C++ is a general-purpose programming language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C language, or "C with Classes". It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation, it is always implemented as a compiled language, many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Intel, IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained software and large systems, with performance and flexibility of use as its design highlights. C++ has been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications and performance-critical applications. C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization, with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017.
The C++ programming language was standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++ 17 standard supersedes these with an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Danish computer scientist Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979 as an extension of the C language. C++20 is the next planned standard, keeping with the current trend of a new version every three years. In 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "C with Classes", the predecessor to C++; the motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph. D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development; when Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing.
Remembering his Ph. D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features. C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast and used; as well as C and Simula's influences, other languages influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML. Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, including classes, derived classes, strong typing and default arguments. In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++", adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation, improved type checking, BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes. Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for Cfront. In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard; the first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991. New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published; this work became the basis for the future standard. Feature additions included templates, namespaces, new casts, a boolean type. After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, further changes planned for 2020; as of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C. On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".
According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C". This name is credited to Rick Mascitti and was first used in December 1983; when Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program. During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes" before acquiring its final name. Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles: It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful in real world programs; every feature should be implementable. Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, that style should be supported by C++. Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++, it should provide facilities for organising programs into separate, well-defined parts, provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations.
In cooking, a syrup or sirup is a condiment, a thick, viscous liquid consisting of a solution of sugar in water, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. Its consistency is similar to that of molasses; the viscosity arises from the multiple hydrogen bonds between the dissolved sugar, which has many hydroxyl groups. Syrups can be made by dissolving sugar in water or by reducing sweet juices such as cane juice, sorghum juice, maple sap or agave nectar. Corn syrup is made from corn starch using an enzymatic process. There are a range of syrups used in food production, including: Glucose syrup Corn syrup Maple syrup High fructose corn syrup used in the US Golden syrup, a by-product of refining crystallized sugar Cane syrup, made from sugar canes Agave syrup, made from agave stem A variety of beverages call for sweetening to offset the tartness of some juices used in the drink recipes. Granulated sugar does not dissolve in cold drinks or ethyl alcohol.
Since the following syrups are liquids, they are mixed with other liquids in mixed drinks, making them superior alternatives to granulated sugar. Simple syrup is a basic sugar-and-water syrup used by bartenders as a sweetener to make cocktails. Simple syrup is made by stirring granulated sugar into hot water in a saucepan until the sugar is dissolved and cooling the solution; the ratio of sugar to water is 1:1 by volume for normal simple syrup, but can get up to 2:1 for rich simple syrup. For pure sucrose the saturation limit is about 5:4 by volume. Syrup can be used as a sweetener. Combining Demerara sugar, a type of natural brown sugar, with water produces Demerara syrup. Sugar substitutes such as honey or agave nectar can be used to make syrups. Flavoured syrups are made by infusing simple syrups with flavouring agents during the cooking process. A wide variety of flavouring agents can be used in combination with each other, such as herbs, spices, or aromatics. For instance, syrupus aromaticus is prepared by adding certain quantities of orange flavouring and cinnamon water to simple syrup.
This type of syrup is used at coffee bars in the United States, to make flavoured drinks. Infused simple syrups can be used to create desserts, or, to add sweetness and depth of flavour to cocktails. Gomme syrup is an ingredient used in mixed drinks, it is commonly used as a sweetener for iced coffee in Japan. Like bar syrups, it has an added ingredient of gum arabic. Gomme syrup is made with the highest ratio of sugar to water possible, while the gum arabic prevents the sugar from crystallizing and adds a smooth texture. Media related to Syrups at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of syrup at Wiktionary "Syrup". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Sodium saccharin is an artificial sweetener with no food energy. It is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste at high concentrations. Saccharin is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies and medicines. Saccharin derives its name from the word "saccharine", meaning "sugary"; the word saccharine is used figuratively in a derogative sense, to describe something "unpleasantly over-polite" or "overly sweet". Both words are derived from the Greek word σάκχαρον meaning "gravel". Related, saccharose is an obsolete name for sucrose. Saccharin is heat stable, it does not react chemically with other food ingredients. Blends of saccharin with other sweeteners are used to compensate for each sweetener's weaknesses and faults. A 10:1 cyclamate:saccharin blend is common in countries where both these sweeteners are legal. Saccharin is used with aspartame in diet carbonated soft drinks, so some sweetness remains should the fountain syrup be stored beyond aspartame's short shelf life.
