Japan Coast Guard
The Japan Coast Guard is the Japanese coast guard. Comprising about 12,000 personnel, it is under the oversight of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Tourism, is responsible for the protection of the coastline of Japan, it was founded in 1948. Motto of the Japan Coast Guard is'Righteous Benevolence'; the mission of the JCG is to ensure security and safety at sea as below: Maritime law enforcement and national security Search and rescue and disaster response Hydrographic and oceanographic surveying Maritime traffic managementAs stipulated in Article 25 of the Japan Coast Guard Law, the JCG is not a military but a civilian organization. In the case of emergency situation, the JCG may be incorporated under the direction of the Minister of Defense as stipulated in Article 80 of the Self-Defense Forces Law; the Japan Coast Guard is led by two Vice Commandants. Lower ranking officers include the director general and inspector generals. Organization Commandant Vice Commandant Vice Commandant for Operations Administrative Inspector General Administration Department Coast Guard Research Center Equipment and Technology Department Guard and Rescue Department Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department Maritime Traffic Department Coast Guard Academy Coast Guard School Moji Branch school Miyagi Branch school The Japan Coast Guard Academy is a 4-year-training institution, located in Kure, Hiroshima prefecture, established within the Coast Guard for the purpose of training students to become officers.
Graduates are given a bachelor's degree upon graduation. About 40 cadets graduate from the academy each year; the JCG has divided the nation into eleven regions to facilitate its coast guard operations. Each region maintains a Regional Coast Guard Headquarters, under which there are various Coast Guard Offices, Coast Guard Stations, Air Stations, Hydrographic Observatory, Traffic Advisory Service Centers. 1st Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Otaru, Hokkaidō 2nd Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Shiogama, Miyagi 3rd Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Yokohama 4th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Nagoya 5th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Kobe 6th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Hiroshima 7th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Kitakyūshū 8th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Maizuru, Kyoto 9th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Niigata, Niigata 10th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Kagoshima 11th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters: Naha, Okinawa The JCG maintains three national-level elite units for each specialized fields: Special Rescue Team.
Rescue swimmers and public safety diving team. Regional counterparts are Kidō-kyūnan-shi. National Strike Team Offshore oil spill and chemical hazard response team; the Japanese counterpart of the National Strike Force of the USCG. Special Security Team Counter-terrorism tactical team. Regional counterparts are Tokubetsu-keibi-tai. After its creation, the MSA operated the second-hand ship of the former Japanese Navy, but only small and slow vessels were allowed to use. From FY1949 the construction of new ships began; because GHQ instructed to model a ship of the USCG, the 700-ton class PL was based on Cactus-class buoy tenders, the 450-ton class PM was based on Thetis-class patrol boat, the 270-ton class PS was based on Active-class patrol boat, the 23-meter class PC was 75-feet patrol boat as a model. However, these ships did not comply with the sea condition around Japan; as a result, when the Treaty of San Francisco came into force, MSA's own patrol ship's design work began. The PL type patrol vessels increased in size to 900-ton class, PS type patrol vessels differentiated into 350-ton class and 130-ton class.
The 350-ton class PSs were reclassified as PM type. In late 1970s, it was clear that the new international rules on exclusive economic zone would need a considerable increase in the size of the Maritime Safety Agency fleets. To cope with this dramatic increase in workload, 1,000-ton class PLs, 500-ton class PMs and 30-meter class PCs were built in large quantities, and JMSA began the shipping operation of air-sea rescue helicopters with PLHs. Since the 1980s, criminal ships had advanced into the ocean and speeding up, North Korean armed trawlers have come to appear. For this reason, in addition to designing 180-ton class PSs that combined both ocean-going capability and high-speed performance, speeding up of PL and PM type patrol vessels have been aimed. Equipped with remote control and automatic tracking function of machine cannon, precise shooting became possible; the JCG operates 455 watercraft, these include the following: Patrol vessels: 121 Patrol craft: 234 Special guard and rescue craft: 63 Hydrographic survey vessels: 13 Aids to navigation evaluation vessels: 1 Buoy tenders: 2 Aids to navigation tenders: 18 Training boats: 3 The JCG operates 74 aircraft, these include: Fixed Wing: 27 Helicopters: 46 The JCG does not have any Emergency vehicle but civilian vans for transporting goods and personnel.
