Mediterranean cuisine is the foods and methods of preparation by people of the Mediterranean Basin region. The idea of a Mediterranean cuisine originates with the cookery writer Elizabeth David's book, A Book of Mediterranean Food, though she wrote about French cuisine, she and other writers including the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid define the three core elements of the cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding olive oil and pasta, wine. The geographical area covered broadly follows the distribution of the olive tree, as noted by David and Essid; the region spans a wide variety of cultures with distinct cuisines, in particular the Maghrebi, Levantine, Greek, Provençal, Spanish. However, the historical connections of the region, as well as the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the region's climate and economy, mean that these cuisines share dishes beyond the core trio of oil and wine, such as roast lamb or mutton, meat stews with vegetables and tomato, the salted cured fish roe, found across the region.
Spirits based on anise are drunk in many countries around the Mediterranean. The cooking of the area is not to be confused with the Mediterranean diet, made popular because of the apparent health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil and other grains, vegetables, a certain amount of seafood, but low in meat and dairy products. Mediterranean cuisine encompasses the ways that these and other ingredients, including meat, are dealt with in the kitchen, whether they are health-giving or not; the cookery writer Elizabeth David's introduction to A Book of Mediterranean Food defines her scope as "the cooking of the Mediterranean shores". She sketches out the geographical limits as from Gibraltar to the Bosphorus, down the Rhone Valley, through the great seaports of Marseilles and Genoa, across to Tunis and Alexandria, embracing all the Mediterranean islands, Sicily, Crete, the Cyclades, Cyprus, to the mainland of Greece and the much disputed territories of Syria, the Lebanon and Smyrna. David defines the region as coextensive with the range of the olive tree: "those blessed lands of sun and sea and olive trees".
The olive's natural distribution is limited by availability of water. It is therefore constrained to a more or less narrow zone around the Mediterranean Sea, except in the Maghreb and in Spain, where it is distributed more and on the islands of the Mediterranean, where it is widespread; the Tunisian historian Mohamed Yassine Essid defines the region by the olive's presence, along with bread and the grape as the "basic products of Mediterranean folk cuisine": Mediterranean cuisine is defined by the presence of fundamental elements which are said to play a more important role than others, reflecting a community of beliefs and practices which transcend religions and societies. The olive tree, the emblematic tree on more than one account, traces the bounds of a frontier of landscapes and lives on either side of which the Mediterranean begins or ends. Above Montelimar, nicknamed "Gates of Provence", is the limit of the olive. Essid, as mentioned, identifies the "trinity" of basic ingredients of traditional Mediterranean cuisine as the olive and the grape, yielding oil and wine respectively.
The archaeologist Colin Renfrew calls this the "Mediterranean triad". The olive appears to come from the region of Mesopotamia, at least 6,000 years ago, it spread from there to nearby areas, has been cultivated since the early Bronze Age in southern Turkey, the Levant, Crete. The ten countries with the largest harvests are all near the Mediterranean: together, they produce 95% of the world's olives; the olive yields bitter fruits, made edible by curing and fermentation, olive oil. Some 90% of the fruit production goes into olive oil; the Mediterranean region accounts for the world's highest consumption of olive oil: in 2014, the highest-consuming country, used 17 kg per head. Wheat was domesticated in and near the Levant some 10,000 years ago, its ancestors include wild emmer wheat. It had been spread across the Mediterranean region as far as Spain by 5,000 BC. Wheat is a staple food in the Mediterranean region. Wheat bread was critically important in the empire of Ancient Rome, which included the entire region.
Other staple wheat-based Mediterranean foods include pasta and semolina products such as couscous and burgul. In turn, these are made into dishes such as the Greek dessert galaktoboureko, consisting of filo pastry parcels around a custard made with semolina. A widespread wheat dish from Turkey and the Levant to Iran and India is halva, a dessert of sweetened semolina with butter and pine kernels; the grape was domesticated between 4,000 BC between the Black Sea and Persia. Winemaking started in Italy in the ninth century BC, in France around 60
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
A national dish is a culinary dish, associated with a particular country. A dish can be considered a national dish for a variety of reasons: It is a staple food, made from a selection of locally available foodstuffs that can be prepared in a distinctive way, such as fruits de mer, served along the west coast of France, it contains a particular'exotic' ingredient, produced locally, such as the South American paprika grown in the European Pyrenees. It is served as a festive culinary tradition that forms part of a cultural heritage—for example, barbecues at summer camp or fondue at dinner parties—or as part of a religious practice, such as Korban Pesach or Iftar celebrations, it has been promoted as a national dish, by the country itself, such as the promotion of fondue as a national dish of Switzerland by the Swiss Cheese Union in the 1930s. National dishes are part of a nation's self-image. During the age of European empire-building, nations would develop a national cuisine to distinguish themselves from their rivals.
