Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to deprive, suspend, or limit membership in a religious community or to restrict certain rights within it, in particular receiving of the sacraments. The term is historically used to refer to excommunications from the Catholic Church, but it is used more to refer to similar types of institutional religious exclusionary practices and shunning among other religious groups. For instance, many Protestant denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, have similar practices of excusing congregants from church communities, while Jehovah's Witnesses, as well as the Churches of Christ, use the term "disfellowship" to refer to their form of excommunication; the Amish have been known to excommunicate members that were either seen or known for breaking rules, or questioning the church. The word excommunication means putting a specific group out of communion. In some denominations, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the group.
Excommunication may involve banishment and shaming, depending on the group, the offense that caused excommunication, or the rules or norms of the religious community. The grave act is revoked in response to sincere penance, which may be manifested through public recantation, sometimes through the Sacrament of Confession, piety or through mortification of the flesh. Within the Catholic Church, there are differences between the discipline of the majority Latin Church regarding excommunication and that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. In Latin Catholic canon law, excommunication is a applied censure and thus a "medicinal penalty" intended to invite the person to change behaviour or attitude and return to full communion, it is not an "expiatory penalty" designed to make satisfaction for the wrong done, much less a "vindictive penalty" designed to punish: "excommunication, the gravest penalty of all and the most frequent, is always medicinal", is "not at all vindictive". Excommunication can be either latae ferendae sententiae.
According to Bishop Thomas J. Paprocki, "excommunication does not expel the person from the Catholic Church, but forbids the excommunicated person from engaging in certain activities..." These activities are listed in Canon 1331 §1, prohibit the individual from any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship. Under current Catholic canon law, excommunicates remain bound by ecclesiastical obligations such as attending Mass though they are barred from receiving the Eucharist and from taking an active part in the liturgy. "Excommunicates lose rights, such as the right to the sacraments, but they are still bound to the obligations of the law. They are urged to retain a relationship with the Church, as the goal is to encourage them to repent and return to active participation in its life; these are the only effects for those. For instance, a priest may not refuse Communion publicly to those who are under an automatic excommunication, as long as it has not been declared to have been incurred by them if the priest knows that they have incurred it.
On the other hand, if the priest knows that excommunication has been imposed on someone or that an automatic excommunication has been declared, he is forbidden to administer Holy Communion to that person.. In the Catholic Church, excommunication is resolved by a declaration of repentance, profession of the Creed and an Act of Faith, or renewal of obedience by the excommunicated person and the lifting of the censure by a priest or bishop empowered to do this. "The absolution can be in the internal forum only, or in the external forum, depending on whether scandal would be given if a person were absolved and yet publicly considered unrepentant." Since excommunication excludes from reception of the sacraments, absolution from excommunication is required before absolution can be given from the sin that led to the censure. In many cases, the whole process takes place on a single occasion in the privacy of the confessional. For some more serious wrongdoings, absolution from excommunication is reserved to a bishop, another ordinary, or the Pope.
These can delegate a priest to act on their behalf. Interdict is a censure similar to excommunication, it too excludes from ministerial functions in public worship and from reception of the sacraments, but not from the exercise of governance. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, excommunications is imposed only by decree, never incurred automatically by latae sententiae excommunication. A distinction is made between major excommunication; those on whom minor excommunication has been imposed are excluded from receiving the Eucharist and can be excluded from participating in the Divine Liturgy. They can be excluded from entering a church when divine worship is being celebrated there; the decree of excommunication must indicate the precise effect of the excommunication and, if required, its duration. Those under major excommunication
Homicide is the act of one human killing another. A homicide requires only a volitional act by another person that results in death, thus a homicide may result from accidental, reckless, or negligent acts if there is no intent to cause harm. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping legal categories, including murder, justifiable homicide, killing in war and capital punishment, depending on the circumstances of the death; these different types of homicides are treated differently in human societies. Criminal homicide takes many forms including purposeful murder. Criminal homicide is divided into two broad categories and manslaughter, based upon the state of mind and intent of the person who commits the homicide. Murder is the most serious crime. In many jurisdictions, homicide may be punished by life in prison or capital punishment. Although categories of murder can vary by jurisdiction, murder charges fall under two broad categories: First degree murder: the premeditated, intentional killing of another person.