As described above, the JCG is not a military but a civilian organization, so the rules on the use of weapons are based on those of police officers, not self-defense officers. Because the Allied countries wanted to maintain disarmament of Japan, the armaments of the MSA were restricted to only small arms in the earliest days. However, following the outbreak of the Korean War, the need to strengthen the security capability became necessary, since 1954, the instal
History of Japan–Korea relations
For over 15 centuries, the relationship between Japan and Korea was characterized by cultural exchanges, economic trade, political contact and military confrontations, all of which underlie their relations today. During the ancient era, exchanges of cultures and ideas between Japan and mainland Asia were common through migration via the Korean Peninsula and/or diplomatic contact and trade between the two. Buddhism, Chinese-influenced cuisine, Han characters and other technology came to Japan via Korea and/or the Sea of Japan. Since 1945, relations involve three states: South Korea and Japan. Japan cut off Korea from Qing Chinese suzerainty and for Japan, a high priority in the late 19th century, fighting wars with those two countries on the issue. Japan took control of Korea with the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty of 1910; when Japan was defeated in World War II, Soviet forces took control of the North, American forces took control of the South, with the 38th parallel as the agreed-upon dividing line.
South Korea became independent as of August 15, 1945, North Korea as of September 9, 1945. In June 1950, North Korea invaded and conquered South Korea, but was driven back by the United Nations command, leading South Korean, American and international forces. North Korea was nearly captured, with the United Nations intending to roll back Communism there. However, China entered the war, pushed the UN forces out of North Korea, a military stalemate resulted along the lines similar to the 38th parallel. An armistice was agreed on in 1953, still in effect, the cease-fire line of that year remains the boundary between North and South. Diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea were established in 1965. In the early 2000s, the Japanese–South Korean relationship soured when the Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visited the Yasukuni Shrine every year during his term. Furthermore, conflicts continue to exist over claims of the Liancourt Rocks - a group of small islets near Korean island "Ulleungdo".
Bilaterally and through the Six-Party Talks, North Korea and Japan continue to discuss the case of Japanese citizens abducted by the North Korean government during the 1970s and 1980s, although there are no existent diplomatic relations between the two. In recent decades, irreconcilable disputes over history and history textbooks have soured relations between Japan and the two Koreas; the debate has exacerbated nationalist pride and animosity, as teachers and professors become soldiers in an intellectual war over events more than a half-century old or two millennia older. Efforts to reach compromise agreements have failed. Meanwhile, a much less controversial, less politicized and more study-oriented historiography has flourished in Western nations. In 2013, polls reported that 94% of Koreans believe Japan "Feels no regret for its past wrongdoings," while 63% of Japanese state that Korean demands for Japanese apologies are, "Incomprehensible." Relations between Korea and Japan go back at least two millennia.
After the 3rd century BC, people from the Three Kingdoms and Gaya in the Korean Peninsula, started to move southwards into the Kyushu region of Japan. Knowledge of mainland Asia was transmitted via Korea to Japan. According to the description of the Book of Wei, Yamatai-Koku kingdom in Japan and Four Commanderies of Han had diplomatic exchanges around the 3rd century. There are indications of cross-border political influence, but with varying accounts as to in which direction the political influence flowed. Buddhism was introduced to Japan from this Korean monarchy. By the time of the Three Kingdoms period of Korea and Silla sent their princes to the Yamato court in exchange for military support to continue their already-begun military campaigns around 400. Uija, the last king of Baekje, formed an alliance with Japan and made Prince Buyeo Pung and King Zenko stay there as their guests. In 660, Baekje fell when it was attacked by Silla, in alliance with Tang China. Former generals of Baekje, including Gwisil Boksin, asked Japan to return Prince Buyeo Pung and requested military aid.
In 663, supporting Baekje, was defeated by the allied forces of Silla and Tang China in the Korean Peninsula, the restoration of Baekje ended up in failure. After the fall of Baekje, Japan took in many Baekje Korean refugees who were craftspeople and scholars who played a major role in the social development of Japan during that period. While at the same time hostility between Japan and Silla escalated. Empress Jitō honored King Zenko by giving him the hereditary title of Kudara no Konikishi and allowed him to pass on his royal lineage to future generations. According to the Shoku Nihongi, Takano no Niigasa came from a background of the naturalized clansmen Yamato-no-Fumito and was a 10th-generation descendant of King Muryeong of Baekje, she subsequently became the mother of Emperor Kanmu. Japan has had official contact with the Chinese since the 7th to 8th centuries. Chinese culture was introduced to Japan via the Korean Peninsula, but the Korean value slumped when Chinese culture was introduced directly via Japanese missions to Tang China.
