Earned run average
In baseball statistics, earned run average is the mean of earned runs given up by a pitcher per nine innings pitched. It is determined by dividing the number of earned runs allowed by the number of innings pitched and multiplying by nine. Runs resulting from defensive errors are recorded as unearned runs and omitted from ERA calculations. Henry Chadwick is credited with devising the statistic, which caught on as a measure of pitching effectiveness after relief pitching came into vogue in the 1900s. Prior to 1900—and, in fact, for many years afterward—pitchers were expected to pitch a complete game, their win-loss record was considered sufficient in determining their effectiveness. After pitchers like James Otis Crandall and Charley Hall made names for themselves as relief specialists, gauging a pitcher's effectiveness became more difficult using the traditional method of tabulating wins and losses; some criterion was needed to capture the apportionment of earned-run responsibility for a pitcher in games that saw contributions from other pitchers for the same team.
Since pitchers have primary responsibility for putting opposing batters out, they must assume responsibility when a batter they do not retire at the plate moves to base, reaches home, scoring a run. A pitcher is assessed an earned run for each run scored by a batter who reaches base while batting against that pitcher; the National League first tabulated official earned run average statistics in 1912, the American League accepted this standard and began compiling ERA statistics. Written baseball encyclopedias display ERAs for earlier years, but these were computed retroactively. Negro League pitchers are rated by RA, or total runs allowed, since the statistics available for Negro League games did not always distinguish between earned and unearned runs; as with batting average, the definition of a good ERA varies from year to year. During the dead-ball era of the 1900s and 1910s, an ERA below 2.00 was considered good. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, when conditions of the game changed in a way that favored hitters, a good ERA was below 4.00.
In the 1960s, sub-2.00 ERAs returned, as other influences such as ballparks with different dimensions were introduced. Today, an ERA under 4.00 is again considered good. The all-time single-season record for the lowest ERA is held by Dutch Leonard, who in 1914 had an earned run average of 0.96, pitching 224.2 innings with a win-loss record of 19-5. The all-time record for the lowest single season earned run average by a pitcher pitching 300 or more innings is 1.12, set by Bob Gibson in 1968. The record for the lowest career earned run average is 1.82, held by Ed Walsh, who played from 1904 through 1917. Some researchers dissent from the official Major League Baseball record and claim that the pitcher with the all-time lowest earned run average is Tim Keefe, who had an earned run average of 0.86 in 1880 while appearing in 12 of his team's 83 games and pitching 105 innings. But a purported record based on so few innings pitched is misleading. Over the years, more than a dozen part-time pitchers have pitched 105 or more innings and had an earned run average lower than 0.86.
Major League Baseball recognizes many records from the 19th century—including Will White's 1879 record of 680 innings pitched, Charles Radbourne's 1884 record of 59 wins, Pud Galvin's 1883 record for 75 games started, but does not recognize Keefe as the pitcher having the all-time lowest single season earned run average. Some sources may list players with infinite ERAs; this can happen. Additionally, an undefined ERA occurs at the beginning of a baseball season, it is sometimes incorrectly displayed as zero or as the lowest ranking ERA though it is more akin to the highest. At times it can be misleading to judge relief pitchers on ERA, because they are charged only for runs scored by batters who reached base while batting against them. Thus, if a relief pitcher enters the game with his team leading by 1 run, with 2 outs and the bases loaded, gives up a single which scores 2 runs, he is not charged with those runs. If he retires the next batter, his ERA for that game will be 0.00 despite having surrendered the lead.