According to Zilkia Janer, a lecturer on Latin American culture at Hofstra University, it is impossible to choose a single national dish unofficially, for countries such as Mexico, China or India because of their diverse ethnic populations and cultures. The cuisine of such countries cannot be represented by any single national dish. Furthermore, because national dishes are so interwoven into a nation's sense of identity, strong emotions and conflicts can arise when trying to choose a country's national dish. In Latin America, dishes may be claimed or designated as a "plato nacional", although in many cases, recipes transcend national borders with only minor variations. Both Peru and Ecuador claim ceviche as their national dish. Stews of meat and root vegetables are the platos nacionales of several countries in Central America, South America, the Caribbean: Colombian ajiaco, as well as the sancocho of the Dominican Republic and Panama, are examples of platos nacionales. Janer observes that this sharing of the same plato nacional by different countries calls into question the idea that every country has a unique national dish, special to that country.
The identification of Latin American national dishes is stronger among expatriate communities in North America. In Latin American countries, the plato nacional is part of the cuisine of rural and peasant communities, not part of the everyday cuisine of city dwellers. In expatriate communities, the dish is reclaimed in order to retain the sense of national identity and ties to one's homeland, is proudly served in homes and restaurants. By this show of national identity, the community can resist social pressures that push for homogenization of many ethnically and culturally diverse communities into a single all-encompassing group identity, such as Latino or Hispanic American; this is not a definitive list of national dishes, but rather a list of some foods that have been suggested to be national dishes. Afghanistan: Kabuli Palaw Albania: Tavë kosi Algeria: Couscous, chakhchoukha Andorra: Escudella Angola: Muamba de galinha Antigua and Barbuda: Pepperpot, Fungee Argentina: Asado, Locro, Choripán Armenia: Khash, Dolma, Khorovats Aruba: Keshi yena Australia: Vegemite on toast, Meat pie, Roast lamb, Austria: Wiener Schnitzel Azerbaijan: Dolma, qutab Bahamas: Crack conch with peas and rice Bahrain: Machboos Bangladesh: Rice and Ilish, Shorshe Ilish, Machh bhaja, Machher Jhol, Chicken Korma Barbados: Cou-Cou and Flying Fish Belarus: Draniki Belgium: Moules-frites, Belgian waffle, frites Belize: Boil up, Fry jack Benin: Kuli Kuli Bermuda: Bermuda fish chowder Bhutan: Ema datshi Bolivia: Salteñas Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosnian pot, Ćevapi Botswana: Seswaa Brazil: Feijoada Brunei: Ambuyat Bulgaria: Banitsa, Bob chorba, Shopska salad Burkina Faso: Riz Gras Burundi: Boko-Boko Cambodia: Amok trey, Samlor Kako Cameroon: Ndolé Canada: Poutine, Nanaimo bar, Butter tarts, Kraft Dinner, Tourtière, Peameal Bacon Cape Verde: Cachupa Central African Republic: Cassava fufu, Peanut soup Chad: Boule Chile: Empanada, Pastel de choclo China, People's Republic of: Peking Duck, chinese fried rice, Mao's braised pork Hong Kong: Crispy fried chicken Macau: Minchee Colombia: Sancocho, Bandeja paisa Comoros: Langouste a la Vanille Democratic Republic of the Congo: Poulet à la Moambé Republic of the Congo: Poulet Moambé, Poulet Yassa Costa Rica: Gallo pinto Croatia: Zagorski Štrukli, Brudet, Istrian stew Cuba: Ropa vieja, Moros y cristianos Cyprus: Souvla Czech Republic: Vepřo knedlo zelo, Svíčková Denmark: Stegt Flæsk, Bøfsandwich, Frikadeller and Smørrebrød Greenland: Kiviak, suaasat Djibouti: Skoudehkaris Dominica: Mountain chicken, Fish broth Dominican Republic: La Bandera ("The Flag".
