Synergy is the creation of a whole, greater than the simple sum of its parts. The term synergy comes from the Attic Greek word συνεργία synergia from synergos, συνεργός, meaning "working together"; the words synergy and synergetic have been used in the field of physiology since at least the middle of the 19th century: SYN'ERGY, Synergi'a, Synenergi'a, Synergie. A correlation or concourse of action between different organs in health. —Dunglison, Robley Medical Lexicon Blanchard and Lea, 1853 In 1896, Henri Mazel applied the term "synergy" to social psychology by writing La synergie sociale, in which he argued that Darwinian theory failed to account of "social synergy" or "social love", a collective evolutionary drive. The highest civilizations were the work not only of the masses too. In 1909, Lester Frank Ward defined synergy as the universal constructive principle of nature: I have characterized the social struggle as centrifugal and social solidarity as centripetal. Either alone is productive of evil consequences.
Struggle is destructive of the social order, while communism removes individual initiative. The one leads to disorder. What is not seen—the truth that has no expounders—is that the wholesome, constructive movement consists in the properly ordered combination and interaction of both these principles; this is social synergy, a form of cosmic synergy, the universal constructive principle of nature. —Ward, Lester F. Glimpses of the Cosmos, volume VI G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1918, p. 358 In the natural world, synergistic phenomena are ubiquitous, ranging from physics to chemistry, to the cooperative interactions among the genes in genomes, the division of labor in bacterial colonies, the synergies of scale in multi-cellular organisms, as well as the many different kinds of synergies produced by socially-organized groups, from honeybee colonies to wolf packs and human societies: compare stigmergy, a mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions that results in the self-assembly of complex systems.
The tools and technologies that are widespread in the natural world represent important sources of synergistic effects. The tools that enabled early hominins to become systematic big-game hunters is a primordial human example. In the context of organizational behavior, following the view that a cohesive group is more than the sum of its parts, synergy is the ability of a group to outperform its best individual member; these conclusions are derived from the studies conducted by Jay Hall on a number of laboratory-based group ranking and prediction tasks. He found that effective groups looked for the points in which they disagreed and in consequence encouraged conflicts amongst the participants in the early stages of the discussion. In contrast, the ineffective groups felt a need to establish a common view used simple decision making methods such as averaging, focused on completing the task rather than on finding solutions they could agree on. In a technical context, its meaning is a construct or collection of different elements working together to produce results not obtainable by any of the elements alone.
The elements, or parts, can include people, software, policies, documents: all things required to produce system-level results. The value added by the system as a whole, beyond that contributed independently by the parts, is created by the relationship among the parts, that is, how they are interconnected. In essence, a system constitutes a set of interrelated components working together with a common objective: fulfilling some designated need. If used in a business application, synergy means that teamwork will produce an overall better result than if each person within the group were working toward the same goal individually. However, the concept of group cohesion needs to be considered. Group cohesion is that property, inferred from the number and strength of mutual positive attitudes among members of the group; as the group becomes more cohesive, its functioning is affected in a number of ways. First, the interactions and communication between members increase. Common goals and small size all contribute to this.
In addition, group member satisfaction increases as the group provides friendship and support against outside threats. There are negative aspects of group cohesion that have an effect on group decision-making and hence on group effectiveness. There are two issues arising; the risky shift phenomenon is the tendency of a group to make decisions that are riskier than those that the group would have recommended individually. Group Polarisation is when individuals in a group begin by taking a moderate stance on an issue regarding a common value and, after having discussed it, end up taking a more extreme stance. A second, potential negative consequence of group cohesion is group. Group think is a mode of thinking that people engage in when they are involved in cohesive group, when the members' striving for unanimity overrides their motivation to appraise realistically the alternative courses of action. Studying the events of several American policy "disasters" such as the failure to anticipate the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the Bay of Pigs Invasion fiasco, Irving Janis argued that they were due to the cohesive nature of the committees that made the relevant decisions.
