Greek cruiser Georgios Averof
Georgios Averof is a modified Pisa-class armored cruiser built in Italy for the Royal Hellenic Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. The ship served as the Greek flagship during most of the first half of the century, although popularly known as a battleship in Greek, she is in fact an armored cruiser, the only ship of this type still in existence. At the beginning of the 20th century, Greece decided to reinforce its fleet, the navy procured eight destroyers between 1905-1907, but the most important addition was Georgios Averof. The ship, a Pisa-class cruiser like her Italian sisters Amalfi, the ship was fitted with a combination of Italian engines, French boilers, British artillery and German generators. The ship was launched on 12 March 1910 and her first captain was Captain Ioannis Damianos, who took command of her on 16 May 1911. Averof sailed for Britain, in order to participate in the festivities for the coronation of King George V and it was clear that Captain Damianos was inadequate, so he was replaced by the highly esteemed Captain Pavlos Kountouriotis, who quickly reimposed discipline and set sail for Greece.
During the journey, Kountouriotis took care to train the crew, Averof finally sailed into Faliro Bay, near Athens, on 1 September 1911. Averof was at the time the most modern and powerful ship in the navies of either the Balkan League or the Ottoman Empire, with the outbreak of the First Balkan War in October 1912, Kountouriotis was named rear admiral and commander-in-chief of the Hellenic Royal Navy. Averof, under Captain Sofoklis Dousmanis, served as the flagship of the fleet, during the naval battles at Elli and Lemnos against the Ottoman Navy, she almost single-handedly secured victory and the undisputed control of the Aegean Sea for Greece. In both battles, due to her speed and armament, she left the battle line. Averof succeeded in crossing the T of the Turkish fleet and concentrated her fire against the Ottoman flagship, during the Battle of Lemnos, when the older battleships failed to follow up with Averof, Kountouriotis did not hesitate to pursue independent action. In each battle the ship suffered slight damage, while inflicting severe damage to several Turkish ships.
These exploits propelled her and her Admiral to legendary status in Greece, after the Battle of Lemnos, the crew of Averof affectionately nicknamed her Lucky Uncle George. It is a fact that, due to the aforementioned delays in the delivery of ammunition. Georgios Averof is credited with closing the Aegean Sea to Ottoman transports bringing fresh troops. This success had a impact on the land action where the Ottoman forces suffered decisive defeats. During World War I, Averof did not see active service, as Greece was neutral during the first years of the war. After the Noemvriana riots of 1916, she was seized by the French, after the wars end, Averof sailed with other Allied ships to Constantinople, receiving an ecstatic welcome from the citys Greeks
National Gallery (Athens)
The National Art Gallery–Alexandros Soutzos Museum is an art museum in Athens devoted to Greek and European art from the 14th century to the 20th century. It is directed by Marina Lambraki-Plaka and it was established in 1878 as a small collection of 117 works exhibited at the Athens University. In 1896, Alexandros Soutzos, a jurist and art lover, bequeathed his collection, the museum opened in 1900 and the first curator was the famous Greek painter Georgios Jakobides from Munich. After World War II the works began for a new building, after relocating the sculptures in the new National Glyptotheque, there is a discussion to renovate the main building and to build a new wing. The gallery exhibitions are mainly focused on post-Byzantine Greek Art, the gallery owns and exhibits an extensive collection of European artists. Particularly valuable, is the collection of paintings from the Renaissance, approximately four million people have visited the National Gallery in the last fourteen years. Its exhibition activity is supported by sponsorships that cover up to half of its budget.
The National Gallery has opened the last years branches in Nafplion, the gallery is situated on Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, opposite the Hilton Athens. It can be reached with the Athens Metro at the Evangelismos station, the National Glyptotheque is situated at the Alsos Stratou in Goudi, near Kanellopoulou Avenue and can be reached with the Athens Metro at the Katehaki station. National Glyptotheque Art in modern Greece Greek Art List of museums in Greece Foros Timis Ston Greco Cretan School National Gallery of Athens Official website
National Historical Museum, Athens
The National Historical Museum, founded in 1882, is the oldest of its kind in Greece. It is located in the Old Parliament House at Stadiou Street in Athens, the museum houses the collection of the Historical and Ethnological Society of Greece, founded in 1882. It is the oldest collection of its kind in Greece, the collection is displayed in the corridors and rooms of the building, while the great central hall of the National Assembly is used for conferences. Official site of the museum Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs
As leader of the Liberal Party, he was elected several times as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1933. Venizelos had such influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being the maker of modern Greece. His first entry into the scene was with his significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State. Soon, he was invited to Greece to resolve the political deadlock, not only did he initiate constitutional and economic reforms that set the basis for the modernization of Greek society, but reorganized both army and navy in preparation of future conflicts. Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, through his diplomatic acumen, Greece doubled its area and population with the liberation of Macedonia and most of the Aegean islands. In World War I, he brought Greece on the side of the Allies, his pro-Allied foreign policy brought him into direct conflict with the monarchy, causing the National Schism.