In its acid form, saccharin is not water-soluble. The form used as an artificial sweetener is its sodium salt; the calcium salt is sometimes used by people restricting their dietary sodium intake. Both salts are water-soluble: 0.67 g/ml water at room temperature. In the 1970s, studies performed on laboratory rats found an association between consumption of high doses of saccharin and the development of bladder cancer. However, further study determined that this effect was due to a mechanism, not relevant to humans. Epidemiological studies have shown no evidence that saccharin is associated with bladder cancer in humans; the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified saccharin in Group 2B based on the rat studies, but downgraded it to Group 3 upon review of the subsequent research. Saccharin has no nutritional value, it is safe to consume for individuals with diabetes. Saccharin was produced first in 1879, by Constantin Fahlberg, a chemist working on coal tar derivatives in Ira Remsen's laboratory at the Johns Hopkins University.
Fahlberg noticed a sweet taste on his hand one evening, connected this with the compound benzoic sulfimide on which he had been working that day. Fahlberg and Remsen published articles on benzoic sulfimide in 1879 and 1880. In 1884 working on his own in New York City, Fahlberg applied for patents in several countries, describing methods of producing this substance that he named saccharin. Two years he began production of the substance in a factory in a suburb of Magdeburg, Germany. Fahlberg would soon grow wealthy, while Remsen grew irritated, believing he deserved credit for substances produced in his laboratory. On the matter, Remsen commented, "Fahlberg is a scoundrel, it nauseates me to hear my name mentioned in the same breath with him."Although saccharin was commercialized not long after its discovery, until sugar shortages during World War I, its use had not become widespread. Its popularity further increased during the 1960s and 1970s among dieters, since saccharin is a calorie-free sweetener.
In the United States, saccharin is found in restaurants in pink packets. Because of the difficulty of importing sugar from the West Indies The British Saccharin Company was founded in 1917 to produce Saccharin at its Paragon Works near Accrington, Lancashire. Production was controlled by the Board of Trade in London. Production continued on the site until 1926. Starting in 1907, the United States Food and Drug Administration began investigating saccharin as a result of the Pure Food and Drug Act. Harvey Wiley the director of the bureau of chemistry for the FDA, viewed it as an illegal substitution of a valuable ingredient by a less valuable ingredient. In a clash that had career consequences, Wiley told President Theodore Roosevelt, "Everyone who ate that sweet corn was deceived, he thought he was eating sugar, when in point of fact he was eating a coal tar product devoid of food value and injurious to health." But Roosevelt himself was a consumer of saccharin, and, in a heated exchange, Roosevelt angrily answered Wiley by stating, "Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to health is an idiot."
The episode proved the undoing of Wiley's career. In 1911, Food Inspection Decision 135 stated. However, in 1912, Food Inspection Decision 142 stated. More controversy was stirred in 1969 with the discovery of files from the FDA's investigations of 1948 and 1949; these investigations, which had argued against saccharin use, were shown to prove little about saccharin being harmful to human health. In 1977, the FDA made an attempt to ban the substance, following studies showing that the substance caused cancer in rats; the attempted ban was unsuccessful due to public opposition, encouraged by industry advertisements, instead the following label was mandated: "Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin, determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals"; that requirement was dropped in 2000 following new research that concluded humans reacted differently than rats and were not at risk of cancer at typical intake levels. The sweetener has continued to be used in the United States and is now the third-most popular artificial sweetener behind sucralose and aspartame.
In the Euro
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT published under its own name a lecture series entitled Problems of Atomic Dynamics given by the visiting German physicist and Nobel Prize winner, Max Born. Six years MIT's publishing operations were first formally instituted by the creation of an imprint called Technology Press in 1932; this imprint was founded by James R. Killian, Jr. at the time editor of MIT's alumni magazine and to become MIT president. Technology Press published eight titles independently in 1937 entered into an arrangement with John Wiley & Sons in which Wiley took over marketing and editorial responsibilities. In 1962 the association with Wiley came to an end; the press acquired its modern name after this separation, has since functioned as an independent publishing house. A European marketing office was opened in 1969, a Journals division was added in 1972.