That decisions made by committees lead to failure in a simple
Meleda disease or "mal de Meleda" called Mljet disease, keratosis palmoplantaris and transgradiens of Siemens, is an rare autosomal recessive congenital skin disorder in which dry, thick patches of skin develop on the soles of the hands and feet, a condition known as palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Meleda Disease is a skin condition which can be identified not long after birth; this is a genetic condition but it is rare. The hands and feet are the first to show signs of the disease but the disease can advance to other parts of the body. Signs of the disease include thickening of the skin, on hands and soles of feet, which can turn red in color. There is no cure and treatment is limited, but Acitretin can be used in severe cases. Skin on the palms of hands and soles of feet have thick patches which progress slowly; the skin, affected may look red in color and start becoming abnormally thick and scaly. After birth it is obvious whether a child is affected with this disease because the hands or feet will appear to be peeling and could be red in color.
There is not much variation in this disease besides the skin how red the skin will turn and how much skin will turn thicker. The skin, affected on the hands and feet can start to look like the affected person is wearing gloves or socks, this is because the affected area on the hands and feet go up to the wrists and ankles, respectively. Other symptoms can include excessive sweating due to the thick skin affecting sweat glands on the skin. Severity of symptoms could increase. Dry skin on hands or feet skin peeling thick patches of skin skin discoloration This is a skin disorder, rare and inherited, it caused by genetics and is an autosomal recessive trait therefore, in order to be affected and present the disease each parent must be a carrier of the mutated allele and pass it to their kids. Inbreeding within families can cause Meleda disease to be prevalent. Meleda disease can be associated with other skin conditions such as skin discoloration, skin thickness, skin peeling. Meleda disease is a genetic disease but since it is a rare disease the chances of inheriting the disease are not high.
Since this is an autosomal recessive disease, two copies of the gene that contain the mutation must be present for one to show signs and symptoms of the disease. In order for one to be affected with the disease, both parents must contain the affected gene and pass it to their child. If a person is not affected by the disease, it is possible for them to be heterozygous, still carry the affected gene and be able to pass it to their children. MDM is most common on the Dalmatian island of Mljet, thought to be because of a founder effect, it is of autosomal recessive inheritance. It may be caused by a mutation on the SLURP1 gene, located on chromosome 8; the SLURP1 gene makes a protein called SLURP-1, this protein is located in cells of the skin. The protein SLURP-1 helps with cell death regulation and help mediate inflammation, occurring, this protein is important in keeping the skin cells at a level of homeostasis. A gene mutation would be caused by the chromosome 8qter, which codes for the SLURP1 gene, to be cut, thus causing a mutation in that gene, which would disrupt the way it controls the skin cells.
The skin abnormalities can be found during infancy. The abnormalities on the soles of feet or on the palms of hands can be found by the physician during a full examination. Family medical history can help with diagnosing. Overall, the diagnosis happens after birth because the majority of the time the child's hands and feet will be affected, making the condition apparent. Genetic testing can be done to determine. There are similar diseases that affect the skin which have to be taken into consideration before making a diagnosis; these are different patterns of disorders that cause the thickening of the skin on the hands and feet: Diffuse PPK: Symmetric pattern Focal PPK: Compact masses Punctate PPK: Distribution of many keratoses ichtyosis psoriasis lichen planus mycosis fungoides Treatment can consist of topical lotions, drug therapies, surgery. Treatment varies from person to person depending on the severity of their symptoms. Treatment has been more successful with oral retinoids than with the use of topical lotions, applied directly to the affected skin.