Second degree murder: The intentional, unlawful killing of another person, but without any premeditation. In some jurisdictions, a homicide that occurs during the commission of a dangerous crime may constitute murder, regardless of the actor's intent to commit homicide. In the United States, this is known as the felony murder rule. In simple terms, under the felony murder rule a person who commits a felony may be guilty of murder if someone dies as a result of the commission of the crime, including the victim of the felony, a bystander or a co-felon, regardless their intent—or lack thereof—to kill, when the death results from the actions of a co-defendant or third party, reacting to the crime. Manslaughter is a form of homicide in which the person who commits the homicide either does not intend to kill the victim, or kills the victim as the result of circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to become or mentally disturbed to the point of losing control of their actions; the distinction between murder and manslaughter is sometimes said to have first been made by the ancient Athenian lawmaker Draco in the 7th century BC.
The penalty for manslaughter is less than the penalty for murder. The two broad categories of manslaughter are: Voluntary manslaughter: the intentional, unpremeditated killing of another person as the result of a disturbed state of mind, or heat of passion. Involuntary manslaughter: the unintentional killing of another person through an act of recklessness that shows indifference to the lives and safety of others, or an act of negligence that could reasonably be foreseen to result in death; the act that results in death may be intentional, such as pushing somebody in anger, but their death is not. Another form of manslaughter in some jurisdictions is constructive manslaughter, which may be charged in the event that a person causes a death without intention, but as the result of violating an important safety law or regulation. Not all homicides are crimes, or subject to criminal prosecution; some are privileged, meaning that they are not criminal acts at all. Others may occur under circumstances that provide the defendant with a full or partial defense to criminal prosecution.
Common defenses include: Self-defense: while most homicides by civilians are criminally prosecutable, a right of self-defense is recognized, including, in dire circumstances, the use of deadly force. Mental incapacity: A defendant may attempt to prove that they are not criminally responsible for a homicide due to a mental disorder. In some jurisdictions, mentally incompetent killers may be involuntarily committed in lieu of criminal trial. Mental health and development are taken into account during sentencing. For example, in the United States, the death penalty cannot be applied to convicted murderers with intellectual disabilities.if the defendant in a capital case is sufficiently mentally disabled in the United States they cannot be executed. Instead, the individual is placed under the category of "insane". Defense of infancy - Small children are not held criminally liable before the age of criminal responsibility. A juvenile court may handle defendants above this age but below the legal age of majority, though because homicide is a serious crime some older minors are charged in an adult justice system.
Age is sometimes taken into account during sentencing if the perpetrator is old enough to have criminal responsibility. Justifiable homicide or privilege: Due to the circumstances, although a homicide occurs, the act of killing is not unlawful. For example, a killing on the battlefield during war is lawful, or a police officer may shoot a dangerous suspect in order to protect the officer's own life or the lives and safety of others; the availability of defenses to a criminal charge following a homicide may affect the homicide rate. For example, it has been suggested that the availability of "stand your ground" defense has resulted in an increase in the homicide rate in U. S. jurisdictions. Killing by governments and the agents thereof may be considered lawful or unlawful according to: Domestic law International law to which the government has agreed by treaty Peremptory norms which are de facto enforced as obligatory on all countries, such as prohibitions against genocide and slaveryTypes of state killings include: Capital
Maximinus II known as Maximinus Daia or Maximinus Daza, was Roman Emperor from 308 to 313. He became embroiled in the Civil wars of the Tetrarchy between rival claimants for control of the empire, in which he was defeated by Licinius. A committed pagan, he engaged in one of the last persecutions of Christians, he was born of Dacian peasant stock to the sister of the emperor Galerius near their family lands around Felix Romuliana, in Dacia Ripensis, a rural area in the former Danubian region of Moesia, now Eastern Serbia. He rose to high distinction after joining the army. In 305, his maternal uncle Galerius became the eastern Augustus and adopted Maximinus, raising him to the rank of caesar, granting him the government of Syria and Egypt. In 308, after the elevation of Licinius to Augustus and Constantine were declared filii Augustorum, but Maximinus started styling himself as Augustus during a campaign against the Sassanids in 310. On the death of Galerius in 311, Maximinus divided the Eastern Empire between himself.
When Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause, Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with the usurper Caesar Maxentius, who controlled Italy. He came to an open rupture with Licinius in 313, he fled, first afterwards to Tarsus, where he died the following August. Maximinus has a bad name in Christian annals for renewing their persecution after the publication of the Edict of Toleration by Galerius, acting in response to the demands of various urban authorities asking to expel Christians. In one rescript replying to a petition made by the inhabitants of Tyre, transcribed by Eusebius of Caesarea, Maximinus expounds an unusual pagan orthodoxy, explaining that it is through "the kindly care of the gods" that one could hope for good crops and the peaceful sea, that not being the case, one should blame "the destructive error of the empty vanity of those impious men weighed down the whole world with shame". In one extant inscription from the cities of Lycia and Pamphylia asking for the interdiction of the Christians, Maximinus replied, in another inscription, by expressing his hope that "may those who, after being freed from those by-ways rejoice snatched from a grave illness".
After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, Maximinus wrote to the Praetorian Prefect Sabinus that it was better to "recall our provincials to the worship of the gods rather by exhortations and flatteries". On the eve of his clash with Licinius, he accepted Galerius' edict. Maximinus' death was variously ascribed "to despair, to poison, to the divine justice". Based on descriptions of his death given by Eusebius and Lactantius, as well as the appearance of Graves' ophthalmopathy in extant contemporary representations of Maximinus, endocrinologist Peter D. Papapetrou has advanced the theory that Maximinus may have died from severe thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease; the Christian writer Eusebius claims that Maximinus was consumed by superstition. He allegedly lived a dissolute lifestyle: And he went to such an excess of folly and drunkenness that his mind was deranged and crazed in his carousals, he suffered no one to surpass him in debauchery and profligacy, but made himself an instructor in wickedness to those about him, both rulers and subjects.
He urged on the army to live wantonly in every kind of revelry and intemperance, encouraged the governors and generals to abuse their subjects with rapacity and covetousness as if they were rulers with him. Why need we relate the licentious, shameless deeds of the man, or enumerate the multitude with whom he committed adultery? For he could not pass through a city without ravishing virgins. According to Eusebius, only Christians resisted him. For the men endured fire and sword and crucifixion and wild beasts and the depths of the sea, cutting off of limbs, burnings, pricking and digging out of eyes, mutilations of the entire body, besides these and mines and bonds. In all they showed patience in behalf of religion rather than transfer to idols the reverence due to God, and the women were not less manly than the men in behalf of the teaching of the Divine Word, as they endured conflicts with the men, bore away equal prizes of virtue. And when they were dragged away for corrupt purposes, they surrendered their lives to death rather than their bodies to impurity.
He refers to one high-born Christian woman. He seized all of her wealth and assets. Eusebius does not give the girl a name, but Tyrannius Rufinus calls her "Dorothea," and writes that she fled to Arabia; this story may have evolved into the legend of Dorothea of Alexandria. Caesar Baronius identified the girl in Eusebius' account with Catherine of Alexandria, but the Bollandists rejected this theory. Civil Wars of the Tetrarchy This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Maximinus, Galerius Valerius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 925. Media related to M
Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Penance is repentance of sins as well as an alternate name for the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox sacrament of Reconciliation or Confession. It plays a part in confession among Anglicans and Methodists, in which it is a rite, as well as among other Protestants; the word penance derives from Old French and Latin paenitentia, both of which derive from the same root meaning repentance, the desire to be forgiven. Penance and repentance, similar in their derivation and original sense, have come to symbolize conflicting views of the essence of repentance, arising from the controversy as to the respective merits of "faith" and "good works". Word derivations occur in many languages. Protestant Reformers, upholding the doctrine of justification by faith, held that repentance consisted in a change of the whole moral attitude of the mind and soul, that the divine forgiveness preceded true repentance and confession to God without any reparation of "works". Rather, "God's kindness is meant to lead you to repentance".