Emperor Kanmu severed diplomatic relations with Silla in 799. From the early 9th–11th centuries, Japanese pirates plundered the southern region of Korean Peninsula and Korea-Japan relations deteriorated. During the middle Kamakura period, Japan suffered from the invasions of the Mongol Empire, dominant on the continent, its partner kingdom, the Goryeo of Korea; the History of Yuan states that the Mongol invasions of
Park Chung-hee was a South Korean politician and general who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military dictatorship installed by the May 16 coup in 1961. Before his presidency, he was the chairman of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction from 1961 to 1963 after a career as a military leader in the South Korean army. Park's coup brought an end to the interim government of the Second Republic and his election and inauguration in 1963 ushered in the Third Republic. Seeking to bring South Korea into the developed world, Park began a series of economic policies that brought rapid economic growth and industrialization to the nation that became known as the Miracle on the Han River. South Korea became one of the fastest growing nations during the 70s as a result. Although popular during the 60s by the 70s as growth began to slow Park's popularity started wane resulting in a close victory during the 1971 South Korean presidential election.
Following this in 1972, Park declared martial law and amended the constitution into a authoritarian document called the Yushin Constitution. Formally, the pretense was. In actuality, its effect was tantamount to an abolishment of the former Constitution -- creating a new one in an effort to legitimize the new Fourth Republic. Although economic growth enjoyed a resurgence during this time, political opposition and dissent was repressed and Park had complete control of the Media and Military. Park survived several previous attempts to kill him, including two operations associated with North Korea. Following the student uprising known as the Bu-Ma Democratic Protests, Park was assassinated on 26 October 1979 by his close friend Kim Jae-gyu, the director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, at a safe house in Seoul. Cha Ji-chul, chief of the Presidential Security Service, was fatally shot by Kim. Kim and his many accomplices were captured, tried and executed as Choi Kyu-hah became Acting President pursuant to the Yushin Constitution's Article 48.
Major General Chun Doo-hwan amassed sweeping powers after his Defense Security Command was charged with investigating the assassination, first taking control of the military and the KCIA before installing another military junta and assuming the presidency in 1980. Whether the assassination was spontaneous or premeditated is something that remains unclear today -- the motivations of Kim Jae-gyu are still debated. Economic growth continued throughout the 80s after Park's death and the country democratized. Presidents included people arrested under Park's regime. Park has been ranked by the public as the greatest South Korean president but he still remains a controversial figure in modern South Korean political discourse and among the South Korean populace in general for his dictatorship and undemocratic ways. While some credit him for sustaining the Miracle on the Han River, which reshaped and modernized South Korea, others criticize his authoritarian way of ruling the country and for prioritizing economic growth and contrived social order at the expense of civil liberties.
In 2012 the Park Chung-hee Presidential Library and Museum was opened. On 25 February 2013, his eldest daughter, Park Geun-hye, became the first female president of South Korea, she was impeached and removed from office on 10 March 2017 as a result of an influence-peddling scandal. On 6 April 2018, Park's daughter was sentenced to 24 years in prison for corruption. Park was born on 14 November 1917, in Gumi, North Gyeongsang in Korea under Japanese rule, to parents Park Sung-bin and Bek Nam-eui, he was two sisters in a poor Yangban family. Intelligent and ambitious, Park's hero from his boyhood on was Napoleon, he expressed much disgust that he had to grow up in the poor and backward countryside of Korea, a place, not suitable for someone like himself; those who knew Park as a youth recalled that a recurring theme of his remarks was his wish to "escape" from the Korean countryside. As someone who had grown up under Japanese rule, Park expressed his admiration for Japan's rapid modernization after the Meiji Restoration of 1867 and for Bushido, the Japanese warrior code.
As a youth, he won admission to a teaching school in Daegu and worked as a teacher in Mungyeong-eup after graduating in high school, but was a mediocre student. Following the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the ambitious Park decided to enter the Changchun Military Academy of the Manchukuo Imperial Army, with help from Imperial Japanese Army Colonel Arikawa. During this time, he adopted the Japanese name Takagi Masao, he graduated top of his class in 1942 and was recognized as a talented officer by his Japanese instructors, who recommended him for further studies at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in Japan. After graduating third in the class of 1944, Park was commissioned as a lieutenant into the Imperial Army of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet-state, served during the final stages of World War II as aide-de-camp to a regimental commander, he changed his name again from Takagi Masao to Okamoto Minoru in order to engage in intelligence activities against Korean guerrillas operating in the region.