Starting pitchers operate under the same rules but are not called upon to start pitching with runners on base. In addition, relief pitchers know beforehand that they will only be pitching for a short while, allowing them to exert themselves more for each pitch, unlike starters who need to conserve their energy over the course of a game in case they are asked to pitch 7 or more innings; the reliever's freedom to use their maximum energy for a few innings, or for just a few batters, helps relievers keep their ERAs down. ERA, taken by itself, can be misleading when trying to objectively judge starting pitchers, though not to the extent seen with relief pitchers; the advent of the designated hitter rule in the American League in 1973 made the pitching environment different. Since pitchers spending all or most of their careers in the AL have been at a disadvantage in maintaining low ERAs, compared to National League pitchers who can get an easy
The Thruway Cup is an annual competition between Minor League Baseball's Buffalo Bisons, Rochester Red Wings, Syracuse Mets of the Triple-A International League which began in 1998. The Cup standings are compiled from the games the teams play against each other through the course of the regular season; the team at the top of the standings at the end of the season is crowned the Thruway Cup champion and wins the Thruway Cup trophy. Unique to this competition, it was agreed that any team winning the trophy three times would get to "retire" the cup and keep it as their own; as of the end of the 2018 season, Rochester has won nine times, Buffalo eight times, Syracuse four times. The I-90 Thruway Series is the name given to all the games played between the Bisons, Red Wings, Mets; the series became official when the Bisons joined the International League in 1998 after moving from the Triple-A American Association. All teams are located in cities along the New York State toll road. Syracuse and Buffalo, which are at the furthest ends are about 150 minutes' driving time from each other, while the other cities are within 90 minutes of each other.
During the 2012 season, an additional IL team made its home along the Thruway, the Empire State Yankees. The Yankees had no home ballpark, so they played their home games at the stadiums of Rochester, Syracuse and the Batavia Muckdogs. In 2017, the Rochester Red Wings earned the right to keep their retired Thruway Cup trophy, making it the first time a team retired a Cup bearing no other team's name. †Team won their third Series and is allowed to keep the Thruway Cup x - Clinched the 2009 Thruway Cup Rochester won head to head series with Syracuse nine games to seven x - Clinched the 2010 Thruway Cup On August 30, the Chiefs beat the Bisons 4-1 in 10 innings to claim their second Thruway Cup and first since 1999. X- Clinched the 2011 Thruway Cup x- Clinched the 2012 Thruway Cup x- Clinched the 2013 Thruway Cup On August 29, the Bisons defeated the Rochester Red Wings, 3-2 to clinch the 2013 Thruway Cup. x- Clinched the 2014 Thruway Cup On August 31, 2014, the Syracuse Chiefs defeated the Buffalo Bisons, 4-3 to clinch the 2014 Thruway Cup, claim their fourth Thruway Cup series and first trophy.
X- Clinched the 2015 Thruway Cup x- Clinched the 2016 Thruway Cup x- Clinched the 2017 Thruway Cup Series and retired the Thruway Cup. X - Clinched the 2018 Thruway Cup Governors' Cup 2009 Thruway Cup Standings and Schedule 2010 Thruway Cup Standings and Schedule 2011 Thruway Cup Standings and Schedule 2012 Thruway Cup Standings and Schedule 2016 Thruway Cup Standings and Schedule
John Curtis "Jack" Chapman was an American Major League Baseball player and manager, born in Brooklyn, New York. He began playing in the National Association when he played for the 1874 Brooklyn Atlantics and the 1875 St. Louis Brown Stockings. In 1876, when the National League formed, he became the player-manager for the Louisville Grays; the following season saw him staying with Louisville in the manager role only. After the 1877 season, the Louisville team was expelled from the National League and Chapman became manager of the Milwaukee Grays; the team had a poor record, he was fired. In all, he managed 11 seasons in the majors, compiling a record of 351 wins and 502 losses, winning one championship in 1890 with the Louisville Colonels of the American Association. Chapman's nickname was "Death to Flying Things", although fellow major leaguer Bob Ferguson had been given the nickname. Chapman died in Brooklyn at the age of 73, he is interred at Green-Wood Cemetery. List of Major League Baseball player–managers Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Career Managerial Record Baseball-Reference.com
In baseball and softball, second baseman is a fielding position in the infield, between second and first base. The second baseman possesses quick hands and feet, needs the ability to get rid of the ball and must be able to make the pivot on a double play. In addition, second basemen are right-handed. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the second baseman is assigned the number 4. Good second basemen need to have good range, since they have to field balls closer to the first baseman, holding runners on, or moving towards the base to cover. On a batted ball to right field, the second baseman goes out towards the ball for the relay. Due to these requirements, second base is sometimes a defensive position in the modern game, but there are hitting stars as well; the second baseman catches line drives or pop flies hit near him, fields ground balls hit near him and throws the ball to a base to force out a runner. In this case, if the runner is to be forced out at second base that base is covered by the shortstop.