In the late 1970s, responding to changing economic conditions, the publisher narrowed the focus of their catalog to a few key areas architecture, computer science and artificial intelligence and cognitive science. In January 2010 the MIT Press published its 9000th title, in 2012 the Press celebrated its 50th anniversary, including publishing a commemorative booklet on paper and online; the press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press and Harvard University Press. TriLiteral was acquired by LSC Communications in 2018. MIT Press publishes academic titles in the fields of Art and Architecture; the MIT Press is a distributor for such publishers as Zone Books and Semiotext. In 2000, the MIT Press created CogNet, an online resource for the study of the brain and the cognitive sciences; the MIT Press co-owns the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Harvard University Press and Yale University Press. In 1981 the MIT Press published its first book under the Bradford Books imprint, Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology by Daniel C.
Dennett. In 2018, the Press and the MIT Media Lab launched the Knowledge Futures Group to develop and deploy open access publishing technology and platforms; the MIT Press operates the MIT Press Bookstore showcasing both its front and backlist titles, along with a large selection of complementary works from other academic and trade publishers. The retail storefront was located next to a subway entrance to Kendall/MIT station in the heart of Kendall Square, but has been temporarily moved to 301 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a short distance north of the MIT Museum near Central Square. Once extensive construction around its former location is completed, the Bookstore is planned to be returned to a site adjacent to the subway entrance; the Bookstore offers customized selections from the MIT Press at many conferences and symposia in the Boston area, sponsors occasional lectures and book signings at MIT. The Bookstore is known for its periodic "Warehouse Sales" offering deep discounts on surplus and returned books and journals from its own catalog, as well as remaindered books from other publishers.
The Press uses a colophon or logo designed by its longtime design director, Muriel Cooper, in 1962. The design is based on a highly-abstracted version of the lower-case letters "mitp", with the ascender of the "t" at the fifth stripe and the descender of the "p" at the sixth stripe the only differentiation, it served as an important reference point for the 2015 redesign of the MIT Media Lab logo by Pentagram. The Arts and Humanities Economics International Affairs and Political Science Science and Technology The Image of the City by Kevin Lynch', 1960 Experiencing Architecture by Steen Eiler Rasmussen', 1962 Beyond The Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews and Irish of New York City by Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan', 1963 The Character of Physical Law by Richard Feynman', 1967 Bauhaus: Weimar, Berlin, Chicago by Hans M. Wingler', 1969 The Subjection Of Women, by John Stuart Mill', 1970 Theory of Colours by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe', 1970 Learning From Las Vegas by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour', 1972 The Theory of Industrial Organization by Jean Tirole', 1988 Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge by Michael L. Dertouzos, Robert M. Solow and Richard K.
Lester', 1989 Introduction to Algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest', 1990 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan', 1994 The Society of the Spectacle, by Guy Debord', 1994 Financial Modeling by Simon Benninga', 1997 Out of the Crisis, by W. Edwards Deming', 2000 The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly', 2001 The Language of New Media by Lev Manovich', 2001 The Laws of Simplicity by John Maeda', 2006 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School by Matthew Frederick', 2007 Deep Learning by Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville', 2016 Dimensionism: Modern Art in the Age of Einstein, 2018 Official Website MIT Press Journals Homepage The MIT PressLog
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs
Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs is a computer science textbook by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professors Harold Abelson and Gerald Jay Sussman with Julie Sussman. It is known as the Wizard Book in hacker culture, it teaches fundamental principles of computer programming, including recursion, abstraction and programming language design and implementation. The first edition was published in 1985 by the MIT Press, the second edition was published in 1996, it was used as the textbook for MIT's introductory course in electrical engineering and computer science. SICP focuses on discovering general patterns for solving specific problems, building software systems that make use of those patterns; the book describes computer science concepts using a dialect of Lisp. It uses a virtual register machine and assembler to implement Lisp interpreters and compilers. Several fictional characters appear in the book: Alyssa P. Hacker, a Lisp hacker Ben Bitdiddle, a hardware expert Cy D. Fect, a "reformed C programmer" Eva Lu Ator, an evaluator Lem E. Tweakit, an irate user Louis Reasoner, a loose reasoner The book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4.0 License.