Aromatic Retinoid Etretinate used to be prescribed and had effective results in treating Meleda disease, but was taken off of the market in 1998 in America due to toxic effects and the increased risk of birth defects. Aromatic Retinoid Etretinate is still sold in Japan under the name Tigason. In America, Etretinate was replaced by Acitretin, is only used in severe cases due to the severe side effects. If taking Acitretin it is advised to not donate blood or get pregnant for at least 3 years after taking the drug. Topical lotions can help keep the skin moisturized, help reduce flaking of the skin; these are safe to put on skin, but possible side effects can include irritation. Keratolytics, such as salicylic acid With treatment the prognosis can be good for people with this disease. Quality of life can can be decreased, therefore getting treatment is recommended
Mir Teymur Mir Alakbar oglu Yagubov was the eighth First Secretary of Azerbaijan Communist Party. Land surveyor by profession, Yagubov held various positions within Komsomol of Azerbaijan SSR. In 1936, he became the First Secretary of Komsomol Central Committee and held the position until 1938. In 1938, Yagubov was appointed the Chairman of Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR. On March 6, 1941 he was relieved from these duties and appointed People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan SSR and worked in that position until June 1, 1943. In April 1953, Yagubov took the position of the First Secretary of Azerbaijan Communist Party and held the office until he was replaced by Imam Mustafayev. Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan
The Winchester Soldiers' Monument is a historic war memorial located in a park-like setting at the end of Crown Street in the Winsted area of Winchester, Connecticut. Built in 1889–90, it commemorates the community's participants in the American Civil War, it is one of Connecticut's most architecturally elaborate memorials to that conflict. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984; the Winchester Soldiers' Monument is located in a residential area north of the commercial Main Street area of Winsted, at the southern end of Crown Street. The park in which it is set is atop a circular hill, grassed down to the park drive, paths and a few trees dotting its interior. A low stone retaining wall lines the parking area on Crown Street. A square entrance arch with crenellated top provides access to one of the paths leading to the main monument; the main structure is a three-level tower built of ashlar granite from a local quarry, is square in footprint. Its walls slope inward in the lower stage to straighten and are crowned by crenellations.
At one corner a circular tourelle projects from the third level, topped by a bronze figure of a soldier holding colors. There is a single entrance on one face, with single windows on each of the other first-floor facades, two windows on each of the upper levels; the total height of the tower is 44 feet. The memorial was completed in 1890 to a design by Robert Hill of Waterbury; the interior was to have an iron staircase installed, but this never occurred due a disagreement with the contractor, a wooden staircase was installed instead. Funds for the memorial's construction were raised by the local chapter of the Grand Army of the Republic. In 1977–78, a water fountain was installed near the tower, designed by Andrew Coppola, a sculptor from Hartford. National Register of Historic Places listings in Litchfield County, Connecticut
Lata Gouveia is a singer-songwriter and producer. He is a well-known Red Dirt artist in Oklahoma and a reference of Americana music in Luxembourg and the north of France, he grew up in Luxembourg. At the age of 17 he went to London, played music in bars, was a member of various bands. From 1993 to 1999 he studied economics, at UCL University of London and politics at London Guildhall University at bachelor and master level London Metropolitan University, finishing his studies with bachelor's degrees. In 2001, he founded the company Desert Fish Productions. From 2002 to 2006, he had a band called Lata Dog, releasing an album in 2004. In 2003 he wrote the song "Três desafios" for the soundtrack of the film "Tudo isto é Fado", directed by Luís Galvão Teles. In 2007, he moved to Oklahoma at the invitation of Rocky Frisco, who had played together with JJ Cale, one of Gouveia's musical heroes. There he came into contact with many folk musicians and created close friendships with Tom Skinner, Dustin Pittsley and Steve Pryor.