The Japanese used Korean turncoats to suppress Korean armed resistance. Park returned to Kore
A patrol boat is a small naval vessel designed for coastal defence duties. There have been many designs for patrol boats, they may be operated by a nation's navy, coast guard, police force or customs and may be intended for marine or estuarine or river environments. They are found engaged in various border protection roles, including anti-smuggling, anti-piracy, fisheries patrols, immigration law enforcement, they are often called upon to participate in rescue operations. Vessels of this type include the original yacht, a light, fast-sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into shallow waters, they may be broadly classified as offshore patrol vessels. They are warships smaller in size than a corvette and can include fast attack craft, torpedo boats and missile boats, although some are as large as a frigate; the offshore patrol vessels are the smallest ship in a navy's fleet, large and seaworthy enough to patrol off-shore in the open ocean. In larger militaries, such as in the United States military, offshore patrol vessels serve in the coast guard, but many smaller nations navies operate these type of ships.
During both World Wars in order to build up numbers, all sides created auxiliary patrol boats by arming motorboats and seagoing fishing trawlers with machine guns and obsolescent naval weapons. Some modern patrol vessels are still based on leisure boats. Seagoing patrol boats are around 30 m in length and carry a single medium caliber artillery gun as main armament, a variety of lighter secondary armament such as machine guns or a close-in weapon system. Depending on role, vessels in this class may have more sophisticated sensors and fire control systems that would enable them to carry torpedoes, anti-ship and surface-to-air missiles. Most modern designs are powered by gas turbine arrangements such as CODAG, speeds are in the 25–30 knots range, they are used for patrol in a country's Exclusive Economic Zone. Common tasks are fisheries inspection, anti-smuggling duties, illegal immigration patrols, anti-piracy patrols and search and rescue; the largest OPVs might have a flight deck and helicopter embarked.
In times of crisis or war, these vessels are expected to support the larger vessels in the navy. Their small size and low cost make them one of the most common type of warship in the world. All navies operate at least a few offshore patrol vessels those with only "green water" capabilities, they are useful in smaller seas such as the North Sea as well as in open oceans. Similar vessels for military duties include torpedo boats and missile boats; the United States Navy operated the Pegasus class of armed hydrofoils for years, in a patrol boat role. The River Patrol Boat is a U. S. design of small patrol boat type designed to patrol waters of large rivers. Iliria Mantilla-class patrol vessel, Argentine Naval Prefecture Z-28-class patrol vessel, Argentine Naval Prefecture Attack-class patrol boat, – 1967 to 1985 Fremantle-class patrol boat, – 1979 to 2007 Pacific-class patrol boat, 1987–present Armidale-class patrol boat, – 2005 to present Arafura-class Offshore Patrol Vessel, – Expected to enter service in 2021 Bay-class patrol boat, – 1999 to present Australian Customs Vessel Triton, – 2000 to 2016 Cape-class patrol boat, – Bay class replacement from 2013 Bahamas-class 60m patrol vessel, Protector-class patrol boat Durjoy-class LPC Island-class patrol vessel Sea Dragon-class offshore patrol vessel Padma-class offshore patrol vessel Meghna-class large patrol boats Hainan-class submarine chaser Kraljevica-class patrol boat Barkat small patrol boat Ajay-class patrol boat Shaheed class small patrol boat Grajaú class offshore patrol vessel Bracuí class patrol vessel Imperial Marinheiro-class offshore patrol vessel Piratini-class patrol vessel J-class patrol vessel Roraima-class river patrol vessel Pedro Teixeira-class river patrol vessel Macaé-class-offshore patrol vessel Amazonas-class corvette P901 Castor P902 Pollux Obzor Orca class, Hero class, Harbour security boat – 4 newly built 80 ton class harbour security / patrol boats, more are planned in order to take over the port security / patrol duties performed by the obsolete Shantou, Beihai and Yulin classes gunboats, which are being converted to inshore surveying boats and range support boats.