The book was used as the textbook for MIT's former introductory programming course, 6.001. That course was replaced by 6.0001. Other schools made use of the book as a course textbook, it is used as the textbook for MIT's Large Scale Symbolic Systems class, 6.945. Byte recommended SICP "for professional programmers who are interested in their profession"; the magazine stated that the book was not easy to read, but that it would expose experienced programmers to both old and new topics. SICP has been influential in computer science education, a number of books have been inspired by its style. Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics, another book by Gerald Jay Sussman that uses Scheme How to Design Programs, which intends to be a more accessible book for introductory Computer Science, to address perceived incongruities in SICP Essentials of Programming Languages, a book for Programming Languages courses Lisp in Small Pieces, a book full of Scheme interpreters and compilers Official site Video lectures
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision. For this reason, floating-point computation is found in systems which include small and large real numbers, which require fast processing times. A number is, in general, represented to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent in some fixed base. A number that can be represented is of the following form: significand × base exponent, where significand is an integer, base is an integer greater than or equal to two, exponent is an integer. For example: 1.2345 = 12345 ⏟ significand × 10 ⏟ base − 4 ⏞ exponent. The term floating point refers to the fact that a number's radix point can "float"; this position is indicated as the exponent component, thus the floating-point representation can be thought of as a kind of scientific notation. A floating-point system can be used to represent, with a fixed number of digits, numbers of different orders of magnitude: e.g. the distance between galaxies or the diameter of an atomic nucleus can be expressed with the same unit of length.
The result of this dynamic range is that the numbers that can be represented are not uniformly spaced. Over the years, a variety of floating-point representations have been used in computers. In 1985, the IEEE 754 Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic was established, since the 1990s, the most encountered representations are those defined by the IEEE; the speed of floating-point operations measured in terms of FLOPS, is an important characteristic of a computer system for applications that involve intensive mathematical calculations. A floating-point unit is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating-point numbers. A number representation specifies some way of encoding a number as a string of digits. There are several mechanisms. In common mathematical notation, the digit string can be of any length, the location of the radix point is indicated by placing an explicit "point" character there. If the radix point is not specified the string implicitly represents an integer and the unstated radix point would be off the right-hand end of the string, next to the least significant digit.
In fixed-point systems, a position in the string is specified for the radix point. So a fixed-point scheme might be to use a string of 8 decimal digits with the decimal point in the middle, whereby "00012345" would represent 0001.2345. In scientific notation, the given number is scaled by a power of 10, so that it lies within a certain range—typically between 1 and 10, with the radix point appearing after the first digit; the scaling factor, as a power of ten, is indicated separately at the end of the number. For example, the orbital period of Jupiter's moon Io is 152,853.5047 seconds, a value that would be represented in standard-form scientific notation as 1.528535047×105 seconds. Floating-point representation is similar in concept to scientific notation. Logically, a floating-point number consists of: A signed digit string of a given length in a given base; this digit string is referred to mantissa, or coefficient. The length of the significand determines the precision; the radix point position is assumed always to be somewhere within the significand—often just after or just before the most significant digit, or to the right of the rightmost digit.
