The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The trees ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, the distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie. The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, a study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported it to be hybrid between bitter orange and citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, they were not widely cultivated. They were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD, the lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century, the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds and it was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida, in 1747, James Linds experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known. The origin of the lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon, Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a term for citrus fruit. The Bonnie Brae is oblong, thin-skinned, and seedless, the Eureka grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, known as Four Seasons because of its ability to produce fruit and this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers.
There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green, the Femminello St. Teresa, or Sorrento is native to Italy. This fruits zest is high in lemon oils and it is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The Meyer is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color
Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives and it is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is used in cosmetics and soaps, and as a fuel for oil lamps. It is associated with the Mediterranean diet for its health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine, the two are wheat and grapes. Olive trees have grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain is the largest producer of oil, followed by Italy. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain, consumption in North America and northern Europe is far less, but rising steadily. The composition of oil varies with the cultivar, time of harvest. It consists mainly of acid, with smaller amounts of other fatty acids including linoleic acid. The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin, wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC, the wild olive tree originated in Asia Minor or in ancient Greece.
It is not clear when and where trees were first domesticated, in Asia Minor, in the Levant. Archeological evidence shows that olives were turned into oil by 6000 BC and 4500 BC in present-day Palestine. Until 1500 BC, eastern areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Evidence suggests that olives were being grown in Crete as long ago as 2,500 BC, the cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the islands economy, as it did across the Mediterranean. Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla, which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and these belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace.
A source is the frequent mentions of oil in the Tanakh, dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth
Meze or mezze is a selection of small dishes served to accompany alcoholic drinks in the Near East, the Balkans, and parts of Central Asia. In Levantine and Balkan cuisines, meze is served at the beginning of multi-course meals. The word is found in all the cuisines of the former Ottoman Empire, in Greece and the Balkans, mezé, mezés, or mezédhes are small dishes, hot or cold, spicy or savory. Popular meze dishes include, Mutabbal/Babaghanoush – eggplant mashed and mixed with seasonings, Hummus – a dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas Hummus with meat Falafel – a deep-fried ball or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. Tashi – Dip made from tahini, garlic and lemon juice with chopped parsley garnish, souvlaki – Bite sized meat cubes, grilled on a skewer over charcoal. Stifado – Slow cooked beef stew with lots of onions, tomatoes, pepper, afelia – Diced pork marinated in wine with coriander seed, stewed. Lountza – Smoked pork loin slice, usually grilled, dolma Vegetables like peppers, eggplants or courgettes stuffed with rice, chopped mint, lemon juice, minced meat.
Sarma – Grape vine leaves, stuffed with rice, chopped mint, lemon juice, yogurt Tzatziki – Dip made from plain yogurt, chopped cucumber with finely chopped garlic and mint leaf. Tarama – a fish roe dip based on cured carp fish roe, mashed potatoes, in the traditional Istanbul variety of this dish, a substantial part of the roe must remain intact. Labneh – strained youghurt which tastes similar to cream or sour cream only more tart, there are vegetarian, meat or fish mezes. Groups of dishes arrive at the table about 4 or 5 at a time, establishments will offer their own specialities, but the pattern remains the same. Naturally the dishes served will reflect the seasons, for example, in late autumn, snails will be prominent. As so much food is offered, it is not expected that every dish be finished, eating a Cypriot meze is a social event. In the Balkans, meze is very similar to Mediterranean antipasti in the sense that cured cold-cuts and salads are dominant ingredients, in southern Croatia and Montenegro more mediterranean forms of cured meat like pršut and panceta and regional products like olives are common.
Albanian-style meze platters typically include prosciutto ham and brined cheese, in Bulgaria, popular mezes are lukanka, soujouk and Shopska salad made with tomatoes, onion, roasted peppers and sirene. In Romania, mezelic means quick appetizer and includes Zacuscă, cheeses and salamis, meze is generally accompanied by the distilled drinks rakı, ouzo, Aragh Sagi, mastika, or tsipouro. It may be consumed with beer and other alcoholic drinks, Cyprus Brandy is a favourite drink to accompany meze in Cyprus, although lager or wine are popular with some. The same dishes, served without alcoholic drinks, are termed muqabbilat in Arabic, in Bulgaria, meze is served primarily at consumption of wine but as an appetizer for rakia and mastika
Damascus is the capital and likely the largest city of Syria, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the ongoing battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine, in addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious centre of the Levant. The city has an population of 1,711,000 as of 2009. Located in south-western Syria, Damascus is the centre of a metropolitan area of 2.6 million people. The Barada River flows through Damascus, first settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad, Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Today, it is the seat of the government and all of the government ministries. The name of Damascus first appeared in the geographical list of Thutmose III as T-m-ś-q in the 15th century BC, the etymology of the ancient name T-m-ś-q is uncertain, but it is suspected to be pre-Semitic.