Jewish cuisine is a diverse collection of cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws, Jewish Festival and Shabbat traditions. Jewish cuisine is influenced by the economics and culinary traditions of the many countries where Jewish communities have settled and varies throughout the whole world; the distinctive styles in Jewish cuisine are Ashkenazi, Mizrahi, Yemenite and Latin-American. There are dishes from Jewish communities from Ethiopia to Central Asia. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and since the late 1970s, a nascent Israeli "fusion cuisine" has developed. Jewish Israeli cuisine has adapted a multitude of elements, overlapping techniques and ingredients from many diaspora Jewish culinary traditions. Using agricultural products from dishes of one Jewish culinary tradition in the elaboration of dishes of other Jewish culinary traditions, as well as incorporating and adapting various other Middle Eastern dishes from the local non-Jewish population of the Land of Israel, Israeli Jewish cuisine is both authentically Jewish and distinctively local "Israeli", yet hybridised from its multicultural diasporas Jewish origins.
The laws of keeping kosher have influenced Jewish cooking by prescribing what foods are permitted and how food must be prepared. The word kosher is translated as "proper." Certain foods, notably pork and shellfish, are forbidden. Observant Jews will eat only meat or poultry, certified kosher; the meat must have been slaughtered by a shochet in accordance with Jewish law and is drained of blood. Before it is cooked, it is soaked in water for half an hour placed on a perforated board, sprinkled with coarse salt and left to sit for one hour. At the end of this time, the salt is washed off and the meat is ready for cooking. Today, kosher meats purchased from a butcher or supermarket are already koshered as described above and no additional soaking or salting is required. According to kashrut and poultry may not be combined with dairy products, nor may they touch plates or utensils that have been touched by dairy products. Therefore, Jews who observe kashrut divide their kitchens into different sections for meat and for dairy, with separate ovens and utensils.
As a result, butter and cream are not used in preparing dishes made with meat or intended to be served together with meat. Oil, pareve margarine, rendered chicken fat. Despite religious prohibitions, some foods not considered kosher have made their way into traditional Jewish cuisine; the hearty cuisine of Ashkenazi Jews was based on centuries of living in the cold climate of Central and Eastern Europe, whereas the lighter, "sunnier" cuisine of Sephardi Jews was affected by life in the Mediterranean region. Each Jewish community has its traditional dishes revolving around specialties from their home country. In Spain and Portugal, olives are a common ingredient and many foods are fried in oil; the idea of frying fish in the stereotypically British fish and chips, for example, was introduced to Britain by Sephardic Jewish immigrants. In Germany, stews were popular; the Jews of Netherlands specialized in pickles, butter cakes and bolas. In Poland, Jews made various kinds of stuffed and stewed fish along with matza ball soup or lokshen noodles.
In North Africa, Jews eat tagine. Thus, a traditional Shabbat meal for Ashkenazi Jews might include stuffed vine leaves, roast beef, pot roast, or chicken, carrots tzimmes and potatoes. A traditional Shabbat meal for Sephardi Jews would focus more on salads and other Middle Eastern specialties; the daily diet of the ordinary ancient Israelite was one of bread, cooked grains and legumes. Bread was eaten with every meal. Vegetables played a significant role in the diet; the Israelites drank goat and sheep’s milk when it was available in the spring and summer and ate butter and cheese. Figs and grapes were the fruits most eaten, while dates and other fruits and nuts were eaten more occasionally. Wine was the most popular beverage and sometimes other fermented beverages were produced. Olives were used for their oil. Meat goat and mutton, was eaten and reserved for special occasions, such as celebrations, festival meals, or sacrificial feasts. Game, birds and fish were eaten, depending on availability.
Most food was eaten fresh and in season. Fruits and vegetables had to be eaten before they spoiled. People had to contend with periodic episodes of famine. Producing enough food required hard and well-timed labor and the climatic conditions resulted in unpredictable harvests and the need to store as much food as possible. Thus, grapes were made into raisins and wine, olives were made into oil, figs and lentils were dried and grains were stored for use throughout the year; the cuisine maintained many consistent traits based on the main products available from the
Traditionally, the various cuisines of Africa use a combination of locally available fruits such as, cereal grains and vegetables, as well as milk and meat products, do not have food imported. In some parts of the continent, the traditional diet features an abundance of milk and whey products. Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa each have distinctive dishes, preparation techniques, consumption mores. Central Africa stretches from the Tibesti Mountains in the north to the vast rainforest basin of the Congo River, remained free from culinary influences of the outside world until the late 19th century, with the exception of the widespread adaptation of cassava and chili pepper plants, which arrived as part of the Columbian exchange along with the slave trade during the early 16th century; these foodstuffs have had a large influence on the local cuisine, if less on the preparation methods. Central African cooking has remained traditional; the basic ingredients are cassava.