Shanghai III class gunboats – 2 Shanghai II class gunboats Shanghai I classes gunboats – 150+ active and at least 100 in reserve Huludao class gunboat – 8+ Shantou class gunboats – less than 25 Beihai class gunboats – less than 30 Huangpu class gunboats – less than 15 Yulin class gunboats – less than 40 Haixun class cutter
Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers
The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers was the title held by General Douglas MacArthur during the Allied occupation of Japan following World War II. It issued SCAP Directive to the Japanese government, aiming to transform it into a non-terrorist nation. In Japan, the position was referred to as GHQ, as SCAP referred to the offices of the occupation, including a staff of several hundred U. S. civil servants as well as military personnel. Some of these personnel wrote a first draft of the Japanese Constitution, which the National Diet ratified after a few amendments. Australian, British and New Zealand forces under SCAP were organized into a sub-command known as British Commonwealth Occupation Force; these actions led MacArthur to be viewed as the new Imperial force in Japan by many Japanese political and civilian figures being considered to be the rebirth of the shōgun-style government which Japan was ruled under until the start of the Meiji Restoration. Biographer William Manchester argues that without MacArthur's leadership, Japan would not have been able to make the move from an imperial, totalitarian state, to a democracy.
At his appointment, MacArthur announced that he sought to "restore security and self-respect" to the Japanese people. One of the largest of the SCAP programs was Public Health and Welfare, headed by U. S. Army Colonel Crawford F. Sams. Working with the SCAP staff of 150, Sams directed the welfare work of the American doctors, organized new Japanese medical welfare systems along American lines; the Japanese population was physically badly worn down and medicines were scarce, sanitary systems had been bombed out in larger cities. His earliest priorities were in distributing food supplies from the U. S. Millions of refugees from the defunct overseas Empire were pouring in in bad physical shape, with a high risk of introducing smallpox and cholera; the outbreaks that did occur were localized, as emergency immunization, quarantine and delousing prevented massive epidemics. Sams, promoted to Brigadier General in 1948, worked with Japanese officials to establish vaccine laboratories, reorganize hospitals along American lines, upgrade medical and nursing schools, bring together Japanese, U.
S. teams that dealt with disasters, child care, health insurance. He set up an Institute of Public Health for educating public health workers and a National Institute of Health for research, set up statistical divisions and data collection systems. SCAP arrested 28 suspected war criminals on account of crimes against peace, but it did not conduct the Tokyo trials. President Harry Truman had negotiated Japanese surrender on the condition the Emperor would not be executed or put on trial. SCAP carried out that policy; as soon as November 26, 1945, MacArthur confirmed to admiral Mitsumasa Yonai that the emperor's abdication would not be necessary. Before the war crimes trials convened, SCAP, the IPS and Shōwa officials worked behind the scenes not only to prevent the imperial family being indicted, but to slant the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one implicated the Emperor. High officials in court circles and the Shōwa government collaborated with Allied GHQ in compiling lists of prospective war criminals, while the individuals arrested as Class A suspects and incarcerated in Sugamo Prison solemnly vowed to protect their sovereign against any possible taint of war responsibility.
As Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, MacArthur decided not to prosecute Shiro Ishii and all members of the bacteriological research units in exchange for germ warfare data based on human experimentation. On May 6, 1947, he wrote to Washington that "additional data some statements from Ishii can be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as "War Crimes" evidence." The deal was concluded in 1948. According to historian Herbert Bix in Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, "MacArthur's extraordinary measures to save the Emperor from trial as a war criminal had a lasting and profoundly distorting impact on Japanese understanding of the lost war." Above the political and economic control SCAP had for the seven years following Japan's surrender, SCAP had strict control over all of the Japanese media, under the formation of the Civil Censorship Detachment of SCAP. The CCD banned a total of 31 topics from all forms of media.