With a runner on first base, on a ground ball to the shortstop or third baseman the second baseman will cover second base to force out the runner coming from first. Moreover, if there are fewer than two outs he will attempt to turn the double play: that is, he will receive the throw from the other player with his foot on second base, in one motion pivot toward first base and throw the ball there. If a runner on first base attempts to steal second base, or if the pitcher attempts to pick off a runner at second base either the second baseman or the shortstop will cover second base; the following second basemen have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Notes Bill Mazeroski: 11 Nellie Fox: 10 Bobby Doerr: 9 Red Schoendienst: 8 Charlie Gehringer: 7 Joe Gordon: 7 Billy Herman: 5 Jackie Robinson: 4 Roberto Alomar: 3 Craig Biggio: 2 Frankie Frisch: 2 Rogers Hornsby: 2 Joe Morgan: 2 Ryne Sandberg: 2 Tony Lazzeri: 1 Bid McPhee: 1Source: baseball-reference.com
Syracuse Stars (minor league baseball)
This article refers to the former minor league baseball team. For the major league baseball teams see Syracuse Stars; the Syracuse Stars was the name of several Minor league baseball teams who played between 1877 and 1929. The Stars were based in Syracuse, New York, played in the International League, affiliated with the League Alliance. 1876 in baseball Moses Fleetwood Walker The Encyclopedia of Minor League Baseball – Lloyd Johnson, Miles Wolff. Publisher: Baseball America, 1997. Format: Hardcover, 672 pp. Language: English. ISBN 0-9637189-8-3 Gersbacher, Ron.. "History of Syracuse Baseball, 1858 to Present"
Clarence Lemuel "Cupid" Childs was an American second baseman in Major League Baseball with a 13-season career from 1888, 1890–1901, playing for the Philadelphia Quakers, Cleveland Spiders, St. Louis Perfectos and Chicago Orphans of the National League and the Syracuse Stars of the American Association. Childs was born in Maryland. During his career, much was made of Childs' pudgy appearance. Standing 5'8" tall, he weighed 185 pounds; this led to the nickname of "Cupid". Childs led the league in runs in 1892 with the Cleveland Spiders; the 1892 Spiders featured several stars, including future Hall of Fame members Cy Young, George Davis and Jesse Burkett. The team went to the league championship series, they had similar success in 1895, when they finished second in the league and played in the Temple Cup. Childs was among the top ten players in the league in walks every season between 1890 and 1900, he led the league in doubles and extra base hits in 1890. In May 1900, Childs was attempting a double play against the Pittsburgh Pirates when the Pirates player-manager Fred Clarke slid into him.
There was a brief confrontation on the field, Childs spotted Clarke at a train station after the game. Childs badly beat the manager in the ensuing fistfight; the next day, fans in Pittsburgh showed up in large numbers hoping to see a continuation of the scuffle, but the game was played without incident. Childs' playing time fell off in his final season of 1901 as Pete Childs played more of the team's games at second base. A career.306 hitter, Childs retired with a.416 on-base percentage, 991 walks and 269 stolen bases, having played more than 1400 games as a second baseman. By the time he was 45, Childs was living in Baltimore, he had developed cirrhosis and nephritis, he died in Baltimore on November 8, 1912. He was buried there at Loudon Park Cemetery. List of Major League Baseball career triples leaders List of Major League Baseball career runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders List of Major League Baseball annual runs scored leaders List of Major League Baseball annual doubles leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Cupid Childs at Find a Grave
International Association for Professional Base Ball Players
The International Association of Professional Base Ball Players was the name for two separate Canadian-American baseball leagues that operated from 1877 through 1880 and from 1888 until 1890. Some baseball historians consider the International Association the first minor league. In 1877, the International Association featured teams based in: London, Canada Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Rochester, New York Manchester, New Hampshire Columbus, Ohio Guelph, Canada Lynn, Massachusetts The Association's by-laws and constitution required member teams to pay $10 to join the league and fan admission was set at 25 cents. Visiting teams were guaranteed half of the gate receipts when they exceeded that amount. Pitcher Candy Cummings was the first president of the International Association, while a player for the Lynn Live Oaks of Massachusetts in 1877. Jimmy Williams of Columbus served as the league's first Secretary. London Tecumsehs 14-4-2* Pittsburgh Allegheny 13-6-0 Rochester, NY 10-8-0 Manchester, NH 9-10-0 Columbus Buckeyes 9-11-2 Guelph Maple Leafs 4-12-0 Lynn Live Oaks 1-9-0 * disbandedLondon's star pitcher, Fred Goldsmith had a 14-4 record in 193 innings pitched with 3 shutouts, during International Association play in 1877.