The Schism polarized the population between the royalists and Venizelists and the struggle for power between the two groups affected the political and social life of Greece for decades. Following the Allied victory, Venizelos secured new territorial gains, especially in Anatolia, despite his achievements, he was defeated in the 1920 General Election, which contributed to the eventual Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War. In his subsequent periods in office Venizelos succeeded in restoring relations with Greeces neighbors. In 1935 he resurfaced from retirement to support a military coup and its failure severely weakened the Second Hellenic Republic, the republic that he had created. In the 18th century, the ancestors of Venizelos, named Cravvatas, lived in Mystras, in southern Peloponnese. During the Ottoman raids in the peninsula in 1770, a member of the Cravvatas family, Venizelos Cravvatas and his sons discarded their patronymic and called themselves Venizelos. The family was of Laconic and Cretan origin, Eleftherios was born in Mournies, near Chania in then-Ottoman Crete to Kyriakos Venizelos, a Cretan merchant and revolutionary, and Styliani Ploumidaki.
When the Cretan revolution of 1866 broke out, Venizelos family fled to the island of Syros and they were not allowed to return to Crete, and stayed in Syros until 1872, when Abdülaziz granted an amnesty. He spent his year of secondary education at a school in Ermoupolis in Syros from which he received his Certificate in 1880. In 1881 he enrolled at the University of Athens Law School and he returned to Crete in 1886 and worked as a lawyer in Chania. Throughout his life he maintained a passion for reading and was improving his skills in English, German. The situation in Crete during Venizelos early years was fluid, the Ottoman empire was undermining the reforms, which were made under international pressure, while the Cretans desired to see the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, abandon the ungrateful infidels
The Benaki Museum and endowed in 1930 by Antonis Benakis in memory of his father Emmanuel Benakis, is housed in the Benakis family mansion in downtown Athens, Greece. In 1931, the Benakis donated the house in Athens and their collection of more than 37,000 Islamic. More than 9,000 artifacts were added by the 1970s, Benakis remained active in the museum until his death in 1954. Under the directorship of Angelos Delivorrias, the museum added more than 60,000 objects and documents, some of which were purchased, Delivorrias opts to focus on displaying donated items in order to encourage public participation and strengthen the communitys ties to the museum. The museum focuses on the fact that Greek history does not begin and end with specific events, in 2000, the Benaki Museum reopened following a $20 million renovation and restoration of the building, which had been damaged in an earthquake. The renovation allowed it to become the museum in Greece that brings visitors through all ages of Greek culture.
It is unique in that it does not focus on nationalism, although the museums director, Angelos Delivorrias, came up with the idea to refocus the museum and its exhibits in 1973, more than 25 years passed before he was able to make this a new reality. This reality involved moving the collections of Islamic Art and Chinese porcelain with painting to other locations so that the main museum in Athens would focus solely on Greece. As part of the museums re-focusing on Greek culture, its Islamic collection was moved to a new home in 2004 in time for the Athens Olympics, the new museum has new galleries for temporary traveling exhibits. Covering Islamic art from the 7th through the 19th centuries, it has a collection of Ottoman art from the Empires peak in the 16th century. List of museums with major collections of Islamic art Sabetai, Athens, Research Centre for Antiquity of the Academy of Athens. ISBN9789604041015 The Benaki Museum Benaki Collection Postbyzantine ecclesiastical works Benaki Museum - Ebook by Latsis Foundation
Line 3 (Athens Metro)
Line 3 of the Athens Metro runs from Agia Marina to Airport, via Syntagma, although some trains reverse at Doukissis Plakentias. The section from Agia Marina to the tunnel portal east of Doukissis Plakentias is underground and it first opened, between Ethniki Amyna and Syntagma, on 28 January 2000, with Line 2. In 2012, construction commenced for the final underground extension of Line 3 to Dimotiko Theatro via Piraeus. This is a list of stations on Line 3, dual voltage ROTEM-supplied stock with greater luggage space is used for services to Athens International Airport. On March 1,2012, a contract was signed between Attiko Metro S. A. and a joint venture for the construction of the extension of Line 3 from Aghia Marina to Piraeus,7.6 km long with six stations. Agia Varvara Korydallos Nikaia Maniatika Piraeus Dimotiko Theatro Athens Metro official website
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Line 2 (Athens Metro)
Line 2 of the Athens Metro runs entirely underground from Anthoupoli in the northwest to Elliniko in the south, via Syntagma. It first opened, between Sepolia and Syntagma, on 28 January 2000, with Line 3, on 6 April 2013, Line 2 was extended to Anthoupoli in the north west, and on 26 July 2013 to Elliniko to the south. There are no currently extensions under construction, the New Regulatory Plan for Athens and Attica Prefecture envisages that Line 2 will eventually run from Ano Liosia to Glyfada
The Athens Metro is a rapid-transit system in Greece which serves the Athens conurbation and parts of East Attica. It incorporates the former Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways, which opened as a steam railway in 1869. Beginning in 1991, Attiko Metro constructed and extended Lines 2 and 3, the metro network merged in 2011 when the Greek government created the Urban Rail Transport Company, a subsidiary of the Athens Urban Transport Organisation. First Chairman and CEO of the company became Kostas Vassiliadis. The system is noted for being modern and efficient, in its own right and it has drastically changed Athens by providing a much-needed solution to the citys traffic and air pollution problem, as well as revitalising many of the areas it serves. An extension of Line 3 is under construction towards Piraeus and extensions of existing lines. The Athens Metro is actively connected with the means of public transport, such as buses, the Athens Tram. The Athens Metro is hailed for its modernity and many of its stations feature works of art, until 28 January 2000, Line 1 was the only rapid-transit line in Athens and Piraeus.