It is attested as Dimašqa in Akkadian, T-ms-ḳw in Egyptian, Dammaśq in Old Aramaic, the Akkadian spelling is found in the Amarna letters, from the 14th century BC. Later Aramaic spellings of the name include a intrusive resh, perhaps influenced by the root dr. Thus, the English and Latin name of the city is Damascus which was imported from originated from the Qumranic Darmeśeq, and Darmsûq in Syriac, meaning a well-watered land. In Arabic, the city is called Dimašqu š-Šāmi, although this is shortened to either Dimašq or aš-Šām by the citizens of Damascus, of Syria and other Arab neighbours. Aš-Šām is an Arabic term for Levant and for Syria, the latter, the Anti-Lebanon mountains mark the border between Syria and Lebanon. The range has peaks of over 10,000 ft. and blocks precipitation from the Mediterranean sea, however, in ancient times this was mitigated by the Barada River, which originates from mountain streams fed by melting snow. Damascus is surrounded by the Ghouta, irrigated farmland where many vegetables, maps of Roman Syria indicate that the Barada river emptied into a lake of some size east of Damascus.
Today it is called Bahira Atayba, the hesitant lake, because in years of severe drought it does not even exist, the modern city has an area of 105 km2, out of which 77 km2 is urban, while Jabal Qasioun occupies the rest. The old city of Damascus, enclosed by the city walls, to the south-east and north-east it is surrounded by suburban areas whose history stretches back to the Middle Ages, Midan in the south-west and Imara in the north and north-west. These neighbourhoods originally arose on roads leading out of the city and these new neighbourhoods were initially settled by Kurdish soldiery and Muslim refugees from the European regions of the Ottoman Empire which had fallen under Christian rule
Like many types of yogurt, strained yogurt is often made from milk that has been enriched by boiling off some of its water content, or by adding extra butterfat and powdered milk. In Europe and North America, it is made with low-fat or fat-free yogurt. In Scandinavia, particularly Iceland, a product, skyr is produced. Such dishes may be cooked or raw, savory or sweet, due to the straining process to remove excess whey, even non-fat varieties of strained yogurt are much thicker and creamier than yogurts that have not been strained. In western Europe and the US, strained yogurt has increased in popularity compared to unstrained yogurt, since the straining process removes some of the lactose, strained yogurt is lower in sugar than unstrained yogurt. It was reported in 2012 that most of the growth in the $4.1 billion US yogurt industry came from the strained yogurt sub-segment, in the US there is no legal definition of Greek yogurt, and yogurt thickened with thickening agents may be sold as Greek yogurt.
Strained yogurt contains a higher density than regular yogurt. The protein in strained yogurt is largely casein protein, in Armenia, strained yogurt is called kamats matzoon. Traditionally, it was produced for long-term preservation by draining matzoon in cloth sacks, afterwards it was stored in leather sacks or clay pots for a month or more depending on the degree of salting. In Albania, strained yogurt is called salcë kosi, after preparing yogurt from micro-cultured milk, it is drained in a cloth sack from few hours, to overnight. The water released from this process is called hir and can be used to preserve cheese or as a drink. Meanwhile the strained yogurt is used in many variation in the Albanian cuisine and is either plain or with added elements such as dill, cucumber, nuts. In the countries of the former Yugoslavia, strained yogurt made of milk has become very popular in recent years. It is usually labeled grčki tip jogurta and eaten on its own as a snack or dessert, in Macedonia its widely known as „павлака.