Fufu-like starchy foods are served with grilled meat and sauces. A variety of local ingredients are used while preparing other dishes like spinach stew cooked with tomato, chillis and peanut butter. Cassava plants are consumed as cooked greens. Groundnut stew is prepared, containing chicken, okra and other spices. Another favorite is a porridge of rice, peanut butter and sugar. Beef and chicken are favorite meat dishes, but game meat preparations containing crocodile, elephant and warthog are served occasionally. Angolan cuisine Cameroonian cuisine Cuisine of the Central African Republic Chadian cuisine Congolese cuisine Cuisine of Equatorial Guinea Gabonese cuisine Cuisine of São Tomé and Príncipe The cuisine of East Africa varies from area to area. In the inland savannah, the traditional cuisine of cattle-keeping peoples is distinctive in that meat products are absent. Cattle, sheep and goats were regarded as a form of currency and a store of wealth, are not consumed as food. In some areas, traditional East Africans consume the milk and blood of cattle, but the meat.
Elsewhere, other peoples are farmers who grow a variety of vegetables. Maize is the basis of the local version of West Africa's fufu. Ugali is a starch dish eaten with stews. In Uganda, steamed green bananas called. Around 1000 years ago and Yemeni merchants settled on the Swahili Coast. Middle Eastern influences are reflected in the Swahili cuisine of the coast – steamed or cooked rice with spices in Persian style. Several centuries the British and the Indians came, both brought with them foods such as Indian spiced vegetable curries, lentil soups, chapattis and a variety of pickles which have influenced various local dishes; some common ingredients used in this region include oranges, limes, capsicum peppers, maize and strawberries. In the Horn of Africa, the main traditional dishes in Eritrean cuisine and Ethiopian cuisine are tsebhis served with injera and hilbet. Eritrean and Ethiopian cuisine are similar, given the shared history of the two countries. Eritrean and Ethiopian food habits vary regionally.
In the highlands, injera is eaten daily among the Tigrinya. Injera is made out of teff, barley, sorghum or corn, resembles a spongy sour pancake; when eating, diners share food from a large tray placed in the center of a low dining table. Numerous injera is topped with various spicy stews. Diners break into the section of injera in front of them, tearing off pieces and dipping them into the stews. In the lowlands, the main dish is a porridge-like dish made from wheat flour dough. A ladle is used to scoop out the top, filled with berbere and butter sauce and surrounded by milk or yoghurt. A small piece of dough is broken and used to scoop up the sauce; the best known Ethio-Eritrean cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrées a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Tihlo, prepared from roasted barley flour, is popular in Amhara and Awlaelo.
Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Jewish and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is very common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people. Somali cuisine varies from region to region and consists of an exotic mixture of diverse culinary influences, it is the product of Somalia's rich tradition of commerce. Despite the variety, there remains one thing that unites the various regional cuisines: all food is served halal. There are therefore no pork dishes, alcohol is not served, nothing that died on its own is eaten, no blood is incorporated. Qaddo or lunch is elaborate. Varieties of bariis, the most popular being basmati serve as the main dish. Spices like cumin, cloves and sage are used to aromatize these different rice dishes. Somalis serve dinner as late as 9 pm. During Ramadan, dinner is served after Tarawih prayers, sometimes as late as 11 pm. Xalwo or halva is a popular confection served during special occasion
Austrian cuisine is a style of cuisine native to Austria and composed of influences from Central Europe and throughout the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. Austrian cuisine is most associated with Viennese cuisine, but there are significant regional variations. Breakfast is of the "continental" type consisting of bread rolls with either jam or cold meats and cheese, accompanied by coffee, tea or juice; the midday meal was traditionally the main meal of the day, but in modern times as Austrians work longer hours further from home this is no longer the case. The main meal is now taken in the evening. A mid-morning or mid-afternoon snack of a slice of bread topped with cheese or ham is referred to as a Jause, a more substantial version akin to a British "ploughman's lunch" is called a Brettljause after the wooden board on which it is traditionally served. Rindsuppe a clear soup with golden colour. Tafelspitz, beef boiled in broth served with apple and horseradish and chives sauce. Gulasch, a hotpot similar to Hungarian pörkölt – Austrian goulash is eaten with rolls, bread or dumplings Beuschel Liptauer, spicy cheese spread, eaten on a slice of bread Selchfleisch with Sauerkraut and dumplings.
