Mateo office that overlooked the San Francisco Airport landing path. Headcount rose in 1983, including Don Daglow, Richard Hilleman, Stewart Bonn, David Gardner, Nancy Fong; when he incorporated the company, Hawkins chose Amazin' Software as their company name, but his other early employees of the company universally disliked the name.
He scheduled an off-site meeting in the Pajaro Dunes, where the company once held such off-site meetings. Hawkins had developed the ideas of treating software as an art form and calling the developers, "software artists". Hence, the latest version of the business plan had suggested the name "SoftArt"; however and Melmon knew the founders of Software Arts, the creators of VisiCalc, thought their permission should be obtained. Dan Bricklin did not want the name used. However, the name concept was liked by all the attendees. Hawkins had recently read a bestselling book about the film studio United Artists, liked the reputation that the company had created. Hawkins said everyone had a vote but they would lose it if they went to sleep. Hawkins liked the word "electronic", various employees had considered the phrases "Electronic Artists" and "Electronic Arts"; when Gordon and others pushed for "Electronic Artists", in tribute to the film company United Artists, Steve Hayes opposed, saying, "We're not the artists, they are..."
This statement from Hayes tilted sentiment towards Electronic Arts and the name was unanimously endorsed and adopted in 1982. He recruited his original employees from Apple, Xerox PARC, VisiCorp, got Steve Wozniak to agree to sit on the board of directors. Hawkins was determined to sell directly to buyers. Combined with the fact that Hawkins was pioneering new game brands, this made sales growth more challenging. Retailers wanted to buy known brands from existing distribution partners. Former CEO Larry Probst arrived as VP of Sales in late 1984 and helped expand the successful company; this policy of dealing directly with retailers gave EA higher margins and better market awareness, key advantages the company would leverage to leapfrog its early competitors. A novel approach to giving credit to its developers was one of EA's trademarks in its early days; this characterization was further reinforced with EA's packaging of most of their games in the "album cover" pioneered by EA because Hawkins thought that a record album style would both save costs and convey an artistic feeling.
EA referred to their developers as "artists" and gave them photo credits in their games and numerous full-page magazine ads. Their first such ad, accompanied by the slogan "We see far
A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Computer Gaming World
Computer Gaming World was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006. In 1979 Russell Sipe left the Southern Baptist Convention ministry. A fan of computer games, he realized in spring 1981 there was no magazine dedicated to computer games. Although Sipe had no publishing experience, he formed Golden Empire Publications in June and found investors, he chose the name of Computer Gaming World instead of alternatives such as Computer Games or Kilobaud Warrior because he hoped that the magazine would both review games and serve as a trade publication for the industry. The first issue appeared at about the same as rivals Electronic Games and Softline; the first issues of Computer Gaming World were published from Anaheim and sold for $2.75 individually or $11 for a year's subscription of six issues. These early bi-monthly issues were 40-50 pages in length, written in a newsletter style, including submissions by game designers such as Joel Billings, Dan Bunten, Chris Crawford.
As well, early covers were not always directly related to the magazine's contents, but rather featured work by artist Tim Finkas. In January/February 1986 CGW increased its publication cycle to nine times a year, the editorial staff included popular writers such as Scorpia, Charles Ardai, M. Evan Brooks. CGW survived the video game crash of 1983. In autumn 1987 CGW introduced a quarterly newsletter called Computer Game Forum, published during the off-months of CGW; the newsletter never became popular. Some of CGF's content became part of CGW; the magazine went through significant expansion starting in 1991, with growing page counts reaching 196 pages by its 100th issue, in November 1992. During that same year, Johnny Wilson, became editor-in-chief, although Sipe remained as Publisher. In 1993, Sipe sold the magazine to Ziff Davis—by the magazine was so thick that a reader reported that the December issue's bulk slowed a thief who had stolen a shopping bag containing it—but continued on as Publisher until 1995.
The magazine kept growing through the 1990s, with the December 1997 issue weighing in at 500 pages. In January 1999, Wilson left the magazine and George Jones became editor-in-chief, at a time when print magazines were struggling with the growing popularity of the Internet. Jones had been the editor-in-chief of CNET Gamecenter, had before that been a staffer at Computer Gaming World between 1994 and 1996, he was replaced by Jeff Green in 2002. On August 2, 2006, Ziff Davis and Microsoft jointly announced that Computer Gaming World would be replaced with Games for Windows: The Official Magazine; the final CGW-labeled issue was November 2006, for a total of 268 published editions. With the release of the final CGW issue, Ziff Davis announced the availability of the CGW Archive; the Archive features complete copies of the first 100 issues of CGW, as well as the 2 CGF issues, for a total of 7438 pages covering 11 years of gaming. The Archive was created by Stephane Racle, of the Computer Gaming World Museum, is available in PDF format.
Every issue was processed through Optical Character Recognition, which enabled the creation of a 3+ million word master index. Although Ziff Davis has taken its CGW Archive site offline, the magazines can be downloaded from the Computer Gaming World Museum. On April 8, 2008, 1UP Network announced the print edition of Games for Windows: The Official Magazine had ceased, that all content would be moved online. CGW featured reviews, news, letters and columns dealing with computer games. While console games are touched on, these are the territory of CGW's sister magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly. In 2006, two of the most popular features were "Greenspeak", a final-page column written by Editor-In-Chief Jeff Green, "Tom vs. Bruce" a unique "duelling-diaries" piece in which writers Tom Chick and Bruce Geryk logged their gameplay experience as each tried to best the other at a given game. "Tom vs. Bruce" sometimes featured a guest appearance by Erik Wolpaw of Old Man Murray. For many years, CGW never assigned scores to reviews, preferring to let readers rate their favorite games through a monthly poll.