In Bulgaria, where yogurt is considered to be a part of the national cuisine, strained yogurt is called tsedeno kiselo mlyako. Another similar product is katak, which is made from sheep or goat milk. In the cuisines of many Iranian and Turkic peoples and it is obtained by draining qatiq, a local yogurt variety. By further drying it, one obtains qurut, a kind of dry fresh cheese, Strained yogurt in Balochistan is called Sheelanch and is a vital part of the nomadic diet
The lentil is an edible pulse. It is an annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens-shaped seeds. It is about 40 cm tall, and the seeds grow in pods, in South Asian cuisine, split lentils are known as lentils. Usually eaten with rice or rotis, the lentil is a staple throughout regions of India, Bangladesh. As a food crop, the majority of production comes from Canada. Lentils have been part of the diet since aceramic Neolithic times. Archeological evidence shows they were eaten 9,500 to 13,000 years ago, Lentil colors range from yellow to red-orange to green and black. Lentils vary in size, and are sold in forms, with or without the skins. Raw lentils are 8% water, 63% carbohydrates including 11% dietary fiber, 25% protein, lentils are a rich source of numerous essential nutrients, including folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, phosphorus and zinc, among others. When lentils are cooked by boiling, protein content declines to 9% of total composition, lentils have the second-highest ratio of protein per calorie of any legume, after soybeans.
The low levels of readily digestible starch, and high levels of slowly digested starch, the remaining 65% of the starch is a resistant starch classified as RS1. A minimum of 10% in starch from lentils escapes digestion and absorption in the small intestine, lentils have anti-nutrient factors, such as trypsin inhibitors and a relatively high phytate content. Trypsin is an involved in digestion, and phytates reduce the bioavailability of dietary minerals. The phytates can be reduced by prolonged soaking and fermentation or sprouting, lentils are relatively tolerant to drought, and are grown throughout the world. FAOSTAT reported that the production of lentils for calendar year 2013 was 4,975,621 metric tons, primarily coming from Canada. About a quarter of the production of lentils is from India. Canada is the largest export producer of lentils in the world, Statistics Canada estimates that Canadian lentil production for the 2009/10 year was a record 1.5 million metric tons. The most commonly grown type is the Laird lentil, the Palouse region of eastern Washington and the Idaho panhandle, with its commercial center at Pullman, constitute the most important lentil-producing region in the United States
Halloumi /həˈluːmi/ or hellim is a Cypriot semi-hard, unripened brined cheese made from a mixture of goats and sheeps milk, and sometimes cows milk. It has a melting point and so can easily be fried or grilled. Halloumi is set with rennet and is unusual in that no acid or acid-producing bacterium is used in its preparation, Halloumi is popular in the Levant and Turkey. Demand in the United Kingdom had surpassed every other European country, except Cyprus, the name halloumi is derived from the Egyptian Arabic, itself a loanword from Coptic ϩⲁⲗⲱⲙ halom and ⲁⲗⲱⲙ alom cheese, referring to a cheese that was eaten in medieval Egypt. In modern Egypt, hâlûmi is similar to Cypriot halloumi but is essentially a different cheese, is eaten fresh or brined and spiced. Halloumi cheese originated in Cyprus in the Medieval Byzantine period, and was subsequently eaten throughout the Middle East, the cheese is white, with a distinctive layered texture, similar to mozzarella and has a salty flavour. It is stored in its natural juices with salt-water and can keep for up to a year if frozen below −18 °C and it is often garnished with mint, a practice based in the belief that halloumi keeps better and stays fresher and more flavoursome when wrapped with mint leaves.
In accordance with tradition, many packages of halloumi contain fragments of mint leaves on the surface of the cheese. The cheese is used in cooking and can be fried until brown without melting, owing to its higher-than-normal melting point. This makes it an excellent cheese for frying or grilling or fried and served with vegetables, or as an ingredient in salads. Cypriots like eating halloumi with watermelon in the months, and as halloumi and lountza. The resistance to melting comes from the fresh curd being heated before being shaped and placed in brine, traditional halloumi is a semicircular shape, about the size of a large wallet, weighing 220–270 g. The fat content is approximately 25% wet weight, 47% dry weight with about 17% protein and its firm texture when cooked causes it to squeak on the teeth when being chewed. Traditional halloumi is made from unpasteurised sheep and goat milk, many people like halloumi that has been aged, kept in its brine, it is much drier, much stronger and much saltier, making it very different from the milder halloumi generally used in the West.