Powidl a thick sweet jam made from plums. Apfelstrudel, apple strudel Topfenstrudel, cream cheese strudel Millirahmstrudel, milk-cream strudel Palatschinken, pancakes similar to French Crêpes, filled with jam, sprinkled with sugar etc, they are served in savory versions e.g. with spinach and cheese. Kaiserschmarrn, fluffy pancake ripped into bites and roasted in a pan, served with compote, applesauce or stewed plums. Germknödel, a fluffy yeast dough dumpling filled with plum jam, garnished with melted butter and a mix of poppy seeds and powdered sugar, sometimes served with vanilla cream. Marillenknödel, a dumpling covered with streusel and powdered sugar; the dough is made of Topfen. Saftgulasch known as the Austrian or Wienese Goulash, is an Austrian twist of the traditional Hungarian dish; the characteristics of the Saftgulash is that it is prepared with lean beef and a large quantity of onions, at least two thirds of the quantity of meat used. No other vegetables are added and it must be slow cooked for at least 3 hours.
The end result is a thick dark brown sauce with melting pieces of tender beef. Wurstsemmel sliced bread rolls containing a slice of ham, or sausage, or ham & cheese; the most popular meats in Austria are beef, chicken and goose. The prominent Wiener Schnitzel is traditionally made of veal. Pork in particular is used extensively, with many dishes using offal and parts such as the snout and trotters. Austrian butchers use a number of special cuts of meat, including Tafelspitz, Fledermaus. Fledermaus is a cut of pork from the ham bone, it is described as "very juicy, somewhat fatty, crossed by tendons". Austrian cuisine has many different sausages, like Frankfurter, Krainer Wurst from Carniola, Debreziner, or Burenwurst, Blunzn made out of pig-blood and Grüne Würstl – green sausages. Green means raw in this context – the sausages are air dried and are consumed boiled. Bacon in Austria is called Speck, bacon can be smoked, salted, spiced etc. Bacon is used in many traditional recipes as a salty spice.
Leberkäse is a loaf of corned beef and bacon, it does not contain either liver or cheese despite the name. Vanillerostbraten is a beef dish prepared with lots of garlic. Austria has an old hunting tradition. In the autumn season many restaurants in Austria traditionally offer game on their menu along with seasonal vegetables and fruits like pumpkins from Styria. Usual game are: Deer "Hirsch" Wild Boar "Wildschwein" Roe Deer "Reh" Fallow Deer "Damhirsch" Brown hare "Hase/Feldhase" Common pheasant "Fasan" Duck "Ente" Grey partridge "Rebhuhn"The German names of game animals followed by -braten signifies a dish of roast game: Hirschbraten is roast venison. Austrian cakes and pastries are a well-known feature of its cuisine; the most famous is the Sachertorte, a chocolate cake with apricot jam filling, traditionally eaten with whipped cream. Among the cakes with the longest tradition is the Linzer torte. Other favourites include the caramel-flavoured Dobostorte and the delicately layered Esterhazy Torte, named in honor of Prince Esterházy, as well as a number of cakes made with fresh fruit and cream.
Punschkrapfen is a classical Austrian pastry, a cake filled with cake crumbs, nougat chocolate, apricot jam and soaked with rum. These cakes are complex and difficult to make, they can be bought by the slice from a bakery. A "Konditorei" is a specialist cake-maker, the designations "Café-Konditorei" and "Bäckerei-Konditorei" are common indicators that the café or bakery in question specialises in this field. Austrian desserts are slightly less complicated than the elaborate cakes described above; the most famous of these is the Apfelstrudel, layers of thin pastry surrounding a filling of apple with cinnamon and raisins. Other strudels are popular, such as those filled with sweetened curd cheese called Topfen, sour cherry, sweet cherry and poppy seed strudel. Another favourite is Kaiserschmarr'n, a rich fluffy sweet thick pancake made with
Israeli cuisine comprises both local dishes and dishes brought back to Israel by Jews from the Diaspora. Since before the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, since the late 1970s, an Israeli Jewish fusion cuisine has developed. Israeli cuisine has adopted, continues to adapt, elements of various styles of diaspora Jewish cuisine the Mizrahi and Ashkenazi styles of cooking, it incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in other Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, foods such as falafel, msabbha, couscous, za'atar are now popular in Israel. Other influences on the cuisine are the availability of foods common to the Mediterranean region certain kinds of fruits and vegetables, dairy products and fish. New dishes based on agricultural products such as oranges, dairy products and fish, others based on world trends have been introduced over the years, chefs trained abroad have brought in elements of other international cuisines. Israel’s culinary traditions comprise foods and cooking methods that span three thousand years of history.