The Athens and Piraeus Railway Company opened the line on 27 February 1869 as a railway between Piraeus and Thiseio. It was electrified in 1904, and extended in stages to Kifisia in 1957, from 1976 to 16 June 2011, the Athens-Piraeus Electric Railway Company operated Line 1 independently from the rest of the metro and tram networks. Unlike Lines 2 and 3, it runs almost entirely above ground, since the current Line 1 opened the government has proposed many expansions to the subway network, including a 1963 plan for a fourteen-line subway network. Construction of Lines 2 and 3 began in November 1992 to decrease traffic congestion, Lines 2 and 3, built by Attiko Metro and operated until 2011 by Attiko Metro Operations Company, are known respectively as the red and blue lines and were inaugurated in January 2000. Line 3 was extended to the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport in summer 2004, the Greek government attempted to absorb ISAP into Attiko Metro under Law 2669/1998 so the latter would be responsible for the whole network, but this initiative failed.
Athens Metro operations were consolidated when the Greek government enacted Law 3920/2011, replacing AMEL, ISAP and Athens Tram with Urban Rail Transport, the modern incarnation of Line 1 is 25. 6-kilometre long, and serves 24 stations. Together, Lines 2 and 3 are 58. 9-kilometre long, the three-line Athens Metro network serves 61 stations. It owns and operates 57 of them, and OSE owns the remainder on the airport section, the network has four metro interchanges, enabling the lines to interchange with each other at least once. Line 2 and the Attiko Metro portion of Line 3 is entirely underground, Line 1 is primarily in the open, with a tunnel section in central Athens. The airport section of Line 3, east of the tunnel portal near Doukissis Plakentias, is open, in the tunnel sections up and down lines share a common tunnel, except for approaches to stations with an island platform
Stoa of Attalos
The Stoa of Attalos was a stoa in the Agora of Athens, Greece. It was built by and named after King Attalos II of Pergamon, the current building was reconstructed from 1952–1956 by American architects. Typical of the Hellenistic age, the stoa was more elaborate, the stoas dimensions are 115 by 20 metres and it is made of Pentelic marble and limestone. The building skillfully makes use of different architectural orders, the Doric order was used for the exterior colonnade on the ground floor with Ionic for the interior colonnade. This combination had been used in stoas since the Classical period and was by Hellenistic times quite common, on the first floor of the building, the exterior colonnade was Ionic and the interior Pergamene. Each story had two aisles and twenty-one rooms lining the western wall, the rooms of both stories were lighted and vented through doorways and small windows located on the back wall. There were stairways leading up to the story at each end of the stoa. The building is similar in its design to the Stoa that Attalos brother.
The main difference is that Attalos stoa had a row of rooms at the rear on the floor that have been interpreted as shops. The stoa is identified as a gift to the city of Athens for the education that Attalos received there, a dedicatory inscription on the architrave is engraved as built by Attalos II, ruler of Pergamon from 159 BC to 138 BC. The stoa was in frequent use until it was destroyed by the Heruli in 267, the ruins became part of a fortification wall, which made it easily seen in modern times. The Stoa of Attalos houses the Museum of the Ancient Agora and its exhibits are mostly connected with the Athenian democracy. Fotopedia. com, Selected photos of the Stoa of Attalus Ministry of Culture, The Museum The Museum Stoa of Attalos photos