In 1878, the league lost two teams - Guelph and Columbus - however, it added the Binghamton Crickets, Hornellsville Hornells and Syracuse Stars. The cities of Buffalo, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Bedford, New Haven, Springfield and Worcester, Massachusetts had representatives. Buffalo finished in first place. In 1878 Bud Fowler, pitching for the Lynn, club, became the first known African-American player in organized baseball; the Buffalo Bisons, winners of the 1878 pennant, the Syracuse Stars hurt the International Association's chances at major league status when they joined the rival National League for the 1879 season. At the same time the London Tecumsehs dropped out of the league, causing it to be renamed the National Association for the 1879 season. Under that name it played through the 1880 season before dissolving; the following teams played in the next incarnation of the league, which existed from 1888 until 1890: Albany Governors, Buffalo Bisons, Detroit Wolverines, Hamilton Mountaineers, Hamilton Hams, London Tecumsehs, Montreal Canadiens, Grand Rapids Shamrocks, Rochester Jingoes, Saginaw-Bay City Hyphens, Syracuse Stars, Toledo Black Pirates, Toronto Canucks and Troy Trojans.
In 1888, Syracuse finished in first place. Detroit finished in first place in 1889 and 1890. In 1888, outfielder Patsy Donovan of the Tecumsehs led the league in batting with a batting average of either.359 or.398, had 201 hits, scored 103 runs and stole 80 bases. His second season with the Tecumsehs was less successful due to a leg injury. Donovan went on to an outstanding career in Major League Baseball playing a significant role in scouting Babe Ruth. Bryce's Base Ball Guide The Northern Game: Baseball the Canadian Way by Bob Elliott. Heritage Baseball: City of London a souvenir program from July 23, 2005, celebrating the history of Labatt Park and London, Ontario's 150th anniversary as an incorporated city. Boys of Summer: Knute, Boot and Buck by Don Maudsley; the magic continues at London's Field of Dreams by Barry Wells. Canada's Baseball Capital Celebrates 143rd Year by William Humber. Diamonds of the North: A Concise History of Baseball in Canada by William Humber; the Beaver, Exploring Canada's History, Baseball's Canadian Roots: Abner Who? by Mark Kearney.'The 1948 London Majors: A Great Canadian Team by Dan Mendham.
Diamond Rituals: Baseball in Canadian Culture by Robert K. Barney. Journal of Sport History, A Critical Examination of a Source in Early Ontario Baseball: The Reminiscence of Adam E. Ford by UWO Professor Robert K. Barney and Nancy Bouchier. Who's Who in Canadian Sport by Bob Ferguson. Cheering for the Home Team: The Story of Baseball in Canada by William Humber. Old Time Baseball and the London Tecumsehs of the late 1870s by Les Bronson, a recorded talk given to the London & Middlesex Historical Society on February 15, 1972. Available in the London Room of the London Public Library, Main Branch. Bill Stern's Favorite Baseball Stories by Bill Stern. Evolution of a National Pastime, Canadians at Bat for their Place in History by William Humber 1876 and 1877 Bryce Baseball Guides The 1877 Rochesters of the International Association Patsy Donovan is remembered for a stellar season with the Tecumsehs by James Reaney, The London Free Press, August 13, 2006 The Donovan family Web site