Over that time, these traditions have been shaped by influences from Asia and Europe, religious and ethnic influences have resulted in a culinary melting pot. Biblical and archaeological records provide insight into the culinary life of the region as far back as 968 BCE, in the days of the kings of ancient Israel. During the Second Temple period and Roman culture influenced cuisine of the priests and aristocracy of Jerusalem. Elaborate meals were served that included piquant entrées and alcoholic drinks, beef, meat and fresh vegetables and tart or sweet fruits; the food of the ancient Israelites was based on several products that still play important roles in modern Israeli cuisine. These were known as the seven species: olives, dates, wheat and grapes; the diet, based on locally grown produce, was enhanced by imported spices available due to the country’s position at the crossroads of east-west trade routes. After the destruction of the Second Temple and the exile of the majority of Jews from the land of Israel, Jewish cuisine continued to develop in the many countries where Jewish communities have existed since Late Antiquity, influenced by the economics and culinary traditions of those countries.
The Jewish community that lived in Ottoman Syria prior to Zionist immigration that began in 1881 was known as the Old Yishuv. The cooking style of the community was Sephardi cuisine, which developed among the Jews of Spain before their expulsion in 1492, in the areas to which they migrated thereafter the Balkans and Ottoman Empire. Sephardim established communities in the Old Yishuv. In Jerusalem, they continued to develop their culinary style, influenced by Ottoman cuisine, creating a style that became known as Jerusalem Sephardi cuisine; this cuisine included pies like sambousak and burekas, vegetable gratins and stuffed vegetables, rice and bulgur pilafs, which are now considered to be Jerusalem classics. Groups of Hasidic Jews from Eastern Europe began establishing communities in the late 18th century, brought with them their traditional Ashkenazi cuisine, however, distinct local variations, notably a peppery, caramelized noodle pudding known as kugel yerushalmi. Beginning with the First Aliyah in 1881, Jews began immigrating to the area from Eastern Europe in larger numbers from Poland and Russia.
These Zionist pioneers were motivated both ideologically and by the Mediterranean climate to reject the Ashkenazi cooking styles they had grown up with, adapt by using local produce vegetables such as zucchini, eggplant and chickpeas. The first Hebrew cookbook, written by Erna Meyer, published in the early 1930s by the Palestine Federation of the Women's International Zionist Organization, exhorted cooks to use Mediterranean herbs and Middle Eastern spices and local vegetables in their cooking; the bread, olives and raw vegetables they adopted became the basis for the kibbutz breakfast, which in more abundant forms is served in Israeli hotels, in various forms in most Israeli homes today. The State of Israel faced enormous military and economic challenges in its early years, the period from 1948 to 1958 was a time of food rationing and austerity, known as tzena. In this decade, over one million Jewish immigrants from Arab countries, but including European Holocaust survivors, inundated the new state.
They arrived when only basic foods were available and ethnic dishes had to be modified with a range of mock or simulated foods, such as chopped “liver” from eggplant, turkey as a substitute for veal schnitzel for Ashkenazim, kubbeh made from frozen fish instead of ground meat for Iraqi Jews, turkey in place of the lamb kebabs of the Mizrahi Jews. These adaptations remain as a legacy of that time. Substitutes, such as the wheat-based rice substitute, were introduced, versatile vegetables such as eggplant were used as alternatives to meat. Additional flavor and nutrition was provided from inexpensive canned tomato paste and puree, hummus and mayonnaise in tubes. Meat was scarce, it was not until the late 1950s that herds of beef cattle were introduced into the agricultural economy. Khubeza, a local variety of the mallow plant, became an impo