In 2009 Lata produced the documentary "Red Dirt: Songs from the Dust", awarded best music documentary at the Bare Bones International Film Festival. His 2008 album Road US-75 was released in San Marcos, Texas, his 2011 cover version of Monica Taylor's song "Young Mother" was featured on the NME website. Since 2010 he is living in Luxembourg again and has become one brightest stars in the national scene, headlining several festivals and opening for Ayọ, Charlie Winston, Kiefer Sutherland, Alan Parsons, BAP and others, he composed the music for the documentary "Terra mia terra nostra", directed by Donato Rotunno. In 2013 he won the band contest Purple Idol and played at the Rock um Knuedler festival as support for BAP; the music video of his single "Radio Night" features Sascha Ley and Lucien Elsen, two well-known actors in Luxembourg. His recent band consists of Paul Porcelli and Jeff Herr. Lead the way Dead time Road US-75 Radio Night Chico Radio Nights Live at Kufa Radio Cuts 2008-2015 Healed & Gone Homepage
La Mafia is a four-time Grammy Award-winning musical group. It has its roots in the Northside neighborhood of Houston and has charted a course as a Latin music band. La Mafia was founded in 1980 in Houston, TX. Vocalist Oscar De La Rosa & producer/keyboardist/accordionist Armando Lichtenberger Jr. created an original style that survived various changes in the music industry. The band consists of Tim Ruiz on bass, David Delagarza on keyboards and background vocals, Eduardo Torres on drums, Marion Aquilina on Guitar and Robbie Longoria on six bass percussion and congas. in 2007 The band has won 2 Grammys & 2 Latin Grammys was nominated in 2009 for a Latin Grammy for the album Eternamente Romanticos. La Mafia, seeking to expand their musical horizons, began touring extensively in Mexico and Latin America beginning in the late 1980s; the practice of Mexican-American artists performing in Mexico on a large scale was unheard of before La Mafia. Oscar De La Rosa - vocalist Armando Lichtenberger Jr. - accordion, keyboards & Producer David Delagarza III - Keyboards & Vocals Tim Ruiz - bass Eduardo Torres - drums Marion Aquilina - guitar Robbie Longoria - six bass-percussions & Congas Leonardo Gonzales - guitar Robert Gonzalez - guitar & bass guitar Viktor Pacheko - guitar Israel Villanueva - bass guitar Adolf Alonso - bass guitar Rudy Martinez bass guitar Tony Rodriguez - drums Mario Gonzalez - drums Adam Mosqueda - drums Jason Rodriguez - bass guitar Michael Aguilar - drums Jesse Moreno - Sax Jesse Peralez - Sax Rick Patino - Sax-Trumpet David Flores - Sax Joe Gonzales - drums Since 1993, La Mafia has recorded each of its hits at its own Urbana Recording Studios, including the million-selling Estas Tocando Fuego and Ahora y Siempre.
The band has recorded 35 albums and CDs, not including dozens of compilation and greatest hits releases. 1980: La Mafia de Oscar y Leonardo Gonzales 1981: Only In Texas 1982: The Magnificent 7 1982: Honey 1983: Electrifying 1983: Mafia Mania 1984: Hot Stuff 1985: Neon Static 1985: Herencia Norteña 1986: La Mafia 1986 1987: A Todo Color 1988: Amame 1989: Xplosiv 1990: Enter the Future 1990: Con Tanto Amor 1991: Non-Stop 1991: Estas Tocando Fuego 1992: Ahora y Siempre 1994: Vida 1996: Un Millón de Rosas 1997: En Tus Manos 1998: Euforia 1999: Momentos 2000: Contigo 2001: Inconfundible 2004: Nube Pasajera 2004: Para El Pueblo 2008: Eternamente Romanticos 2014: Amor y Sexo 2018: Vozes 1981: La Mafia 1984: 15 Hits 1987: La Mafia Live 1991: Party Time 1991: 1991 1993: Nuestras Mejores Canciones - 17 1995: Puro Tejano 1995: Éxitos en Vivo 1998: Hits De Coleccion Vol. 1 2001: Para Enamorados 2002: Tejano All Stars 2003: Los Hits 2003: 30 Éxitos Insuperables 2006: Nuevamente 2006: La Historia de La Mafia: Los Exitos 2008: Leyendas 2011: La Mafia: Live In The 80s 2019: La Mafia Live in Mexico La Mafia received Grammy Awards for its CDs Un Millón de Rosas and En Tus Manos and Latin Grammy Awards for its CDs Para El Pueblo and Nuevamente.
It has received eight Premio Lo Nuestro Awards and 12 Tejano Music Awards, including a Lifetime Achievement Award from the latter, numerous Billboard awards and was listed in the top 10 Billboard Latin Artists for the entire decade of the 1990s, ranking La Mafia as the most successful Latin artist Houston has produced. Official website La Mafia at AllMusic "La Mafia.net". LaMafia.net. Retrieved June 4, 2014