This article follows the convention that the radix point is set just after the most significant digit. A signed integer exponent. To derive the value of the floating-point number, the significand is multiplied by the base raised to the power of the exponent, equivalent to shifting the radix point from its implied position by a number of places equal to the value of the exponent—to the right if the exponent is positive or to the left if the exponent is negative. Using base-10 as an example, the number 152,853.5047, which has ten decimal digits of precision, is represented as the significand 1,528,535,047 together with 5 as the exponent. To determine the actual value, a decimal point is placed after the first digit of the significand and the result is multiplied by 105 to give 1.528535047×105, or 152,853.5047. In storing such a number, the base need not be stored, since it will be the same for the entire range of supported numbers, can thus be inferred. Symbolically, this final value is: s b p − 1 × b e, where s is the
COBOL is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. It is procedural and, since 2002, object-oriented. COBOL is used in business and administrative systems for companies and governments. COBOL is still used in legacy applications deployed on mainframe computers, such as large-scale batch and transaction processing jobs, but due to its declining popularity and the retirement of experienced COBOL programmers, programs are being migrated to new platforms, rewritten in modern languages or replaced with software packages. Most programming in COBOL is now purely to maintain existing applications. COBOL was designed in 1959 by CODASYL and was based on previous programming language design work by Grace Hopper referred to as "the mother of COBOL", it was created as part of a US Department of Defense effort to create a portable programming language for data processing. It was seen as a stopgap, but the Department of Defense promptly forced computer manufacturers to provide it, resulting in its widespread adoption.
It has since been revised four times. Expansions include support for object-oriented programming; the current standard is ISO/IEC 1989:2014. COBOL statements have an English-like syntax, designed to be self-documenting and readable. However, it uses over 300 reserved words. In contrast with modern, succinct syntax like y = x. COBOL code is split into four divisions containing a rigid hierarchy of sections and sentences. Lacking a large standard library, the standard specifies 43 statements, 87 functions and just one class. Academic computer scientists were uninterested in business applications when COBOL was created and were not involved in its design. COBOL has been criticized throughout its life, for its verbosity, design process, poor support for structured programming; these weaknesses result in monolithic and, though intended to be English-like, not comprehensible and verbose programs. In the late 1950s, computer users and manufacturers were becoming concerned about the rising cost of programming.
A 1959 survey had found that in any data processing installation, the programming cost US$800,000 on average and that translating programs to run on new hardware would cost $600,000. At a time when new programming languages were proliferating at an ever-increasing rate, the same survey suggested that if a common business-oriented language were used, conversion would be far cheaper and faster. On 8 April 1959, Mary K. Hawes, a computer scientist at Burroughs Corporation, called a meeting of representatives from academia, computer users, manufacturers at the University of Pennsylvania to organize a formal meeting on common business languages. Representatives included Grace Hopper, inventor of the English-like data processing language FLOW-MATIC, Jean Sammet and Saul Gorn. At the April meeting, the group asked the Department of Defense to sponsor an effort to create a common business language; the delegation impressed Charles A. Phillips, director of the Data System Research Staff at the DoD, who thought that they "thoroughly understood" the DoD's problems.
The DoD operated 225 computers, had a further 175 on order and had spent over $200 million on implementing programs to run on them. Portable programs would save time, reduce costs and ease modernization. Phillips tasked the delegation with drafting the agenda. On 28 and 29 May 1959, a meeting was held at the Pentagon to discuss the creation of a common programming language for business, it was chaired by Phillips. The Department of Defense was concerned about whether it could run the same data processing programs on different computers. FORTRAN, the only mainstream language at the time, lacked the features needed to write such programs. Representatives enthusiastically described a language that could work in a wide variety of environments, from banking and insurance to utilities and inventory control, they agreed unanimously that more people should be able to program and that the new language should not be restricted by the limitations of contemporary technology. A majority agreed that the language should make maximal use of English, be capable of change, be machine-independent and be easy to use at the expense of power.
The meeting resulted in the creation of a steering committee and short-, intermediate- and long-range committees. The short-range committee was given to September to produce specifications for an interim language, which would be improved upon by the other committees, their official mission, was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of existing programming languages and did not explicitly direct them to create a new language. The deadline was met with disbelief by the short-range committee. One member, Betty Holberton, described the three-month deadline as "gross optimism" and doubted that the language would be a stopgap; the steering committee met on 4 June and agreed to name the entire activity as the Committee on Data Systems Languages, or CODASYL, to form an executive committee. The short-range committee was made up of members representing six computer manufacturers and three government agencies; the six computer manufacturers were Burroughs Corporation, IBM, Minneapolis-Honeywell (Honeywell