Halloumi is registered as a protected Cypriot product within the United States, most Cypriots agree that, halloumi was made from sheep and goat milk, since there were few cows on the island until they were brought over by the British in the 20th century. But as demand grew, industrial cheese-makers began using more of the cheaper, Halloumi is regularly consumed in many parts of the Middle East such as Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel and Iraq. In most of the Arab states, the cheese is called halloum and it is a traditional component of the Arab breakfast, eaten either fresh or fried, along with other Arab dishes such as hummus and khubz. Halloumi cheese is similar to Nablusi cheese, named after Nablus, Palestine
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high latitudes in summer. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section and it is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. By the Middle Ages, it had become a prominent part of European cuisine, cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that production of cabbage.
Almost half of these crops were grown in China, where Chinese cabbage is the most popular Brassica vegetable, cabbages are prepared in many different ways for eating. They can be pickled, fermented for dishes such as sauerkraut, stewed, sautéed, cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Contaminated cabbage has been linked to cases of illness in humans. Cabbage is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea, the varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for having a head. B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of names throughout the world. Cabbage was originally used to refer to forms of B. oleracea. A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage and it is a part of common names for several unrelated species.
These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage, many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning head. The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche and this in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce
The chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. In Australia, India, New Zealand, South Africa and in other Asian countries, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, chilies were brought to Asia by Portuguese navigators during the 16th century. Worldwide, some 3.8 million hectares of land produce 33 million tons of chili peppers, India is the worlds biggest producer and exporter of chili peppers. Guntur in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh produces 30% of all the chilies produced in India, Andhra Pradesh as a whole contributes 75% of Indias chili exports. Chili peppers have been a part of the diet in the Americas since at least 7500 BCE. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed, upon their introduction into Europe, chilies were grown as botanical curiosities in the gardens of Spanish and Portuguese monasteries.
Chilies were cultivated around the globe after Indigenous people shared them with travelers, diego Álvarez Chanca, a physician on Columbus second voyage to the West Indies in 1493, brought the first chili peppers to Spain and first wrote about their medicinal effects in 1494. It was introduced in India by the Portuguese towards the end of 15th century, today chilies are an integral part of South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisines. There is a correlation between the chili pepper geographical dissemination and consumption in Asia and the presence of Portuguese traders, India. The chili pepper features heavily in the cuisine of the Goan region of India, Chili peppers journeyed from India, through Central Asia and Turkey, to Hungary, where they became the national spice in the form of paprika. To Japan, it was brought by the Portuguese missionaries in 1542, in 1995 archaeobotanist Hakon Hjelmqvist published an article in Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift claiming there was evidence for the presence of chili peppers in Europe in pre-Columbian times.
According to Hjelmqvist, archaeologists at a dig in St Botulf in Lund found a Capsicum frutescens in a layer from the 13th century, Hjelmqvist thought it came from Asia. Hjelmqvist said that Capsicum was described by the Greek Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum, around the first century CE, the Roman poet Martialis mentioned Piperve crudum in Liber XI, XVIII, allegedly describing them as long and containing seeds. Green and red peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum. In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano, New Mexico, peppers are commonly broken down into three groupings, bell peppers, sweet peppers, and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or as a cross between them, the substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. Capsaicin is the component in pepper spray, a less-than-lethal weapon
Cucumber is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a vine that bears cucumiform fruits that are used as vegetables. There are three varieties of cucumber, slicing and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created, in North America, the term wild cucumber refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not closely related. The cucumber is originally from South Asia, but now grows on most continents, many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market. The cucumber is a vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin. The plant may root in a medium and will sprawl along the ground if it does not have supports. The vine has large leaves form a canopy over the fruits. The fruit of cultivars of cucumber is roughly cylindrical, but elongated with tapered ends. Botanically speaking, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of berry with a hard outer rind.
Much like tomato and squash, it is perceived, prepared. Cucumber fruits are more than 90% water. A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination, pollination for these cultivars degrades the quality. In the United States, these are grown in greenhouses. In Europe, they are outdoors in some regions. Most cucumber cultivars, are seeded and require pollination, thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. Cucumbers may be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species, most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, so pollen from a different plant is required to form seeds and fruit. Some self-compatible cultivars exist that are related to the Lemon cultivar, symptoms of inadequate pollination include fruit abortion and misshapen fruit
Hummus is a Levantine and Egyptian food dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas or other beans, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice and garlic. Today, it is throughout the Middle East, North Africa. It can be found in most grocery stores in North America, Hummus comes from the Arabic word meaning chickpeas, and the complete name of the prepared spread in Arabic is ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna which means chickpeas with tahini. Spelling of the word in English can be inconsistent, Hummus is the most common spelling in both American and British English. The spelling houmous is however common enough in British English to be listed as a less common spelling in some UK dictionaries but not, for example. Some US dictionaries list other spellings such as humus and hommos, the earliest known recipes for a dish similar to hummus bi tahina are recorded in cookbooks written in Cairo in the 13th century. Hummus has been connected to the Ayyubid Sultan, and it is served by rolling it out and letting it sit overnight, which presumably gives it a very different texture from hummus bi tahina.