Scores were introduced in 1994. However, beginning in April 2006, Computer Gaming World stopped assigning quantifiable scores to its reviews. In May of the same year, CGW changed the name of its review section to Viewpoint, began evaluating games on a more diverse combination of factors than a game's content. Elements considered include the communities' reaction to a game, developers' continued support through patches and whether a game's online component continues to grow; the reviews were based on a simple five-star structure, with five stars marking a outstanding game, one star signalling virtual worthlessness. Three games, Postal² by Robert Coffey, Mistmare by Jeff Green, Dungeon Lords by Denice Cook "...form an unholy trinity of the only games in CGW history to receive zero-star reviews." According to MDS Computer Gaming World had a circulation of above 300,000 as of 2006. In this regard, it was behind industry arch-rival PC Gamer. Bruce F. Webster reviewed the first issue of Computer Gaming World in The Space Gamer No.
48. Webster commented that "I recommend this magazine to computer gamers, just one reason alone will
Theme Park World
Theme Park World known as Theme Park 2, in North America as Sim Theme Park, is a 1999 construction and management simulation game developed by Bullfrog Productions and released by Electronic Arts. The direct sequel to Theme Park, the player constructs and manages an amusement park with the aim of making profit and keeping visitors happy. Developed for Windows, it was ported to PlayStation and PlayStation 2, as well for Macintosh computers; the Mac version was published by Feral Interactive. The game was developed because personnel at Bullfrog wanted to bring the original Theme Park up-to-date. Theme Park World features four themes of amusement park, the ability to ride attractions, an online service that enabled players to share parks. Reception was positive, with reviewers complimenting the sound and visuals, although some were critical of the interface; the game was followed by Theme Park Inc in 2001. Theme Park World tasks players with managing a series of amusement parks. To do this, the player must choose how to spend their funds, finding ways to expand the number and scope of their parks while remaining profitable.
Money can be used to purchase things such as new rides or attractions, hire staff to maintain the park. As in its predecessor Theme Park, the staff available for recruitment include mechanics, cleaners and guards, but Theme Park World introduces a new role: scientists; the staff repair rides, clean litter, entertain visitors, ensure the park's security and research new rides and attractions. Staff can be trained to make them more efficient, require frequent rest in staff rooms. Rides can be upgraded to increase their reliability and speed, as well as provide additional components for track-based rides, such as jumps and tunnels for race tracks, loops for roller coasters. Toilets and features such as bins and security cameras can be purchased. Various elements can be controlled by the player, such as the name of the park, the price of admission, the layout of the roller-coaster tracks, the quality of goods in the shops; the player can build cafés, novelty stores and parlours for foodstuff such as chips, ice creams, burgers.
In the PlayStation version, certain rides and sideshows are playable as minigames such as races and 9 puzzles. The player can purchase additional land for the park. A key focus is maintaining visitor satisfaction: the player is provided with feedback on visitors' merriment in the forms of a happiness meter, thought bubbles; the bubbles convey feelings such as confusion, pleasure and hygiene, which are indicators of the park's success. There is an adviser; the player can earn golden tickets or keys for completing tasks such as getting a certain number of people in the park, reaching a certain happiness level, making a certain profit in a year. Golden tickets can be used to buy special rides that cannot otherwise be researched by park scientists, as well as unlock golden keys needed to open additional parks; the requirements for earning golden tickets are similar in each park, but get harder as the game progresses. There are four themes of park: Lost Kingdom Wonder Land, Halloween World, Space Zone, with Space Zone being the hardest.
In the PlayStation version, there are two parks for each theme. Each world has setting-appropriate rides and sideshows. Only the Lost Kingdom and Halloween World are available at the start; the player can ride rides, tour the park in the first-person view. In the PlayStation version, four golden tickets are required to use the latter feature. There is an Instant Action mode, in which the player starts with a pre-built park in the Lost Kingdom, some staff, double the usual amount of money, it features automatic research and cheaper staff and expansion, but certain rides, sideshows and features are not available. The Theme Park World Online website contained news and updates to the game, featured a page that contained published parks. Invitations to parks could be issued, players could vote for their favourites. Competitions were hosted, with prizes awarded for the best parks. Players could visit others' published parks. Platinum Tickets, which were used to download rides from the website, were awarded when others visited the player's parks.
Postcards could be sent by email, the service offered a chat feature. The chat service had a function to report abusive players, who would have their connection terminated. Players could be blackmarked. An account was required to use Theme Park World Online. Theme Park World was announced in April 1999. Many Bullfrog personnel had wanted to produce an updated version of Theme Park. Producer Jeff Gamon said that and that players wanted to ride rides they created and Bullfrog built on the original game's success using the latest technology. Gamon said that Theme Park World would be less objective-based and more open-ended than the previous Theme games. Early in development, there were 12 artists, who were led by Darran Thomas before he left Bullfrog with Jeremy Longley and Glenn Corpes to found Lost Toys; the game used a 3D engine to eliminate the need for a 3D accelerator card, an advanced behavioural artificial intelligence system that gave visitors diffe