In his Of Justification By Faith, Calvin says: "without forgiveness no man is pleasing to God." Nonetheless, in traditions formed by a Calvinist or Zwinglian sensibility there has traditionally been a stress on reconciliation as a precondition to fellowship. The attitude of penance or repentance can be externalized in acts that a believer imposes on himself or herself, acts that are themselves called penances. Penitential activity is common during the season of Lent and Holy Week. In some cultural traditions, this week, which commemorates the Passion of Christ, may be marked by penances that include flagellantism or voluntary pseudo-crucifixion. Advent is another season during which, to a lesser extent, penances are performed. Acts of self-discipline are used as tokens of repentance. Easier acts of self-discipline include devoting time to prayer or reading of the Bible or other spiritual books. Examples of harder acts of self-discipline are fasting, abstaining from alcohol or tobacco, or other privations.
Self-flagellation and the wearing of a cilice are more used. Such acts have sometimes been called mortification of the flesh, a phrase inspired by Romans 8:13: "If you live according to the flesh you will die, but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live." Such acts are associated with the sacrament. In early Christianity, public penance was imposed on penitents, the severity of which varied according to the seriousness of the offences forgiven. Today the act of penance or satisfaction imposed in connection with the sacrament for the same therapeutic purpose can be set prayers or a certain number of prostrations or an act or omission intended to reinforce what is positive in the penitent's behaviour or to inhibit what is negative; the act imposed is itself called a epitemia. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, penance is called Sacred Mystery of Confession. In Orthodoxy, the intention of the sacramental mystery of Holy Confession is to provide reconciliation with God through means of healing.
Similar to the Eastern Catholic Churches, in the Eastern Orthodox Church there are no confessionals. Traditionally the penitent stands or kneels before either the Icon of Christ the Teacher or in front of an Icon of Christ, "Not Made by Hands"; this is because in Orthodox sacramental theology, confession is not made to the priest, but to Christ. On an analogion in front of the penitent has been placed a Gospel Book and a Crucifix; the penitent kneels. This is to show humility before Christ. Once they are ready to start, the priest says, “Blessed is our God, always and and unto the ages of ages,” reads the Trisagion Prayers and the Psalm 50; the priest advises the penitent that Christ is invisibly present and that the penitent should not be embarrassed or be afraid, but should open up their heart and reveal their sins so that Christ may forgive them. The penitent accuses himself of sins; the priest and patiently listens asking questions to encourage the penitent not to withhold any sins out of fear or shame.
After the confessant reveals all their sins, the priest offers counsel. The priest may modify the prayer rule of the penitent, or prescribe another rule, if needed to combat the sins the penitent struggles most with. Penances, known as epitemia, are given with a therapeutic intent, so they are opposite to the sin committed. Epitemia are neither a punishment nor a pious action, but are aimed at healing the spiritual ailment, confessed. For example, if the penitent broke the Eighth Commandment by stealing something, the priest could prescribe they return what they stole and give alms to the poor on a more regular basis. Opposites are treated with opposites. If the penitent suffers from gluttony, the confessant’s fasting rule is reviewed and increased; the intention of Confession is never to heal and purify. Confession is seen as a “second baptism”, is sometimes referred to as the "baptism of tears". In Orthodoxy, Confession is seen as a means to procure better spiritual purity. Confession does not involve stating the sinful things the person does.
The approach is holistic, examining the full life of the confessant. The good works do not earn salvation, but are part of a psychotherapeutic treatment to preserve salvation and purity. Sin is treated as a spiritual illness, or woun
Women in Christianity
The roles of women in Christianity can vary today as they have varied since the third century New Testament church. This is true in marriage and in formal ministry positions within certain Christian denominations and parachurch organizations. Many leadership roles in the organized church have been prohibited to women. In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches, only men may serve as deacons. Women may serve as abbesses. Most mainstream Protestant denominations are beginning to relax their longstanding constraints on ordaining women to be ministers, though some large groups, most notably the Southern Baptist Convention, are tightening their constraints in reaction. Most all Charismatic and Pentecostal churches were pioneers in this matter and have embraced the ordination of women since their founding. Christian traditions that recognize saints as persons of exceptional holiness of life do list women in that group. Most prominent is Mary, mother of Jesus, revered throughout Christianity in Roman Catholicism where she is considered the "Mother of God".
