Self-portraits by Rembrandt
The dozens of self-portraits by Rembrandt were an important part of his oeuvre. This was a high number for any artist up to that point. By comparison, the highly prolific Rubens only produced seven self-portrait paintings, the self-portraits create a visual diary of the artist over a span of forty years. They were produced throughout his career at a steady pace. However, there is a gap in paintings between 1645 and 1652, the last three etchings date to 1648, c. 1651, and 1658, whereas he was painting portraits in 1669. At one time about ninety paintings were counted as Rembrandt self-portraits, in others he is pulling faces at himself. Together they give a clear picture of the man, his appearance and his psychological make-up. Both seem to have often been bought by collectors, and while some of the etchings are very rare, no self-portraits were listed in the famous 1656 inventory, and only a handful of the paintings remained in the family after his death. Rembrandts self-portraits were created by the artist looking at himself in a mirror, in the etchings the printing process creates a reversed image, and the prints therefore show Rembrandt in the same orientation as he appeared to contemporaries.
This is one reason why the hands are usually omitted or just cursorily described in the paintings, one may have been bought about 1652 and sold in 1656 when he went bankrupt. In 1658 he asked his son Titus to arrange delivery of another one and these are B7, B19, B21 and B22, stretching between 1631 and 1648. There are a number of what seem to be abandoned attempts at such portraits around the same times, while the earliest etchings are very rare, many others that are not official portraits survive in large numbers, and certainly reached the market of collectors. As noted above, there are only two sketchy etchings after 1648, and there are no etched equivalents of the great painted self-portraits of the 1550s and 1560s. The number of drawings now accepted is far smaller, in single figures, the standing portrait, if indeed by it is Rembrandt, may have been done for someone elses friendship album, keeping these was common in artistic and literary circles. The Washington red chalk drawing, perhaps the most finished example, is close to the etching B2 in many ways, since these were exclusive to aristocratic circles, it was probably invented like a piece of costume.
A short film from 1956 by Bert Haanstra showed a sequence of the paintings, with the eyes always in the same position. There is Le miroir des paradoxes, film by Alain Jaubert from the Palettes series
Dutch Masters (cigar)
Dutch Masters is a brand of natural wrapped cigars sold in the United States since 1912. Its distinctive packaging features Rembrandts 1662 painting The Syndics of the Drapers Guild, Dutch Masters cigars are currently manufactured and sold by Altadis U. S. A. Inc. which is the American subsidiary of French/Spanish-based Altadis S. A. in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. They come in two varieties, full size cigars, and smaller cigarillos colloquially known as mini-dutches. Johnson Cigar Company was the producer of the Dutch Masters cigar brand. Dutch Masters would become a mainstay of the Consolidated Cigar Corporation, johnson Cigar Company and six others together in 1921. The Consolidated Cigar Corp. became part of Altadis, formed in 1999 by a merger of the French, through its long history the Dutch Masters cigar brand has become one of the most popular and profitable cigar brands in America. Dutch Masters became well known in the late 1950s and early 1960s for its sponsorship of various projects of the comedian Ernie Kovacs.
He was, appreciative of Dutch Masters allowing him nearly complete, creative freedom in the production of their sponsored shows and his silent Dutch Masters commercials have become classics in their own right. In 2015, Dutchmaster sponsored Wrap Parties hosted by Cipha Sounds and Drewski and these parties occur up and down the American East Coast
A guild /ɡɪld/ is an association of artisans or merchants who control the practice of their craft in a particular town. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of tradesmen and they were organized in a manner something between a professional association, trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as meeting places, an important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna and Paris, they originated as guilds of students as at Bologna, or of masters as at Paris. Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices, there were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds but the frith guild and religious guild. In many cases became the governing body of a town. The Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, Trade guilds arose in the 14th century as craftsmen united to protect their common interest.
The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26, gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship, in France, guilds were called corps de métiers. According to Viktor Ivanovich Rutenburg, Within the guild itself there was little division of labour. Thus, according to Étienne Boileaus Book of Handicrafts, by the century there were no less than 100 guilds in Paris. In Catalan towns, specially at Barcelona, guilds or gremis were a basic agent in the society, a shoemakers guild is recorded in 1208. In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as companies, survive today. Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently, membership in a livery company is expected for individuals participating in the governance of The City, as the Lord Mayor and the Remembrancer.