These topics included: Criticism of SCAP. All Allied countries. Criticism of Allied policy pre- and post-war. Any form of imperial propaganda. Defense of war criminals. Praise of "undemocratic" forms of government, though praise of SCAP itself was permitted; the atomic bomb. Black market activities. Open discussion of allied diplomatic relations. Although some of the CCD censorship laws relaxed towards the end of SCAP, some topics, like the atomic bomb, were taboo until 1952 at the end of the occupation. MacArthur was succeeded as SCAP by General Matthew Ridgway when MacArthur was relieved by President Harry S. Truman during the Korean War in April 1951; when the Treaty of San Francisco came into effect on April 28, 1952, the post of SCAP lapsed. Bix, Herbert P.. Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-019314-0. Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04686-1.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
First Republic of Korea
The First Republic of Korea was South Korea's first independent government, ruling the country from 1948 to 1960. It succeeded USAMGIK, the United States military government, which ruled the area from 1945 to 1948; the Philippines recognized South Korea on 15 August 1948. The First Republic was established on August 1948, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. Like subsequent governments, it claimed sovereignty over the entire Korean Peninsula, although it only had power over the area south of the 38th parallel; the investiture of the Rhee government followed the general election of May 10, 1948. The country's first constitution had been promulgated by the first National Assembly on July 17, it established a system with a strong president, elected indirectly by the National Assembly. The April Revolution in 1960 led to the resignation of Syngman Rhee and the transition to the Second Republic of South Korea. Rhee was supported in the elections by the Korea Democratic Party, but didn't include any of its members in his cabinet.
In retaliation, the members of the party formed a united opposition Democratic Nationalist Party, began to advocate a cabinet system which would remove power from the president. This led to a regrouping of the Rhee faction into the Nationalist Party, which became the Liberal Party, remained Rhee's base throughout his administration; the country's second parliamentary elections were held on May 30, 1950, gave the majority of seats to independents. The South Korean government continued many of the practices of the U. S. military government. This included the brutal repression of leftist activity; the Rhee government continued the harsh military action against the Jeju Uprising. It crushed military uprisings in Suncheon and Yeosu, which were provoked by orders to sail to Jeju and participate in the crackdown; this government oversaw several massacres, the most notable being the Bodo League massacre where between 100,000 and 1,140,000 were executed on suspicion of supporting communism. On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces invaded South Korea.
Led by the United States, a 16-member coalition undertook the first collective action under the umbrella of the U. N. Command. Oscillating battle lines inflicted a high number of civilian casualties and wrought immense destruction. With the People's Republic of China's entry on behalf of North Korea in 1951, the fighting came to a stalemate close to the original line of demarcation. Armistice negotiations, initiated in July 1951 concluded on July 27, 1953 at Panmunjom, now in the Demilitarized Zone; the resulting Armistice Agreement was signed by the North Korean army, Chinese People's Volunteers and the U. S.-led and South Korean-supported United Nations Command. A peace treaty has not been signed up to now. Following the armistice, the South Korean government returned to Seoul on the symbolic date of August 15, 1953. After the armistice, South Korea experienced political turmoil under years of autocratic leadership of Syngman Rhee, ended by student revolt in 1960. Throughout his rule, Rhee sought to take additional steps to cement his control of government.
These began in 1952. In May of that year, Rhee pushed through constitutional amendments which made the presidency a directly-elected position. In order to do this, he declared martial law and jailed the members of parliament whom he expected to vote against it. Rhee was subsequently elected by a wide margin, he regained control of parliament in the 1954 elections, thereupon pushed through an amendment to exempt himself from the eight-year term limit. Rhee's prospects for reelection during the presidential campaign of 1956 seemed dim. Public disillusionment regarding his attempt to seek a third term was growing, the main opposition candidate Shin Ik-hee drew immense crowds during his campaign. Shin's sudden death while on the campaign trail, allowed Rhee to win the presidency with ease; the runner-up of that election, Cho Bong-am of the Progressive Party, was charged with espionage and executed in 1959. The events of 1960, known as the April Revolution, were touched off by the violent repression of a student demonstration in Masan on the day of the presidential election, March 15.
These protests were quelled by local police, but they broke out again after the body of a student was found floating in the harbor. Subsequently, nonviolent protests spread to Seoul and throughout the country, Rhee resigned on April 26; this period saw explosive growth in education at all levels during the turmoil of the Korean War. The First Republic saw the full implementation of an educational system, sketched out by the Council for Korean Education under USAMGIK; this education was shaped by the ideal of Hongik Ingan, the person, a benefit to all, sought to prepare students for participation in a democratic society. Some contend that this democratic education contributed to the student protests which brought down the authoritarian Rhee government in 1960; the first Education Law came into force on December 31, 1949. The most important aspect of this was the introduction of universal compulsory education at the primary level; this requirement led to widespread school construction. In addition, the dual ladder system used by the Japanese occupation government was replaced by a single-ladder system, with 6 years of primary education, 3 of middle-school education, 3 of high-school education, 4 of college education.
This period saw the adoption of South Korea's fi