Both the apostles Paul and Peter held women in high regard and worthy of prominent positions in the church, though they were careful not to encourage anyone to disregard the New Testament household codes known as New Testament Domestic Codes or Haustafelen. There were efforts by the apostles Paul and Peter to encourage the brand new first-century Christians to obey the Patria Potestas of Greco-Roman law; the New Testament written record of their efforts in this regard is found in Colossians 3:18-4:1, Ephesians 5:22-6:9, 1 Peter 2:13-3:7, Titus 2:1-10 and 1 Timothy 2:1ff. 3:1, 3:8, 5:17, 6:1Christianity emerged from Judaism. As may be seen throughout the Old Testament and in the Greco-Roman culture of New Testament times, patriarchal societies placed men in positions of authority in marriage and government; the New Testament only records males being named among the 12 original apostles of Jesus Christ. Yet, women were the first to discover the Resurrection of Christ. Clerical ordination and the conception of priesthood post-date the New Testament.
Thus, the 27 books of the New Testament contain no specifications for such ordination or distinction. Subsequently, the early church developed a monastic tradition which included the institution of the convent through which women developed religious orders of sisters and nuns, an important ministry of women which has continued to the present day in the establishment of schools, nursing homes and monastic settlements. Mary the Mother of Jesus, Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany and her sister Martha have been among the women identified as having been key to the establishment of Christianity. Karen L. King, Harvard Professor of New Testament Studies and the History of Ancient Christianity, writes that the history of women in ancient Christianity has been completely revised in the last twenty years. Many more women are being added to the list of women who made significant contributions in the early history of Christianity; the new history comes from recent discoveries of biblical text, neglected through the ages.
The belief that Mary Magdalene was an adulteress, the wife of Jesus, a repentant prostitute can be traced back at least as far as the fourth century. Because of that opinion's acceptance in an influential homily of Pope Gregory the Great in about 591the historical error became the accepted view in Western Christianity. In his homily, the Pope mistakenly identified Magdalene not only with the anonymous sinner with the perfume in Luke's gospel, but confused her with Mary of Bethany, the sister of Martha and Lazarus. Karen King concludes that the discoveries of new texts by biblical scholars, combined with their sharpened critical insight, have now proved beyond any doubt that the disreputable portrait of Mary Magdalene is inaccurate. Mary Magdalene was a prominent disciple and significant leader in the early Christian movement, her designation as the first apostle of Jesus has helped promote contemporary awareness of the leadership of women in Christianity. The New Testament Gospels, written toward the last quarter of the first century CE, acknowledge that women were among Jesus' earliest followers.
From the beginning, Jewish women disciples, including Mary Magdalene and Susanna, had accompanied Jesus during his ministry and supported him out of their private means. Jesus spoke to women both in public and private, allowed them to set examples of faith. According to two gospel accounts, an unnamed Gentile woman understood and was praised by Jesus when arguing that his ministry is not limited to particular groups and persons, but belongs to all who have faith.. Jesus was a frequent visitor at the home of Mary and Martha, was in the habit of teaching and eating meals with women as well as men; when Jesus was arrested, women remained firm when his male disciples fled into hiding. Women accompanied him to the foot of the cross, it was women who were the first witnesses to the resurrection, chief among them being Mary Magdalene. These gospel accounts reflect the prominent historical roles that women played in Jesus' ministry as disciples. In one of her several books, Linda Woodhead notes the earliest Christian theological basis for forming a position on the roles of women is in the Book of Genesis where readers are drawn to the conclusion that women are beneath men and "that the image of God shines more brightly" in men than women"
Ancient Galatia was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia corresponding to the provinces of Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat, in modern Turkey. Galatia was named for the Gauls from Thrace, who settled here and became its ruling caste in the 3rd century BC, following the Gallic invasion of the Balkans in 279 BC, it has been called the "Gallia" of the Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. Galatia was bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia, on the east by Pontus and Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia and Lycaonia, on the west by Phrygia, its capital was Ancyra. The terms "Galatians" came to be used by the Greeks for the three Celtic peoples of Anatolia: the Tectosages, the Trocmii, the Tolistobogii. By the 1st century BC the Celts had become so Hellenized that some Greek writers called them Hellenogalatai; the Romans called them Gallograeci. Though the Celts had, to a large extent, integrated into Hellenistic Asia Minor, they preserved their linguistic and ethnic identity. By the 4th century BC the Celts had penetrated into the Balkans, coming into contact with the Thracians and Greeks.