The guild system reached a state in Germany circa 1300 and held on in German cities into the 19th century. In the 15th century, Hamburg had 100 guilds, Cologne 80, the latest guilds to develop in Western Europe were the gremios of Spain, e. g. Valencia or Toledo. Not all city economies were controlled by guilds, some cities were free, in order to become a Master, a Journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called Journeyman years. The practice of the Journeyman years still exists in Germany and France, in Ghent, as in Florence, the woolen textile industry developed as a congeries of specialized guilds. The appearance of the European guilds was tied to the emergent money economy, before this time it was not possible to run a money-driven organization, as commodity money was the normal way of doing business
The Abduction of Europa (Rembrandt)
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn’s The Abduction of Europa is one of his rare mythological subject paintings. The piece is oil on canvas and now located in the J. Paul Getty Museum, the inspiration for the painting is Ovid’s Metamorphoses, part of which tells the tale of Zeus’s seduction and capture of Europa. The painting shows a scene with Europa being carried away in rough waters by a bull while her friends remain on shore with expressions of horror. Rembrandt combined his knowledge of literature with the interests of the patron in order to create this allegorical work. The use of an ancient myth to impart a contemporary thought, the Abduction of Europa is Rembrandt’s reinterpretation of the story, placed in a more contemporary setting. He developed an interest in the world early in his life while in Amsterdam. Rembrandt moved to Amsterdam in 1631 because the city was a growing business-oriented center where Rembrandt found work with great success, during this time, the international High Baroque style was popular.
Rembrandt did not complete many mythological subject paintings, out of three hundred sixty completed works, five displayed tales from the Metamorphoses, five depicted goddesses, a Carthaginian queen, all of which only five represented myth subjects. Rembrandt occasionally used these mythological paintings as allegory, applying the tale to some Christian theme or a moral tradition, jacques Specx, of the Dutch East India Company, commissioned Rembrandt to complete The Abduction of Europa. Specx had established a center in Japan in 1609, served as the Governor of Batavia. The painting certainly was in Specx’s possession, along with five other portrait pieces, the subject and its allegorical meaning can be attributed to the patron, the artist, and a Belgian art biographer, Karel van Mander, whose theories entertained Rembdrant. Van Mander’s book Het schilder-boeck released an edition in 1618. The book was produced in Amsterdam and included details about many Netherlands painters, Rembrandt surely would have read this book, both because of its importance and its location, and familiarized himself with van Mander’s theories and interpretations of Ovid’s myths.
Van Mander commented on Europa’s abduction, with a European spin to it, Ovid’s account of the abduction of Europa is found in Book II 833-75 of Metamorphoses. Europa is a princess of Tyre, who is playing with her court on the coast when a bull appears. Europa mounts the bull, which quickly whisks her away into the ocean, when Europa and her friends notice the bull retreating further into the sea without coming back, the bull transforms into Zeus and carries her to Mount Olympus on the island of Crete. Rembrandt’s painting is set just as Europa is whisked away, as seen by the bull, art historians, like Mariët Westermann and Gary Schwartz interpret the painting as a reference to Specx’ career. The painting includes details from Ovid’s story that strengthen the location of the tale as well as tie it to Specx’ life, the African driver and non-European coach in the shadows to the right allude to the exotic Phoenician coast
Good Friday is a Christian holiday commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. It is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday and it is known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Black Friday, or Easter Friday, though the last term properly refers to the Friday in Easter week. The date of the holiday on the Gregorian calendar varies from one year to the next and it is a widely instituted legal holiday in many national governments around the world, including in most Western countries as well as in 12 U. S. states. Some countries, such as Germany, have laws prohibiting certain acts, such as dancing and horse racing, the etymology of the term good in the context of Good Friday is contested. Some sources claim good to mean pious or holy, while others contend that it is a corruption of God Friday. In German-speaking countries, Good Friday is generally referred to as Karfreitag, the Kar prefix is an ancestor of the English word care in the sense of cares and woes, it meant mourning.
The day is known as Stiller Freitag and Hoher Freitag. According to the accounts in the Gospels, the Temple Guards, guided by Jesus disciple Judas Iscariot, Judas received money for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus was taken to the house of Annas, there he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled. Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying I adjure you, by the Living God, to us, are you the Anointed One. Jesus testified ambiguously, You have said it, and in time you see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty. The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death, waiting in the courtyard, denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had predicted.
In the morning, the assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar. Pilate questioned Jesus and told the assembly there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, Herod questioned Jesus but received no answer, Herod sent Jesus back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found guilt in Jesus, under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, pilates wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to have nothing to do with this righteous man
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old