Indeed, its basic ingredients—chickpeas, sesame and garlic—have been eaten in the region for millennia, as an appetizer and dip, hummus is scooped with flatbread, such as pita. It is served as part of a meze or as an accompaniment to falafel, grilled chicken, outside the Middle East, it is sometimes served with tortilla chips or crackers. Hummus ful is topped with a made from fava beans boiled until soft. Hummus masubha/mashawsha is a mixture of paste, warm chickpeas. Hummus is a dip in Israel and Egypt where it is eaten with pita bread. Hummus is a part of everyday meals in Israel. A significant reason for the popularity of hummus in Israel is that it is made from ingredients that, following Kashrut and it is seen as almost equally popular among Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs. Though not a traditional Jewish food, it is popular in Israel to be found in numerous hummus-only restaurants across the country and is regarded as a national food. One of the fancier hummus versions available is hummus masabacha, made with lemon-spiked tahini garnished with whole chick peas, a sprinkling of paprika, for Palestinians and Jordanians, hummus has long been a staple food, often served warm, with bread for breakfast, lunch or dinner.
All of the ingredients in hummus are easily found in Palestinian gardens and markets, in Palestine, hummus is usually garnished, with olive oil, nana mint leaves and parsley. A related dish popular in Palestine and Jordan is laban ma hummus, One author calls hummus, One of the most popular and best-known of all Syrian dishes and a must on any mezzeh table
Falafel is a deep-fried ball, doughnut or patty made from ground chickpeas, fava beans, or both. The falafel balls are topped with salads, pickled vegetables, hot sauce, Falafel balls may be eaten alone as a snack or served as part of a meze. Falafel is a food eaten throughout the Middle East. The fritters are now found around the world as a replacement for meat, the word Falāfil is the plural of Filfil, meaning pepper. Thus in origin, falafel would be rollers, little balls, a Coptic Egyptian origin has recently been proposed via the unattested phrase *pha la phel, meaning of many beans. The Arabic word falāfil has been globalized into many other languages, in English, it is first attested in 1941. Falafel is known as taʿamiya in Egypt, the word falafel can refer to the fritters themselves or to sandwiches filled with them. The origin of falafel is unknown and controversial, a common theory is that the dish originated in Egypt, possibly eaten by Copts as a replacement for meat during Lent. As Alexandria is a city, it was possible to export the dish.
The dish migrated northwards to the Levant, where replaced the fava beans. It has been speculated that its history may go back to Pharaonic Egypt, Falafel grew to become a common form of street food or fast food in Egypt and the Middle East. The croquettes are regularly eaten as part of meze, during Ramadan, falafel balls are sometimes eaten as part of the iftar, the meal that breaks the daily fast after sunset. Falafel became so popular that McDonalds for a time served a McFalafel in its breakfast menu all over Egypt, Falafel is still popular with the Copts, who cook large volumes during religious holidays. Debates over the origin of falafel have sometimes devolved into political discussions about the relationship between Arabs and Israelis, in modern times, falafel has been considered a national dish of Egypt, and of Israel. Resentment exists amongst many Palestinians for what they see as the appropriation of their dish by Israelis, the Lebanese Industrialists Association has raised assertions of copyright infringement against Israel concerning falafel.
Falafel plays an role in Israeli cuisine and is widely considered to be the national dish of the country. While falafel is not a specifically Jewish dish, it was eaten by Mizrahi Jews in their countries of origin, later, it was adopted by early Jewish immigrants to Palestine. Due to its being entirely plant based, it is considered pareve under Jewish dietary laws, according to Jonathan Kis-Lev and hummus are often used as symbols for peace, as well as tools for bridging Israelis and Palestinians