In 380 BC they fought in the southern regions of Dalmatia, rumors circulated around the ancient world that Alexander the Great's father, Philip II of Macedonia had been assassinated by a dagger of Celtic origins. Arrian writes that "Celts established on the Ionic coast" were among those who came to meet Alexander the Great during a campaign against the Getae in 335 BC. Several ancient accounts mention that the Celts formed an alliance with Dionysius I of Syracuse who sent them to fight alongside the Macedonians against the Thebans. In 279 BC two Celtic factions united under the leadership of Brennus and began to push southwards from southern Bulgaria towards the Greek states. According to Livy, a sizable force split off from this main head toward Asia Minor. For several years a federation of Hellespontine cities, including Byzantion and Chalkedon prevented the Celts from entering Asia Minor but this changed when Nikomedes I of Bithynia allied with some of the Celtic leaders in a war against his brother Zipoetes and the Seleucid king Antiochus I.
When the Celts entered Asia Minor chaos ensued until the Celts were routed by Antiochus' army in the Battle of Elephants. In the aftermath of the battle the Celts withdrew to Phrygia settling in Galatia; the territory of Celtic Galatia included the cities of Ancyra, Pessinus and Gordion. Upon the death of Deiotarus, the Kingdom of Galatia was given to Amyntas, an auxiliary commander in the Roman army of Brutus and Cassius who gained the favor of Mark Antony. After his death in 25 BC, Galatia was incorporated by Augustus into the Roman Empire, becoming a Roman province. Near his capital Ancyra, the king's heir, rebuilt a temple of the Phrygian god Men to venerate Augustus, as a sign of fidelity, it was on the walls of this temple in Galatia that the major source for the Res Gestae of Augustus were preserved for modernity. Few of the provinces proved more enthusiastically loyal to Rome. Josephus related the Biblical figure Gomer to Galatia: "For Gomer founded those whom the Greeks now call Galatians, but were called Gomerites."
Others have related Gomer to Cimmerians. Paul the Apostle visited Galatia in his missionary journeys, wrote to the Christians there in the Epistle to the Galatians. Although possessing a strong cultural identity, by the 2nd century AD, the Galatians had become assimilated into the Hellenistic civilization of Anatolia; the Galatians were still speaking the Galatian language in the time of St. Jerome, who wrote that the Galatians of Ancyra and the Treveri of Trier spoke the same language. In an administrative reorganisation, two new provinces succeeded it, Galatia Prima and Galatia Secunda or Salutaris, which included part of Phrygia; the fate of the Galatian people is a subject of some uncertainty, but they seem to have been absorbed into the Greek-speaking populations of Anatolia. Ancient regions of Anatolia History of Anatolia This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Galatia". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 393–394.
Encyclopedia, MS Encarta 2001, under article "Galatia". Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed. HarperCollins Atlas of World History. 2nd ed. Oxford: HarperCollins, 1989. 76–77. John King, Celt Kingdoms, pg. 74–75. The Catholic Encyclopedia, VI: Epistle to the Galatians. Stephen Mitchell, 1993. Anatolia: Land and Gods in Asia Minor vol. 1: "The Celts and the Impact of Roman Rule." 1993. ISBN 0-19-814080-0. Concentrates on Galatia. David Rankin, 1996. Celts and the Classical World: Chapter 9 "The Galatians". Coşkun, A. "Das Ende der "romfreundlichen Herrschaft" in Galatien und das Beispiel einer "sanften Provinzialisierung" in Zentralanatolien," in Coşkun, A. Freundschaft und Gefolgschaft in den auswärtigen Beziehungen der Römer, 133–164. Justin K. Hardin: Galatians and the Imperial Cult. A Critical Analysis of the First-Century Social Context of Paul's Letter. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, Germany 2008, ISBN 978-3-16-149563-2. Celtic Galatians "A Detailed Map of Celtic Settlements in Galati